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Challenges And the Way Forward for Political Reform in Pakistan

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For decades, Pakistan has been plagued by political instability, corruption, and a lack of transparency and accountability. Since gaining independence in 1947, the country has struggled to establish a stable and effective democratic system of governance. Military coups, dictatorships, and weak civilian governments have all contributed to a cycle of instability that has hindered economic development, social progress, and the protection of human rights.

Despite these challenges, there have been some positive developments in recent years. The 2018 general elections brought a peaceful transition of power from one civilian government to another, marking a significant milestone for Pakistan’s democratic process. The government has also taken steps to combat corruption and improve governance, including the establishment of a National Accountability Bureau and the implementation of a National Action Plan to counter terrorism and extremism.

However, much more needs to be done to address the root causes of political instability and corruption in Pakistan. The country ranks 140th out of 180 countries on the Corruption Perceptions Index 2022, indicating that corruption remains a serious problem. The lack of accountability and transparency in government institutions, coupled with a weak justice system, has allowed corruption to flourish and undermine public trust in government.

Therefore, this article argues that political reform remains critical to promoting good governance and accountability in Pakistan. Despite progress in recent years, the country must continue to strengthen its democratic institutions, ensure the independence of the judiciary, and empower civil society to hold government officials accountable. Only by addressing the root causes of political instability and corruption can Pakistan move toward a more stable, prosperous, and democratic future.

Challenges to Political Reforms in Pakistan:

Despite the urgent need for political reform in Pakistan, progress has been slow and limited. One of the biggest challenges to reform is resistance from vested interests, including powerful political elites and interest groups who benefit from the status quo. These groups often seek to maintain their influence and power by obstructing or co-opting reform efforts and may use their resources and connections to undermine political institutions and processes.

Another challenge to political reform in Pakistan is weak institutional capacity. Many government institutions, including the judiciary and law enforcement agencies, are plagued by corruption, inefficiency, and a lack of resources. This undermines the ability of these institutions to carry out their mandate effectively and erodes public trust in the government.

For instance, in recent years, the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has been criticized for selective accountability, lack of transparency, and its inability to recover stolen assets. While the bureau has made some high-profile arrests and recovered assets, its overall impact on corruption has been limited, and it has faced accusations of being used as a tool of political victimization.

Furthermore, the implementation of political reforms such as the 18th Amendment has also faced significant challenges. The amendment aimed to devolve more power to the provinces and strengthen local governments, but its implementation has been slow and uneven. Many of the constitutional changes have not been fully implemented, and the provinces lack the resources and institutional capacity to effectively govern and deliver services to citizens.

The Role of Anti-Corruption Measures in Political Reform:

Anti-corruption measures play a crucial role in promoting political reform in Pakistan. Corruption is a major obstacle to good governance and accountability and undermines public trust in political institutions. To build a more transparent and accountable political system, it is essential to tackle corruption at all levels of government and society.

One example of an effective anti-corruption measure is transparency in campaign finance and public procurement. Requiring political parties and candidates to disclose their sources of funding and limiting the amount of money that can be spent on campaigns can help reduce the influence of wealthy interest groups and promote a more level playing field for political competition. Similarly, transparency in public procurement can help prevent corruption in the awarding of contracts and ensure that public resources are used for their intended purposes.

Another important anti-corruption measure is the use of independent anti-corruption bodies, such as a national anti-corruption commission or ombudsman. These bodies can investigate and prosecute corruption cases independently of political interference, and provide a channel for citizens to report corruption and hold public officials accountable.

For instance, in countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, and Rwanda, independent anti-corruption bodies have been instrumental in reducing corruption and promoting good governance. These countries have implemented a range of measures, including strong legal frameworks, effective enforcement, and public education campaigns, to create a culture of intolerance towards corruption.

In Pakistan, the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) was established in 1999 to investigate and prosecute corruption cases. While the NAB has faced criticism for its selective accountability and lack of transparency, it has also been credited with bringing some high-profile corruption cases to trial. However, more needs to be done to strengthen the capacity and independence of the NAB and other anti-corruption bodies in Pakistan. So, anti-corruption measures are a critical component of political reform in Pakistan. By promoting transparency, accountability, and independent oversight, these measures can help reduce corruption and restore public trust in political institutions.

