Nepal successfully conducted their parliamentary elections in November 2022. No single political party attained a majority of seats in the elections. The Nepali Congress Party and the Communist party of Nepal (MaoistParty), led by the incumbent Sher Bahadur Deuba and Pushpa Kamal Dahal (nom de guerre Prachanda), respectively. However, at the time of forming a coalition government, in a move that shocked the whole nation, the Maoist Party went ahead and formed a government with the Unified Marxist Leninist Party of Nepal, headed by KP Oli, with Prachanda as the new Prime Minister.
Interestingly, in the previous parliamentary elections, KP Oli and Prachanda had contested as an alliance and had won an overwhelming majority of seats. The alliance was broken in the third year of the government due to personal differences between the two parties. Now, two months after the formation of the new government, KP Oli and Prachanda have found themselves in yet another personal dispute and KP Oli and his party, Unified Marxist Leninist have exited the government. Prachanda is all set to rejoin the alliance with the Nepali Congress to retain his position as the Prime Minister.
Amidst the see-saw politics and the game of thrones played by the senior political leaders, especially by Prachanda, the Nepalese public find themselves in yet another period of political instability. These turbulent political waves were accompanied with a simple yet complex question – who is Prachanda, and how did he come to be at the centre of Nepalese politics?
Prachanda and the Nepalese Civil War
Nepal’s Civil War was a decade-long conflict that began in 1996 and ended in 2006, resulting in the loss of more than 17,000 lives and leaving thousands injured and displaced. The conflict was primarily between the government forces and the Maoist rebels who sought to overthrow the monarchy and establish a communist state.
The Nepalese Civil War was rooted in long-standing social and economic inequalities in Nepal. The Maoists believed that the country’s monarchy and political elite had failed to address these issues, and that armed struggle was the only way to achieve a fairer society. The war saw brutal tactics on both sides, including targeted killings, torture, and the use of child soldiers.
In 2006, after years of talks, the Maoists and the government signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement, which ended the civil war and paved the way for a new democratic constitution. Prachanda played a crucial role in negotiating the agreement and helped to transition the Maoist movement from a guerrilla force to a political party.
Human Rights Abuses during the Civil War
During the civil war, Maoist rebels committed many human rights abuses against civilians, including extrajudicial killings, forced disappearances, torture, and arbitrary arrests.
One of the most egregious examples of human rights abuses committed by the Maoists was the widespread use of child soldiers. According to the United Nations, the Maoists recruited and used more than 20,000 child soldiers during the conflict, many of whom were forcibly abducted from their families and communities.
The Maoists also targeted political opponents and members of the security forces, often executing them without trial. Human rights groups documented numerous cases of extrajudicial killings by the Maoists, including the murder of elected officials, journalists, and human rights activists. In addition, the Maoists engaged in widespread extortion and forced taxation, particularly in rural areas where they had a strong presence.
Farmers and other rural residents were often forced to pay a percentage of their income to the Maoists, and those who refused or were unable to pay risked violence or even death. The Maoists also targeted women and girls, particularly those from marginalized communities and rural backgrounds. Women and girls were subjected to sexual violence, forced marriages, and other forms of gender-based violence.
Overall, the human rights abuses committed by the Maoists during the conflict in Nepal were widespread and systematic, and had a profound impact on the civilian population. While the conflict officially ended with a peace agreement in 2006, the legacy of the Maoist insurgency continues to be felt in Nepal today.
Maoist Party in Mainstream Politics
One of the main reasons for the Maoists’ participation in the government was their strong showing in the 2008 elections. The Maoists emerged as the largest party in the Constituent Assembly and were able to form a government with the support of other parties. This was a significant achievement for the Maoists, who had previously been regarded as a fringe group outside the mainstream political process.
Another factor that contributed to the Maoists’ participation in the government was the Comprehensive Peace Accord. The Peace Agreement provided for the integration of Maoist fighters into the Nepalese army and the establishment of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate human rights abuses committed during the conflict. The Maoists saw these provisions as a way to advance their agenda and secure justice for their supporters. Once in power, the Maoists faced a number of challenges. One of the main challenges was the issue of disarmament. The Maoists had agreed to disarm as part of the Peace Agreement, but the process was slow and fraught with difficulties. The Nepalese army was also resistant to the integration of Maoist fighters, which further complicated the situation.
