China’s major-country diplomacy and the expectation for China’s future diplomacy

Diplomatic affairs are among the issues in which the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, with President Xi Jinping at its core, shows great interest.

Diplomatic affairs are among the issues in which the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, with President “Xi Jinping” at its core, shows great interest.  It has developed a strategic plan for the diplomacy of a large country with Chinese characteristics, based on the general strategic plan of achieving the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, taking into account the characteristics of the era in which the great changes in the world coincide with the new phase of China.

  President Xi Jinping’s Thought on (Socialist Diplomacy with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era), is viewed as (a basic rule, two strategic goals, and three points for action). The basic rule is to firmly adhere to the theme of the era of peaceful development, the two strategic goals are to advance the establishment of new international relations, and to advance the construction of a bond with a shared future for mankind. The three action points are: to advance the construction of the Belt and Road, participate in global governance, and contribute to the common values of humanity. President “Xi” put forward and formulated the theory of big-state diplomacy with Chinese characteristics as a theoretical and practical framework for managing China’s foreign affairs.

 Since the election of Comrade “Xi Jinping” as President of the People’s Republic of China in March 2013, until the current year 2024, a lot of water has flowed in the river of Chinese diplomacy in the context of its quest to achieve (the great renaissance of the Chinese nation and build a new pattern of international relations based on the common destiny of mankind), Guided by President Xi’s thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, and at its heart, his ideas on major power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, which led China to achieve tangible achievements in the field of Beijing’s foreign policy and international relations, brought China closer to assuming the forefront of the global scene.

 Chinese President Xi Jinping’s thought about the new Chinese diplomacy in the new era includes many main points, the most important of which are: (the bond of a common destiny for humanity, maintaining justice while seeking to achieve common interests at the political and economic levels, win-win international relations, sincere and friendly international relations with the developing countries, and building a new type of relations between major countries).

 In the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, President “Xi Jinping” held high the banner of “peace, development and win-win cooperation” and highlighted the importance of major power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in advancing new international relations and building a bond of shared future for mankind. This reflects the ideas of the Chinese Communist Party in building a bond of common future for humanity and its responsibility for achieving world peace and development.

 China’s new diplomacy is based on considerations of the important and pivotal position that China has now enjoyed within the framework of the current international system, which makes it receive great attention and follow-up by the international community, especially with regard to the policies, directions and performance of Chinese diplomacy. What happens in China resonates throughout the world.  Also, an attempt to identify the many achievements made by Chinese diplomacy during the term of President “Xi Jinping” in the context of its interaction with the current international system, and the visions and ideas it put forward to achieve its goals on the one hand, and an attempt to present a Chinese vision that is different from the Western vision of the nature of the current international system and relations, to be accepted and supported by the international community.

 The diplomacy of a large country with Chinese characteristics has achieved fruitful results regionally and globally, which has injected confidence and momentum to establish peace, stability, development and prosperity at the regional and global levels with the help of China and Its President “Xi Jinping”.Chinese diplomacy was strongly present during the year 2023, as it broke through crises that were limited to the United States, succeeded in ending years of disagreement between Saudi Arabia and Iran, and took a position different from Washington in the Gaza war, in addition to its continued commercial expansion in the Middle East and Africa.

 The new Chinese diplomacy after the launch of the “China Belt and Road Initiative” in 2023 also indicates China’s emergence (reliance on Chinese diplomacy in the economic process in order to strengthen its position as a great economic power).  We note here that most of the Chinese government’s foreign policy decisions are related to the economy.  In order to achieve its economic goals, China has placed (economic diplomacy) at the heart of every economic strategy it develops, whether in whole or in part, which has allowed it to increase its influence on global trade rules.  Economic diplomacy also enabled it to access new markets, as well as attract foreign direct investments.

  According to my careful analysis – as an expert in Chinese political affairs – the most prominent thing that distinguishes Chinese diplomacy from others around the world is that the central government in Beijing and the leaders of the ruling Communist Party, led by Comrade Xi Jinping, rely on (Chinese foreign diplomatic policies that benefit China’s internal policies), meaning that it (made foreign diplomacy an extension of its internal policies). Not only that, but it also made foreign diplomacy a tool to enhance domestic policy.  From this standpoint, we find that there are commonalities between the first and second principles, as what applies to internal policies applies to foreign diplomacy. But at the same time, China is not isolated from the movements of the international community, but rather has many relationships with the international community and changes by receiving its influences. China also made amendments to those foreign policy plans that made development the first goal.  In addition to development, “sovereignty” and “security” were included in the basic principles.  With the experience of China hosting the 2008 Olympics, China began to adopt more positive foreign policies abroad.  There has been an increase in rhetoric calling for the need for China to place restrictions for the sake of “development” anymore in light of the economic development that has been achieved, but rather, what is more important is to reap more positive results in Chinese foreign policies related to issues of sovereignty and security.  The discourses that appeared in the statements of Chinese officials and government leaders were modified to be in line with this trend internationally.

  What is new, from my point of view, in formulating China’s new diplomatic policies in the new era, is China’s constant endeavor to find new solutions, and despite China’s attempt to maintain the golden principle that stipulates “non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries,” it is, according to my perception  There is discussion about the possibility of China “constructive interference” in the internal affairs of other countries at the request of the international community and with the approval of the countries concerned.

 The Chinese state’s diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era is characterized by advancing China’s international standing. It is a fundamental and sensual matter as well.  The essential aspect of the new Chinese diplomacy emerges in the quest to gain a position in international organizations such as the United Nations, or a clear international position in the so-called “big four” allies during World War II.  As for (the sensory aspect of the new Chinese diplomacy), it appears in its desire to gain reputation in the global media and gain a position in the global discourse. The last aspect is the invisible aspect that China has always sought to respond to with sensitivity in the face of any American or Western allegations against it.

 Accordingly, we find that China has achieved fruitful diplomatic results, as the diplomacy of the Chinese Head of State, Comrade Xi Jinping, played a strategic guiding role.  With China’s determination to continue (adhering to multilateralism and promoting greater democracy in international relations).

Dr.Nadia Helmy
Dr.Nadia Helmy
Associate Professor of Political Science, Faculty of Politics and Economics / Beni Suef University- Egypt. An Expert in Chinese Politics, Sino-Israeli relationships, and Asian affairs- Visiting Senior Researcher at the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)/ Lund University, Sweden- Director of the South and East Asia Studies Unit