Strengthening Democratic Institutions for Political Reform:

Strengthening democratic institutions is critical to promoting political reform in Pakistan. Democratic institutions, such as the judiciary, media, and parliament, serve as important checks and balances on the power of the executive branch, ensuring that government policies and actions are transparent, accountable, and responsive to citizens’ needs.

One example of successful institutional reforms in other countries is the establishment of an independent electoral commission. In countries such as South Africa and Ghana, independent electoral commissions have played a crucial role in ensuring free and fair elections, by setting electoral rules and regulations, monitoring the electoral process, and resolving disputes. By establishing an independent electoral commission in Pakistan, the country can promote transparency and fairness in the electoral process and ensure that the voice of the people is heard.

Similarly, the strengthening of parliamentary oversight mechanisms can help promote accountability and transparency in government. In India, the establishment of parliamentary committees has allowed parliamentarians to scrutinize government policies and actions and hold the executive branch accountable. By giving parliamentarians the power to investigate government actions and make recommendations, these committees have played a key role in promoting good governance and transparency.

In Pakistan, the judiciary and media have also played important roles in promoting political reform. The judiciary has emerged as a powerful force for accountability in recent years, through landmark decisions such as the disqualification of former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for corruption in 2017. Similarly, the media has played an important role in exposing corruption and holding public officials accountable, through investigative journalism and public awareness campaigns.

However, both the judiciary and media face challenges in Pakistan, including political interference and pressure from powerful vested interests. To strengthen these institutions, it is essential to ensure their independence, promote professionalism and ethical standards, and provide them with the necessary resources and support.

The Way Forward for Political Reform in Pakistan:

The way forward for political reform in Pakistan requires a sustained focus on anti-corruption measures and institutional reform. The establishment of an independent anti-corruption body, such as the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), is a step in the right direction, but more needs to be done to promote transparency and accountability in government. Strategies such as transparency in campaign finance and public procurement, as well as the use of independent anti-corruption bodies, can help promote accountability and reduce corruption.

In addition, institutional reform is essential to promote political reform in Pakistan. As discussed earlier, strengthening democratic institutions such as the judiciary, media, and parliament can help promote accountability and transparency in government. This requires ensuring their independence, promoting professionalism and ethical standards, and providing them with the necessary resources and support.

 External actors, such as international organizations and donor countries, can also play an important role in supporting political reform in Pakistan. Organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank have provided technical assistance and financial support for anti-corruption measures and institutional reform in other countries. Similarly, donor countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom have provided financial support for democratic institutions and electoral reform in Pakistan.

 However, the role of external actors in promoting political reform in Pakistan must be balanced with respect for national sovereignty and local ownership of reform efforts. International actors should work in partnership with local actors, such as civil society organizations and the media, to ensure that reform efforts are tailored to local needs and priorities.


As a concerned citizen of Pakistan, I firmly believe that political reform is crucial for the country’s progress and development. Despite some progress in recent years, Pakistan still suffers from political instability, corruption, and weak governance, which hinder its growth and prosperity. To ensure good governance and accountability, Pakistan must undertake significant political reforms.

 One of the biggest challenges to implementing political reform in Pakistan is resistance from vested interests. Powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and businessmen have a stake in the current system, and they will resist any change that threatens their interests. However, the government must take bold steps to overcome this challenge, even if it means facing resistance and opposition.

 To overcome this resistance, political reforms must be designed to strengthen democratic institutions and promote transparency and accountability. For example, the government should establish an independent electoral commission and ensure that campaign finance and public procurement are transparent. In addition, independent anti-corruption bodies like the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) should be strengthened and given more powers to investigate and prosecute corruption cases.

 Another potential challenge to political reform is weak institutional capacity. Pakistan’s institutions, including the judiciary and media, have been weakened by political interference and manipulation. To strengthen these institutions, the government should take steps to depoliticize them and ensure their independence. For example, an independent judiciary and media can act as a check on the abuse of power and promote transparency and accountability.

