Gilgit-Baltistan Protest: Unveiling the Historical Veil of Sectarian Conflict

Gilgit-Baltistan, a region of breathtaking beauty nestled in the northernmost part of Pakistan, has long been a subject of regional and international interest. While the world admires its stunning landscapes and the hospitality of its people, beneath the surface lies a complex tapestry of history, politics, and sectarian tensions. The recent protests in Gilgit-Baltistan have brought these tensions to the forefront once again, sparking a crucial conversation about the historical background of sectarian conflict in this region.

To understand the ongoing protests and the sectarian conflict in Gilgit-Baltistan, one must delve into its historical context. The region has a rich history, and its demographic composition is diverse. It is home to several ethnic groups, with Shia and Sunni Muslims being the two largest religious communities.

The roots of sectarian conflict in Gilgit-Baltistan can be traced back to the colonial era. The region was a part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir until 1947 when the partition of India and Pakistan occurred. During this partition, the predominantly Muslim population of Gilgit-Baltistan decided to join Pakistan, which led to the first stirrings of sectarian tension. The ruler of the princely state, Maharaja Hari Singh, was a Hindu, and his decision to accede to India sparked outrage among the predominantly Muslim population.

The sectarian divide in Gilgit-Baltistan primarily revolves around the Shia-Sunni divide, which has deep historical roots. The Sunni majority in the region has often held the upper hand in terms of political power, leading to feelings of marginalization among the Shia population. This historical tension has been exacerbated by external influences, including those from neighboring countries such as Iran and Saudi Arabia, which have sought to influence the religious dynamics of the region.

The Karakoram Highway, which connects Pakistan to China, has also played a significant role in the sectarian conflict. This strategic highway has brought economic opportunities and development to the region but has also exposed Gilgit-Baltistan to external influences, including the export of sectarian ideologies.

The recent protests in Gilgit-Baltistan can be traced back to the disputed status of the region. While it is administratively controlled by Pakistan, it remains a contentious issue between Pakistan and India, with both nations claiming it as a part of their territory. The protesters in Gilgit-Baltistan have demanded their rights and representation in Pakistan’s political system, as they have historically felt marginalized and excluded.

The protests have also taken on a sectarian dimension. Last week, a violent clash between Sunni and Shia groups in the region of Gilgit Baltistan left at least 9 people dead. This incident further exposed the deep-seated sectarian tensions that have plagued Gilgit-Baltistan for decades.

The Pakistani government’s response to the protests has been a subject of debate. While the government has acknowledged the legitimate demands of the people of Gilgit-Baltistan and taken steps to grant them more political rights, the sectarian divide remains a challenge that needs to be addressed.

The government’s approach must focus on not only addressing the immediate demands of the protesters but also addressing the underlying sectarian tensions. This requires a multi-pronged strategy that includes education, interfaith dialogue, and economic development to uplift the region and reduce the appeal of extremist ideologies.

Extremist elements have exploited the sectarian divide in Gilgit-Baltistan, using it as a breeding ground for radicalization. Groups with sectarian agendas have found fertile ground in the region, and their activities have further fueled the conflict.

To address this issue, it is essential for both the Pakistani government and the international community to work together to counter extremism in Gilgit-Baltistan. This includes monitoring and countering the spread of extremist ideologies, providing economic opportunities to vulnerable populations, and promoting interfaith dialogue to foster tolerance and understanding.

The sectarian conflict in Gilgit-Baltistan has not only domestic but also international implications. The region’s strategic location makes it of interest to regional and global powers, including China, which has invested heavily in the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). The stability of Gilgit-Baltistan is crucial for the success of CPEC, and any unrest in the region could have far-reaching consequences.

Furthermore, the international community has a role to play in promoting peace and stability in Gilgit-Baltistan. Diplomatic efforts should be made to encourage Pakistan and India to resolve their territorial disputes through peaceful means and engage with the people of Gilgit-Baltistan to address their concerns.

The protests in Gilgit-Baltistan and the historical background of sectarian conflict in the region highlight the complex challenges facing this beautiful part of the world. To achieve lasting peace and stability, it is imperative to address both the immediate demands of the protesters and the underlying sectarian tensions.

The government of Pakistan, with the support of the international community, must work towards a comprehensive solution that includes political representation, economic development, and countering extremist ideologies. Only through a multi-faceted approach can Gilgit-Baltistan hope to overcome its history of sectarian conflict and pave the way for a brighter and more peaceful future.

Mudasar Faiz Memon
Mudasar Faiz Memon
I’m an MPhil scholar at Quaid-I-Azam University having interest in national and international politics, philosophy and history.I could be reached at Mudsarafaiz[at]