The “Belt and Road” initiative and China’s globalization model in the Middle East

The importance of the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative stems from its pivotal role in the Middle East region, due to the Chinese political presence in the region that the project can carry. We find that there is a relationship in the first place between the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative and the strategic partnerships that it creates for China in the region, allowing China in the end to gradually control the region without creating tensions or a direct collision with the United States of America or the West. The initiative is a sophisticated Chinese plan to transfer hegemony from the West and the United States to China peacefully without war or conflict.  Deepening China’s relations with Middle Eastern countries outside the scope of trade has also become a source of concern and tension for the United States of America, especially with US President Joe Biden’s administration taking several steps to reduce interest in the region in favor of the region surrounding Chinese influence in Asia, thus opening the door to Chinese hegemony in the region. 

 In order to enhance Chinese global influence as a special model for Chinese globalization globally through the Belt and Road Initiative, a leadership group called the “Steering Committee” was formed on February 1, 2015. So that it reports directly to the State Council of China, and is composed of many political figures with weight within the Politburo of the ruling Communist Party.  Chinese Vice Premier Zhang Gaoli was appointed leader of the steering group leading the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative, who was a member within the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the ruling Communist Party of China, consisting of 7 basic leaders, and a number of leaders of the Communist Party of China were appointed as deputies or his assistants, namely: (Wang Huning, Wang Yang, Yang Jing, Yang Jiechi). On March 28, 2015, the Chinese State Council identified a number of key principles for cooperation mechanisms in relation to the initiative. Here, the Belt and Road Initiative is a strategic component of China’s foreign policy, to the extent that it was incorporated into the Special Constitution of the Communist Party of China and the Republic of China in 2017.             

 In this context, the International Chamber of Commerce of the Chinese Silk Road was formed to link the Chinese Belt and Road initiative as a special model for Chinese globalization globally, as a link that works to overcome the difficulties facing the Chinese Belt and Road initiative, by establishing good relations between companies and governments, and providing a cooperative platform.  It is effective in addition to its promotional activities for the initiative, which needs global support to help solve outstanding problems globally, especially the network, which is fully aware that the achievement of this initiative and its emergence into existence will only be achieved through an integrated and sustainable vision that guarantees all parties an added value that serves its interests, given  Because the Chinese government is fully aware that the realization of this initiative and its emergence will only take place through an integrated and sustainable vision that guarantees all parties an added value that serves their interests.  China was able to achieve a special model of globalization through its Belt and Road initiative, through that Chinese tendency to support infrastructure projects that serve the Belt and Road initiative, in addition to its constant pursuit of having more control over border disputes around the world, which may constitute a potential obstacle to  China’s ambitious Belt and Road project has been completed. The most prominent example of this is China’s indirect role in resolving the issue of the dispute over the maritime borders between both “Dodolt” (Democratic Timor-Leste and Australia), in which China intervened as a mediator to resolve the dispute, until the two parties signed an agreement on March 8, 2018 in the city of  New York of America, according to which the maritime borders between them were demarcated through Chinese efforts and mediation.

  China’s “Belt and Road” initiative is of paramount importance, because China presents through it (its own model for globalization).  It has also become an essential part of Beijing’s foreign policy to the point of being included in the constitution of the Chinese Communist Party.  Here, China seeks through the initiative to build an integrated market that enhances its cooperation in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe.  As for the extent to which the countries of the region benefit from the initiative, the countries of the region have a large share of projects, which enables them to increase growth. The Chinese president carries a rich agenda translated by his participation in summits during his visit to the region in December 2022, one of which was a Chinese-Saudi summit, the second a Chinese-Gulf summit, and the third a Chinese-Arab summit.  After the spread of the Corona pandemic, China is trying to invest in other new areas, such as artificial intelligence, information technology, and cloud computing services.

 China seeks, through its Belt and Road projects in the Middle East, to strengthen the position of the Chinese “yuan” globally. In addition to the Chinese endeavor to continue the process of internationalizing its local currency, the yuan, in order to make it the main currency for global trade exchange, especially after the yuan managed in 2016 to join the Special Drawing Rights basket of the International Monetary Fund, along with the US dollar, the euro, the Japanese yen, and the pound sterling.  Therefore, the use of the Chinese yuan in the settlement of Chinese commercial dealings with the member states of the Belt and Road Initiative represents a major step that China is seeking to circulate its currency globally.

 China seeks to expand its influence in the Middle East region, in defiance of US hegemony.  Experts believe that China seeks, through the “Belt and Road” project, to “peacefully overthrow American hegemony”. Therefore, China is actively seeking to expand its influence in the region, not only economically but also militarily, diplomatically and politically, vigorously challenging the longstanding role of the United States as the dominant power in the region.  China’s influence in the Middle East has been increasing for years, especially through the “Belt and Road” initiative, with the aim of building a huge economic network linking the Chinese economy with the whole world. This huge development and investment initiative seeks to greatly enhance China’s global influence by making countries all over the world is increasingly dependent on China.  This, in turn, will lead to a weakening of the American role in the world, and for this reason Washington insisted during the (summit of the Group of Major Industrialized Countries) that was held in the British city of Cornwall to establish a (global infrastructure fund) to rebuild the world in exchange for the Belt and Road Initiative, and accordingly I see that the upcoming conflict  It will be an economic competition between America and China, far from the military conflict between them, because it is a very costly option for both parties in light of the economic, political, health and other developments that prevail in the world.

 Based on the previous analysis, we can reach a conclusion that the extent to which the capabilities of the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative are available, as a special and unique model for comprehensive and integrated economic development, can be used and benefited from as an alternative to the Western model of globalization, with the statement that China cannot move forward in the successful implementation of  This initiative, except by resolving all controversial problems between it and the countries through which the project passes.  

Dr.Nadia Helmy
Dr.Nadia Helmy
Associate Professor of Political Science, Faculty of Politics and Economics / Beni Suef University- Egypt. An Expert in Chinese Politics, Sino-Israeli relationships, and Asian affairs- Visiting Senior Researcher at the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)/ Lund University, Sweden- Director of the South and East Asia Studies Unit