International organizations and donor countries can also play a critical role in supporting political reform in Pakistan. These actors can provide technical assistance and financial support to strengthen democratic institutions, promote anti-corruption measures, and build the capacity of civil society organizations.

In conclusion, political reform is critical to promoting good governance and accountability in Pakistan. While there are challenges to implementing these reforms, including resistance from vested interests and weak institutional capacity, with sustained efforts, progress is possible. We all must support political reform in Pakistan and advocate for change to build a better future for our country. Only then can we build a stronger, more stable, and more prosperous Pakistan for future generations.

Junaid Haleem is a passionate public policy student, studying at National Defence University Islamabad. He is dedicated to researching and analyzing the most pressing policy issues of our time. Junaid became interested in public policy during his undergraduate studies, where he took courses in policy analysis and governance at National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. During his studies, he also completed an internship with a local policy organization ISSRA, where he contributed to policy research on community development and economic growth. Junaid is committed to promoting evidence-based policymaking.

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South Asia

Pakistan’s Priority Ranking of SDGs

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Sustainable development goals are also known as Global or Universal goals that are meant to guide developing and underdeveloped nation-states to a sustainable and peaceful future. Development is a combination of innovation and improvement over a consistent time. It requires the collaboration of several social, cultural, economic, legal, and political sectors. All such sectors are interdependent and function sustainably when allied towards the same goal. 

What are SDGs? 

Developmental goals outline the priorities of a state in terms of its international progress. They are meant to track and counter non-traditional security threats. Such threats are somewhat intangible and have a deeper, more impactful presence. If not countered through structured programs, infrastructure, and policymaking; they will only become a visible reality once the issue is nearly impossible to resolve.

Origin and purpose

These were born from the United Nations Conference that was hosted in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2012. Global issues of all sorts were raised which revolved around aspects such as the environment, clean energy, sanitation, education, health, and security. 

Goals and Commitments

The year 2015 decided that within the upcoming 15 years, there will be an active and hopefully successful attempt at ushering in a future of dignity and peace also known as the 2030 Agenda. 

For each nation, there is a different ranking of the goals following their level of need and priority. Following is the ranking for Pakistan.

Priority I

Goal 2 Zero Hunger

The second goal defines eradicating global hunger and reaching food security for all. This involves the production, processing, and distribution of food and sustainable agriculture. This goal is at the top of Pakistan’s priority list due to its status as an Agrarian State. Due to the recent inflation in the state, the food crisis has become a reality for a sizable portion of the Pakistani population.  

Goal 3 Good Health and Well Being

Places focus on the overall health of all people. The focus is on preventative strategies for all ages. This goal covers the improvement of life expectancy in all developing and underdeveloped nations. It also includes immunization coverage, epidemics such as malaria and dengue, the Covid-19 pandemic, and emergency aid going out to all in times of global distress and disaster. 

Goal 4 Quality Education

Good quality education that is inclusive and available to all is a cornerstone of a prosperous and peaceful society. This includes not only various education sustainability initiatives but also caters to accessible and high-caliber school and university infrastructure. This goal works for a bright future for not only the global youth but for the global economy as well.

Goal 6 Clean Water and Sanitation

Universal access to clean water and a hygienic living environment makes up Goal 6. This will help counter water pollution and reduce the spread of diseases like cholera, malaria, dysentery, typhoid, and Hepatitis A. Clean water and sanitation will ultimately lead to water efficiency and its use as a renewable energy source. 

Goal 7 Affordable and Clean Energy 

Clean Energy is the key to having a future landscape that this generation can pass on to the next. This goal works for the distribution of electricity across the globe, in poverty-stricken and hard-to-access areas. Renewable energy sources (windmills, hydro-electricity, solar power) are being focused on so that there can be a time when weaning off of non-renewable and quickly depleting fuels such as coal, gas, and oil is not harmful to both society and the economy. 

Goal 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth

Economic growth is a necessary factor to keep states progressing and afloat. Goal 8 emphasizes the importance of productive and decent employment. It promotes a greener economy, sustainable tourism, and social protection for all. 

