Adopting the UK’s AI Framework in Developing Countries: Key Considerations


In the technological globalization era, artificial intelligence (AI) plays a pivotal role with the potential to transform numerous sectors. With its revolutionary power, AI has driven innovation, efficiency, and improved decision-making. Its automation capabilities have led to productivity surges across various industries, while large-scale data analysis has facilitated the creation of more personalized products and services. Additionally, AI has significantly contributed to the health and cybersecurity sectors, enhancing the quality of life and enabling adaptation to the rapidly changing world dynamics.

One of the progressive steps in AI development comes from the UK, initiated by the Department for Science, Innovation, and Technology. They proposed a specific framework known as the “AI Innovation Framework” to Parliament in March 2023. This framework establishes fundamental principles like Safety, Security, Transparency, Fairness, and Accountability.

However, when discussing the application of this framework in developing countries, it’s essential to recognize and consider the unique context and challenges each country faces. Even though the UK’s framework can serve as a reference, adapting and tailoring it to the specific realities of developing nations is key to ensuring AI’s optimal benefits.

Affordability and Access

The digital divide between urban and rural areas in many developing countries poses a genuine challenge. For instance, in Indonesia, technological access in cities far surpasses rural areas. Data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) clearly illustrates this disparity. As of 2017, only 19.87% of rural residents used the internet, while in cities, the number was 43.36%. Although there was a significant increase in 2021, with 49.30% of rural residents and 71.81% of city residents being connected, the gap remains. Therefore, a top priority should be to level technology access throughout regions.

Education and Training

Strengthening human resource capacity through AI training tailored to local needs is crucial in the context of developing countries. Firstly, it’s essential to develop a local context-based curriculum focusing on solutions to local problems while considering the area’s cultural and social uniqueness. Collaborating with global institutions, both universities and tech companies, can enhance training quality and relevance. Lastly, establishing AI training centers in strategic areas and training educators ensures the effective and sustained knowledge transfer to the younger generation.

Cultural and Linguistic Diversity

Cultural and linguistic diversity is a wealth many developing countries possess. Data from the World Economic Forum highlights Papua New Guinea as the country with the highest linguistic diversity, hosting around 840 languages. This is followed by Indonesia with 711 languages, Nigeria with 517, and India with 456 languages. Despite this incredible linguistic diversity, technological solutions like Google Translate currently only support 133 languages globally. This gap presents a significant opportunity for local startups in developing countries to tap into this niche market. By creating AI solutions sensitive to local diversity, they can not only enhance domestic technology accessibility but also offer unique solutions to the global market.

Infrastructure and Technological Readiness

Basic infrastructure, including stable internet connectivity and adequate hardware, is crucial for the digital age. Stable internet connectivity not only enables rapid information access but also ensures AI functions optimally with a consistent data flow. Meanwhile, robust hardware support, like powerful servers and high-performance computers, determines data processing efficiency and AI algorithm implementation.

Constructive steps include government investment in network infrastructure, expanding reach to remote areas with private sector assistance, and educating the public on technology’s relevance. Furthermore, promoting local initiatives focused on technological innovation, through research funding or collaboration, will solidify the digital infrastructure foundation for the future.

Regional and Local Collaboration between countries in AI is essential to maximize the potential of technology. This can be realized through various initiatives. International conferences and workshops allow for sharing research and best practices. Researcher exchange programs facilitate direct knowledge transfer from experts in the field. Joint cross-country research projects can target regional issues, such as disaster management in Southeast Asia. Additionally, establishing joint AI research centers and integrated training ensures that participating countries utilize resources and expertise efficiently. Lastly, cooperation in standardization and regulation ensures consistent and accepted AI ethics and policies across countries.

Supportive Regulation

Facing the dynamic pace of AI development, establishing regulations that support innovation while protecting public interests is essential. Data privacy needs utmost attention, ensuring that every piece of information is collected and processed while safeguarding individual privacy rights. The importance of transparency in AI algorithms ensures decisions can be audited and understood, especially in vital sectors like health and finance. Any biases that might occur in AI should be identified and minimized, upholding principles of equality and fairness. On the other hand, when errors occur, accountability must be clear, as well as security standards to avoid cyber-attacks. Ethical considerations are equally crucial, focusing on the impact of AI applications in various life aspects. Furthermore, regulations should support AI education for the public and monitor its impact on market dynamics. Most importantly, regulations must be flexible, able to adapt to the latest AI developments, and involve all stakeholders in its formulation.

Resilience to Socio-Economic Impacts

Automation due to AI has the potential to shake the job structure in developing countries. To anticipate these changes, a multipronged approach is needed. Firstly, the education system must be reformed to meet future job market demands; this involves curriculum revision and enhancing vocational training. Economic diversification is also essential, reducing dependence on sectors vulnerable to automation and encouraging innovation and entrepreneurship to create new jobs. Furthermore, policies that protect workers from the negative impacts of automation are needed. This could be in the form of unemployment guarantees, reskilling programs, or incentives for companies that reemploy impacted workers. Meanwhile, socializing the benefits and challenges of automation will aid this transition, ensuring the public is prepared, both skill-wise and mentally, for a new work era.


The AI era unveils a new chapter in technological evolution, promising advancements and transformations across sectors. The UK’s AI Framework teaches us the importance of basic principles in AI development, but its application in developing countries requires a more contextual and tailored approach. From equalizing technology access, enhancing education quality, appreciating cultural and linguistic diversity, to preparing for socio-economic impacts, the challenges faced are complex. However, with commitment, collaboration, and strategic adaptation, developing countries have a golden opportunity to not just adapt, but also lead in the AI revolution. Let’s collectively aim for a brighter future with inclusive, sustainable, and empowering AI for all societal layers.

Tuhu Nugraha
Tuhu Nugraha
Digital Business & Metaverse Expert Principal of Indonesia Applied Economy & Regulatory Network (IADERN)


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