Technology and Nature: ESG Approach in Preserving Mangroves in Developing Countries Part I


Authors: Tuhu Nugraha and Dina Kosasih*

Indonesia, with the world’s second-longest coastline stretching 95,181 km, is the proud custodian of a unique mangrove ecosystem. The Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics reports that the country encompasses approximately 3.63 million hectares of mangroves. This is a staggering 20.37% of the total global mangrove expanse, placing Indonesia at the top of the list, ahead of Malaysia and Brazil in second and third positions respectively. Within Indonesia, Papua is the most mangrove-rich region, covering a vast area of 1.63 million hectares, trailed by Sumatra with 892,835 hectares and Kalimantan with 630,913 hectares.

Mangroves are pivotal not just as biodiversity havens but also in the worldwide endeavor to realize zero carbon objectives. Renowned for their ability to efficiently sequester CO2, mangroves serve as unparalleled natural “carbon sinks”. They lock away carbon in their vegetation and in their soil strata, which brims with organic content. But, the deforestation or degradation of mangroves risks releasing this sequestered carbon back into the atmosphere, emphasizing the critical importance of their conservation to curb substantial carbon emissions.

In Indonesia, the management and conservation of mangroves fall under the purview of the Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK). The mangroves are designated and governed in various categories such as protected forests, social forestry, and indigenous forests.

Harnessing the power of technology, particularly in our digital age, has become indispensable in reinforcing the conservation of mangroves, more so in a pivotal region like Indonesia. Merging innovations like blockchain, IoT (Internet of Things), and the metaverse, mangrove forests are ushered into the digital realm. This technological integration not only streamlines monitoring but also amplifies ESG (Environmental, Social, Governance) initiatives. Consequently, conservation endeavors become more systematic and potent, assuring that mangroves persist as nature’s frontline against climate alterations and as a crucial global carbon vault.

Digitalization of Mangrove Forests in the Metaverse

Through the metaverse, mangrove forests can be digitally replicated. This offers stakeholders a chance to view the forest’s current condition, from tree density, biodiversity, to carbon absorption capacity.

Replicating mangrove forests in the metaverse provides a detailed digital representation of this ecosystem, granting stakeholders direct insights into the forest’s condition, its biodiversity, and absorption capacity. This information is invaluable in aiding data-driven decision-making, such as fund allocation or conservation initiatives. Additionally, this metaverse visualization heightens public awareness and understanding of the urgency of mangrove conservation, eases funding and investment, and stands as an innovative tool for education and research. Hence, the metaverse not only provides information but also acts as a platform supporting mangrove conservation advocacy and efforts.

Virtual tours via the metaverse offer an immersive experience, enabling potential investors to firsthand experience the mangrove forest, granting them a deeper perspective on the condition, potential, and urgency of interventions in this ecosystem. In today’s digital era, investment decisions often stem from a mix of data, narratives, and experience; the metaverse brings all these together.

For developing countries like Indonesia, home to the world’s largest mangrove forest, the metaverse serves as an innovative gateway for communication with global investors. By showcasing an authentic digital replica of the mangrove forest, Indonesia can convey its potential and challenges, emphasizing the nation’s commitment to this ecosystem’s preservation and recovery. ESG-focused investors now seek locales and projects where their funds not only yield financial returns but also have a positive environmental and social impact. Virtual tours in the metaverse offer a tangible view of how their investments directly impact mangrove ecosystem conservation and the well-being of the surrounding community.

Furthermore, the presence of the metaverse as a communication and information platform can enhance transparency and accountability in conservation efforts. Investors can monitor the progress of the projects they support in real-time, ensuring invested funds are used efficiently and effectively. This, in the end, boosts investor confidence and encourages a larger inflow of funds to environmental preservation initiatives in developing countries like Indonesia.

Blockchain and Transparency Blockchain technology enables the transparent and immutable recording of transactions in the context of mangrove forest conservation. Every transaction, from project funding to the purchase of carbon credits, can be clearly recorded and verified by all stakeholders. This not only ensures data integrity and eliminates the risk of manipulation but also boosts investor confidence by guaranteeing that their funds are used appropriately. For developing countries like Indonesia, blockchain offers an innovative solution to address governance challenges, facilitates global collaboration, and ensures administrative efficiency, thus channeling more funds directly towards mangrove conservation.

IoT: Real-Time Monitoring The Internet of Things (IoT) devices present a significant breakthrough in monitoring the mangrove forest ecosystem. Through sensors installed on-site, we can obtain real-time environmental data, capturing instantaneous changes and providing an accurate depiction of the forest’s condition. This capability optimizes conservation efforts; if a declining area is detected, interventions can swiftly be initiated based on actual data. Moreover, continuously monitoring carbon absorption rates underscores the mangroves’ role in zero-carbon initiatives, offering tangible evidence to stakeholders about this ecosystem’s vital contribution. Ultimately, with the data transparency provided by IoT, trust among investors, governments, and local communities can be enhanced, ensuring ongoing support for mangrove preservation.

Conclusion The integration of blockchain technology, IoT, and the metaverse signifies a new era in conservation and sustainable development. Blockchain ensures transparency and trust in mangrove-related transactions, guaranteeing that every step in conservation efforts can be verified and recorded. This is crucial for developing countries where governance challenges might be more pronounced, attracting more investors by providing assurances of reliability and integrity.

IoT, on the other hand, strengthens the monitoring and management of the mangrove ecosystem. With real-time data, we gain a deeper understanding of the actual conditions on the ground, allowing for swift interventions and more effective conservation strategies. This progress lays the groundwork for zero-carbon efforts by enabling constant monitoring of carbon absorption by mangroves.

Meanwhile, the metaverse, with its capacity to be replicated in the digital world, expands the scope of education and awareness about mangroves. Stakeholders, including potential investors, can “visit” the mangrove forests virtually, gaining a profound understanding of the ecosystem’s value and importance.

For developing countries, especially ones like Indonesia rich in natural resources, adopting these technologies is paramount. They serve not just as tools to attract investment but also as a manifestation of genuine commitment to achieving ESG targets and preserving natural heritage for future generations. With support from the international community, the implementation of these technologies promises a more sustainable future, where nature and technology collaborate for the planet’s sustainability.

*Dina Kosasih, CEO of Open Innovation Hub and Chairperson of Pesisir Lestari Foundation.

Tuhu Nugraha
Tuhu Nugraha
Digital Business & Metaverse Expert Principal of Indonesia Applied Economy & Regulatory Network (IADERN)


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