Goal 16 Peace, Justice, and Security

Accountable and Just national institutions and law enforcement is the path to peace, justice, and security. There is an active need for local participation at the grassroots level. Peace can only ever be delivered from the bottom up. Pakistan has always had a conflict simmering at some level. Be it a population overflow at the borders or a politico-religious conflict. Effectively working on prevention and counter operations can foster peace and security for all. 

Priority II

Goal 1 No Poverty

The first goal is to end poverty globally. The poverty line has been decided over various factors and definitions in the past few years. Once it was declared that any person who consumed less than 2400 kcal over twenty-four hours was under the poverty line. Currently, it is set for members of society who live under Rs. 3000 monthly, in Pakistan.

Goal 5 Gender Equality

It is common knowledge that we live in a majorly patriarchal society that is disadvantageous to women and girls all over the world. Goal 5 aims to fix that by focusing on the elimination of gender-based violence and empowering more women to step into professional and operational roles by reducing in-house gender discrimination. There is also special care taken to recognize and reduce the unpaid labor and double standards which women face daily.

Goal 9 Industry. Innovation, and Infrastructure

A resilient and good quality infrastructure is a must to keep a state of more than 220 million people functioning properly. The innovation of the tech industry is the spearhead for Pakistan’s entry into a competitive future. There is still a need for better infrastructure including highways and high-rise buildings with proper sewage piping as well. Inclusive industrialization will bring about better credit, a more stable economy, and reduced unemployment.

Goal 10 Reduced Inequalities

The focus lies on reducing international inequalities and reducing the massive chasm existing between different classes of society. Income equality is directly tied to gendered equity, improved industrialization, and economic growth. Apart from reducing financial disparity, this also focuses on socio-political, cultural, and religious inclusion. Pakistan is a multicultural and diverse state with citizens belonging to various religious sects, castes, and ethnicities. However, this has often led to intersectional conflicts. This goal aims to counter that through various representative policies and global cooperation.

Goal 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities

These are such areas that practice, promote, and support sustainability in every aspect – energy, water, economy, infrastructure, and environment. This goal aims to ensure that due to the massive population migrations from rural to urban, there is no concentration of poverty due to the economic shift. Cities are to be safe havens for their constituents with public transport, parks, recreational spaces, and economic opportunities. 

Goal 17 Partnerships for Goals

No system of such a scale can work in isolation therefore, to bring sustainability to Pakistan, there needs to be a joint effort by international powers and national institutions. Global platforms such as the UN, WTO, SAARC, ASEAN, and IMF are all contributing their part be it through funding, medical aid, or economic policing. Pakistan also partakes in multiple confidence-building measures and FTAs to live up to this goal. 

Priority III

Goal 12 Responsible consumption and Production

Focuses on management and usage of natural resources to not run out before other renewable sources are in place. This goal actively works to reduce the negative impact of state consumption on the environment – be it through chemical dumping, food waste, or wasteful consumption. 

Goal 13 Climate Action

The recent floods in Pakistan and the searing temperatures in June and July point to the absolute necessity of taking climate action. Extreme temperatures, droughts, and flooding are all contributing to the deterioration of human and environmental health. Being a primarily agrarian exporter, Pakistan needs to be vigilant regarding any threat to its agricultural economy and counter it through planning, policies, and preventive strategies. 

Goal 14 Life below Water and Goal 15 Life on Land

The sustainable Development goals have provided guidelines to ensure a hospitable future. This includes protection and conservation of the living habitat aka Oceans and Land. Due to the rapid rate of globalization, modernism, and human development, ecosystems both above and below have suffered. Many species have gone extinct as well, due to unregulated hunting and fishing throughout the year. Ocean acidification and pollution are major concerns due to it being a major food source for the global population. Similarly, deforestation, desertification, and poaching need to be eliminated on land. Pakistan has participated in such initiatives to conserve and protect forests through artificial reforestation – the Changa Manga Forest.

Pakistan is constantly making progress in seeing the SDGs through. Consistency is key to success and in this case, sustainability. 

