Challenges And the Way Forward for Political Reform in Pakistan

For decades, Pakistan has been plagued by political instability, corruption, and a lack of transparency and accountability. Since gaining independence in 1947, the country has struggled to establish a stable and effective democratic system of governance. Military coups, dictatorships, and weak civilian governments have all contributed to a cycle of instability that has hindered economic development, social progress, and the protection of human rights.

Despite these challenges, there have been some positive developments in recent years. The 2018 general elections brought a peaceful transition of power from one civilian government to another, marking a significant milestone for Pakistan’s democratic process. The government has also taken steps to combat corruption and improve governance, including the establishment of a National Accountability Bureau and the implementation of a National Action Plan to counter terrorism and extremism.

However, much more needs to be done to address the root causes of political instability and corruption in Pakistan. The country ranks 140th out of 180 countries on the Corruption Perceptions Index 2022, indicating that corruption remains a serious problem. The lack of accountability and transparency in government institutions, coupled with a weak justice system, has allowed corruption to flourish and undermine public trust in government.

Therefore, this article argues that political reform remains critical to promoting good governance and accountability in Pakistan. Despite progress in recent years, the country must continue to strengthen its democratic institutions, ensure the independence of the judiciary, and empower civil society to hold government officials accountable. Only by addressing the root causes of political instability and corruption can Pakistan move toward a more stable, prosperous, and democratic future.

Challenges to Political Reforms in Pakistan:

Despite the urgent need for political reform in Pakistan, progress has been slow and limited. One of the biggest challenges to reform is resistance from vested interests, including powerful political elites and interest groups who benefit from the status quo. These groups often seek to maintain their influence and power by obstructing or co-opting reform efforts and may use their resources and connections to undermine political institutions and processes.

Another challenge to political reform in Pakistan is weak institutional capacity. Many government institutions, including the judiciary and law enforcement agencies, are plagued by corruption, inefficiency, and a lack of resources. This undermines the ability of these institutions to carry out their mandate effectively and erodes public trust in the government.

For instance, in recent years, the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has been criticized for selective accountability, lack of transparency, and its inability to recover stolen assets. While the bureau has made some high-profile arrests and recovered assets, its overall impact on corruption has been limited, and it has faced accusations of being used as a tool of political victimization.

Furthermore, the implementation of political reforms such as the 18th Amendment has also faced significant challenges. The amendment aimed to devolve more power to the provinces and strengthen local governments, but its implementation has been slow and uneven. Many of the constitutional changes have not been fully implemented, and the provinces lack the resources and institutional capacity to effectively govern and deliver services to citizens.

The Role of Anti-Corruption Measures in Political Reform:

Anti-corruption measures play a crucial role in promoting political reform in Pakistan. Corruption is a major obstacle to good governance and accountability and undermines public trust in political institutions. To build a more transparent and accountable political system, it is essential to tackle corruption at all levels of government and society.

One example of an effective anti-corruption measure is transparency in campaign finance and public procurement. Requiring political parties and candidates to disclose their sources of funding and limiting the amount of money that can be spent on campaigns can help reduce the influence of wealthy interest groups and promote a more level playing field for political competition. Similarly, transparency in public procurement can help prevent corruption in the awarding of contracts and ensure that public resources are used for their intended purposes.

Another important anti-corruption measure is the use of independent anti-corruption bodies, such as a national anti-corruption commission or ombudsman. These bodies can investigate and prosecute corruption cases independently of political interference, and provide a channel for citizens to report corruption and hold public officials accountable.

For instance, in countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, and Rwanda, independent anti-corruption bodies have been instrumental in reducing corruption and promoting good governance. These countries have implemented a range of measures, including strong legal frameworks, effective enforcement, and public education campaigns, to create a culture of intolerance towards corruption.

In Pakistan, the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) was established in 1999 to investigate and prosecute corruption cases. While the NAB has faced criticism for its selective accountability and lack of transparency, it has also been credited with bringing some high-profile corruption cases to trial. However, more needs to be done to strengthen the capacity and independence of the NAB and other anti-corruption bodies in Pakistan. So, anti-corruption measures are a critical component of political reform in Pakistan. By promoting transparency, accountability, and independent oversight, these measures can help reduce corruption and restore public trust in political institutions.

Strengthening Democratic Institutions for Political Reform:

Strengthening democratic institutions is critical to promoting political reform in Pakistan. Democratic institutions, such as the judiciary, media, and parliament, serve as important checks and balances on the power of the executive branch, ensuring that government policies and actions are transparent, accountable, and responsive to citizens’ needs.