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South Asia

Breaking Diplomatic Norms: Indian Response to OIC & Turkish Support for Kashmir Issue




Recently, the Indian government has been facing backlash for its highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support to the Kashmir issue at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). The Indian government has also criticized the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) for its statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IIOJK).

India’s long-standing hostility towards Pakistan has been a subject of much criticism in international diplomatic circles. While the two countries have a history of conflicts and disputes, India’s approach towards Pakistan has often been seen as unconstructive and counterproductive. The Indian government’s hardline stance on Pakistan has resulted in a deepening of the mistrust between the two countries, which has had serious implications for regional stability and security.

India’s rhetoric towards Pakistan has often been marked by derogatory and aggressive remarks, particularly in the context of the Kashmir issue. In recent years, India has sought to internationalize the issue of Kashmir and has baselessly accused Pakistan of supporting terrorism in the region. This has resulted in a hardening of positions on both sides and has made any meaningful dialogue between the two countries almost impossible.

India’s recent criticism of Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC and its condemnation of the OIC’s statement on Indian human rights abuses in IIOJK is another example of its obsession with Pakistan. The Indian government’s response to these developments has been highly un-democratic and derogatory, with Indian officials using aggressive language and personal attacks to discredit Turkey and the OIC.

India’s preoccupation with Pakistan has also had implications for its relationship with other countries in the region. India’s increasingly assertive foreign policy and its strategic partnership with the US have raised concerns among its neighbors, who fear that India’s pursuit of its own interests could undermine regional stability and security. India’s aggressive stance towards China and its border disputes have also added to regional tensions and have led to a deterioration in its relationship with Beijing.Bottom of Form

It is important to note that Turkey has always been a strong supporter of the Kashmir issue, and has been vocal about the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in the region. In September 2021, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan raised the issue of Kashmir during his speech at the UN General Assembly, stating that the “Kashmir conflict, which is also key to the stability and peace of South Asia, is still a burning issue.”

In response to Turkey’s support of the Kashmir issue, India’s Ministry of External Affairs issued a statement condemning Turkey’s stance, claiming that it was “completely unacceptable” and that Turkey had no right to interfere in India’s internal affairs. India’s statement also accused Turkey of using the Kashmir issue as a “distraction” from its own internal problems.

This reaction from the Indian government is highly undemocratic and uncalled for. It is the right of any nation to express its views on global issues, and India’s attempt to suppress Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a clear violation of this right. The Kashmir issue has been a longstanding dispute between India and Pakistan, and the international community has a responsibility to support a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a step in the right direction towards achieving this goal.

Furthermore, the Indian government’s criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK is also highly inappropriate. The OIC, a group of 57 Muslim-majority countries, has expressed concern over the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in IIOJK, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and enforced disappearances. The OIC’s statement is a reflection of the international community’s concerns over the situation in IIOJK, and it is the right of the OIC to express its views on this matter.

India’s response to the OIC’s statement has been highly critical, with the Indian government accusing the OIC of interfering in India’s internal affairs. This response is yet another attempt by the Indian government to suppress international criticism of its human rights abuses in IIOJK. The Indian government’s stance on this issue is highly hypocritical, as it has repeatedly called for international support in its own disputes with other nations, including Pakistan.

Indian government’s highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC, as well as its criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK, are reflective of its lack of respect for international law and global human rights standards. The Kashmir issue is a longstanding dispute that requires a peaceful and just resolution, and the international community has a responsibility to support this goal. The Indian government must recognize this and work towards a peaceful resolution of the conflict, rather than resorting to undemocratic and inflammatory rhetoric.

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South Asia

The Taliban’s Loss of Popular Support in Afghanistan

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image source: Tehran Times

Afghanistan is currently facing an unprecedented crisis due to the Taliban’s takeover of the country in August 2021. Despite initially claiming to have widespread support from the Afghan population, reports from within the country now suggest that the Taliban’s grip on power is increasingly fragile. The Taliban’s regime has been marked by egregious human rights violations, economic hardship, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and brutal tactics during the war, all of which have contributed to their diminishing popularity. The people of Afghanistan continue to suffer under the oppressive rule of the Taliban, and urgent action is needed to address the humanitarian crisis and restore stability to the region.