One example of successful institutional reforms in other countries is the establishment of an independent electoral commission. In countries such as South Africa and Ghana, independent electoral commissions have played a crucial role in ensuring free and fair elections, by setting electoral rules and regulations, monitoring the electoral process, and resolving disputes. By establishing an independent electoral commission in Pakistan, the country can promote transparency and fairness in the electoral process and ensure that the voice of the people is heard.

Similarly, the strengthening of parliamentary oversight mechanisms can help promote accountability and transparency in government. In India, the establishment of parliamentary committees has allowed parliamentarians to scrutinize government policies and actions and hold the executive branch accountable. By giving parliamentarians the power to investigate government actions and make recommendations, these committees have played a key role in promoting good governance and transparency.

In Pakistan, the judiciary and media have also played important roles in promoting political reform. The judiciary has emerged as a powerful force for accountability in recent years, through landmark decisions such as the disqualification of former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif for corruption in 2017. Similarly, the media has played an important role in exposing corruption and holding public officials accountable, through investigative journalism and public awareness campaigns.

However, both the judiciary and media face challenges in Pakistan, including political interference and pressure from powerful vested interests. To strengthen these institutions, it is essential to ensure their independence, promote professionalism and ethical standards, and provide them with the necessary resources and support.

The Way Forward for Political Reform in Pakistan:

The way forward for political reform in Pakistan requires a sustained focus on anti-corruption measures and institutional reform. The establishment of an independent anti-corruption body, such as the National Accountability Bureau (NAB), is a step in the right direction, but more needs to be done to promote transparency and accountability in government. Strategies such as transparency in campaign finance and public procurement, as well as the use of independent anti-corruption bodies, can help promote accountability and reduce corruption.

In addition, institutional reform is essential to promote political reform in Pakistan. As discussed earlier, strengthening democratic institutions such as the judiciary, media, and parliament can help promote accountability and transparency in government. This requires ensuring their independence, promoting professionalism and ethical standards, and providing them with the necessary resources and support.

 External actors, such as international organizations and donor countries, can also play an important role in supporting political reform in Pakistan. Organizations such as the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank have provided technical assistance and financial support for anti-corruption measures and institutional reform in other countries. Similarly, donor countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom have provided financial support for democratic institutions and electoral reform in Pakistan.

 However, the role of external actors in promoting political reform in Pakistan must be balanced with respect for national sovereignty and local ownership of reform efforts. International actors should work in partnership with local actors, such as civil society organizations and the media, to ensure that reform efforts are tailored to local needs and priorities.


As a concerned citizen of Pakistan, I firmly believe that political reform is crucial for the country’s progress and development. Despite some progress in recent years, Pakistan still suffers from political instability, corruption, and weak governance, which hinder its growth and prosperity. To ensure good governance and accountability, Pakistan must undertake significant political reforms.

 One of the biggest challenges to implementing political reform in Pakistan is resistance from vested interests. Powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and businessmen have a stake in the current system, and they will resist any change that threatens their interests. However, the government must take bold steps to overcome this challenge, even if it means facing resistance and opposition.

 To overcome this resistance, political reforms must be designed to strengthen democratic institutions and promote transparency and accountability. For example, the government should establish an independent electoral commission and ensure that campaign finance and public procurement are transparent. In addition, independent anti-corruption bodies like the National Accountability Bureau (NAB) should be strengthened and given more powers to investigate and prosecute corruption cases.

 Another potential challenge to political reform is weak institutional capacity. Pakistan’s institutions, including the judiciary and media, have been weakened by political interference and manipulation. To strengthen these institutions, the government should take steps to depoliticize them and ensure their independence. For example, an independent judiciary and media can act as a check on the abuse of power and promote transparency and accountability.

International organizations and donor countries can also play a critical role in supporting political reform in Pakistan. These actors can provide technical assistance and financial support to strengthen democratic institutions, promote anti-corruption measures, and build the capacity of civil society organizations.

In conclusion, political reform is critical to promoting good governance and accountability in Pakistan. While there are challenges to implementing these reforms, including resistance from vested interests and weak institutional capacity, with sustained efforts, progress is possible. We all must support political reform in Pakistan and advocate for change to build a better future for our country. Only then can we build a stronger, more stable, and more prosperous Pakistan for future generations.

Junaid Haleem
Junaid Haleem
Junaid Haleem is a passionate public policy student, studying at National Defence University Islamabad. He is dedicated to researching and analyzing the most pressing policy issues of our time. Junaid became interested in public policy during his undergraduate studies, where he took courses in policy analysis and governance at National Defence University (NDU), Islamabad. During his studies, he also completed an internship with a local policy organization ISSRA, where he contributed to policy research on community development and economic growth. Junaid is committed to promoting evidence-based policymaking.