Economic Hardship

One of the most pressing issues facing Afghanistan under the Taliban is the economic crisis that has emerged in the wake of their takeover. The country is facing inflation, food shortages, and job losses, all of which are having a significant impact on the lives of ordinary Afghans. The prices for basic goods such as flour and sugar have skyrocketed and many families are struggling to afford even one meal a day. In 2022, many reports emerged that people are selling their kidneys to feed their families.

The Taliban has struggled to revive the economy, and their policies have not been effective in addressing the economic crisis. According to the New York Times, “the Taliban’s financial plan relies heavily on the illicit drug trade, a strategy that may provide some short-term gains but will ultimately lead to greater instability and economic hardship for ordinary Afghans.”

Human Rights Violations

The Taliban’s history of human rights violations, particularly their treatment of women and girls, has also contributed to their loss of popular support in Afghanistan. The Taliban has a reputation for imposing strict restrictions on women’s rights, including banning girls from attending school and requiring women to wear burqas in public. Various media outlets report suggest that women and girls have been virtually invisible in public since the Taliban took over. The Taliban has also used violence against civilians, including women and children who raised voice for their rights. We see constant demonstrations against ban on girls’ education in Kabul and Taliban use to suppress them by using force. No one is allowed to held a protest against the Taliban repressive policies.

Lack of Inclusivity

The Taliban’s government has been criticized for its lack of inclusivity and representation of Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. The Taliban is dominated by Pashtuns, and there are concerns that other groups may be marginalized or excluded from political participation. No previous polit al leaders who are in politics for decades is a part of the new set up. Taliban have imposed a narrow interpretation of Islam that does not reflect the country’s diversity and tolerance as well as equal opportunities to men and women. The Taliban’s cabinet is made up entirely of men, and there are no non-Pashtuns or Shia Muslims in key positions.

International Isolation

The Taliban’s return to power has resulted in international isolation, with several countries imposing sanctions and restrictions on the Taliban regime. This has limited the Taliban’s ability to access international aid and resources, which has further exacerbated the economic crisis in Afghanistan. The Washington Post reports that “the Taliban’s international isolation is exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan,” and that “the country desperately needs international aid to address its economic woes and provide basic services to its people.” Unless the Taliban bring a change to their repressive policies, they will remain isolated in the international community.

Taliban’s Tactics During the War

The Taliban’s tactics during the war against US-led NATO and ISAF forces, including their use of suicide bombings and targeting of civilians, have also contributed to their loss of popular support among Afghans who have been affected by the violence. The New York Times reported in September 2021 that “the Taliban’s brutal tactics during the war have left a legacy of fear and trauma among the Afghan people.” Many Afghans are deeply distrustful of the Taliban because of the group’s violent tactics during the war and the atrocities they committed against civilians. The Taliban’s reputation as a violent and extremist group has made it difficult for them to gain the trust and support of the Afghan population.

Addressing the Issues

The Taliban faces a significant challenge in regaining the trust and support of the Afghan people. They will need to address the economic crisis, provide basic services to the population, and create an inclusive government that represents Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. They will also need to address human rights concerns especially women rights and restore the rule of law. Also, they will need to make significant concessions if they hope to regain the trust of the Afghan people and the international community. They need to create a more stable and predictable environment for the Afghan people if they hope to build a functioning state. The Taliban has taken some steps to address these concerns, including pledging to respect women’s rights and promising to form an inclusive government. However, the effectiveness of these measures remains to be seen.


The Taliban’s loss of popular support in Afghanistan is a significant challenge for the group as they seek to govern the country. Economic hardship, human rights violations, women rights, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and the Taliban’s tactics during the war have all contributed to their declining popularity. The Taliban will need to address these issues if they hope to regain the trust and support of the Afghan people and build a functioning state. The Taliban’s future depends on their ability to govern effectively and address the concerns of the Afghan people. If they fail to do so, they risk losing the support of the population and facing significant challenges in the years to come. It remains to be seen whether the Taliban can rise to this challenge and create a stable and prosperous Afghanistan for all its citizens.

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