Another challenge facing the Maoists was the need to balance their revolutionary ideology with the practical realities of governing. The Maoists had long advocated for a radical transformation of Nepalese society, but once in power, they had to work within the constraints of the political system. This led to tensions within the party and a sense of disillusionment among some supporters.
Transitional justice, the legal and institutional mechanisms employed by designated entities to address the legacy of past human rights abuses, has been a crucial issue in Nepal since the end of the conflict. Nepal’s transitional justice process has been stagnant, for more than a decade, due to the inability and unwillingness of every government that has come to power. Given the political alliances made by the senior leaders with Prachanda on numerous occasions, a firm commitment to transitional justice by any government has been unlikely.
One of the primary challenges facing transitional justice in Nepal is the lack of political will to implement it. The government has been criticized for its failure to establish institutions to address past human rights abuses and to provide justice to the victims. Despite the establishment of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) and the Commission of Investigation on Enforced Disappeared Persons (CIEDP) in 2015, the government has not taken any significant steps towards holding perpetrators accountable or providing reparations to the victims.
Another significant challenge facing transitional justice in Nepal is the lack of transparency and inclusivity in the process. The TRC and CIEDP have been criticized for their lack of independence and impartiality. The commissions have been accused of being influenced by political parties and failing to involve victims in the decision-making process. The lack of transparency has eroded public trust in the commissions and the entire transitional justice process.
Moreover, Nepal’s political instability and the continued presence of armed groups have further complicated the transitional justice process. The government’s failure to disarm and demobilize the Maoist rebels has made it difficult to hold them accountable for past human rights abuses. The lack of security has also prevented victims and witnesses from coming forward and sharing their stories.
Despite these challenges, there have been some positive developments in Nepal’s transitional justice process. The Supreme Court of Nepal has played a critical role in pushing the government to take concrete steps towards establishing a robust transitional justice system. In 2015, the court ruled that the government’s failure to investigate past human rights abuses was unconstitutional and ordered the establishment of the TRC and CIEDP. The court’s intervention has given hope to victims and human rights advocates who have been fighting for justice for years.
Indictment against Prachanda?
Since 2006, Prachanda has consistently and entirely shrugged off responsibility for all crimes committed during the Maoist insurgency. In an interview, he stated that he can be blamed for a mere ‘five thousand’ deaths and the state forces were responsible for the remaining twelve thousand. However, justice against the perpetrators of human rights abuse cannot be brushed aside using a political veil. Each individual who was involved in the violation of human rights and engaging in war crimes, including the Honorable Prime Minister must be made to stand trial.
The international donor community that provide foreign aid to Nepal must play an active role in the deliverance of justice. Foreign aid provided to Nepal must contain a precursory arrangement to form special tribunals and conduct trials to deliver justice to the victims and their families. If the victims are prevented from seeking justice in Nepal, they will be forced to seek justice elsewhere.
Transitional justice in Nepal remains a significant challenge, and the process has been marred by political instability, lack of political will, and lack of transparency. The government must take concrete steps towards establishing an independent and impartial transitional justice system that provides justice to the victims and holds perpetrators accountable for their actions. Nepal’s civil society and the international community must continue to support victims and human rights advocates in their fight for justice and accountability. Only then can Nepal move towards a more peaceful and just society.
Pakistan’s Priority Ranking of SDGs
Sustainable development goals are also known as Global or Universal goals that are meant to guide developing and underdeveloped nation-states to a sustainable and peaceful future. Development is a combination of innovation and improvement over a consistent time. It requires the collaboration of several social, cultural, economic, legal, and political sectors. All such sectors are interdependent and function sustainably when allied towards the same goal.
What are SDGs?
Developmental goals outline the priorities of a state in terms of its international progress. They are meant to track and counter non-traditional security threats. Such threats are somewhat intangible and have a deeper, more impactful presence. If not countered through structured programs, infrastructure, and policymaking; they will only become a visible reality once the issue is nearly impossible to resolve.
Origin and purpose
These were born from the United Nations Conference that was hosted in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2012. Global issues of all sorts were raised which revolved around aspects such as the environment, clean energy, sanitation, education, health, and security.
Goals and Commitments
The year 2015 decided that within the upcoming 15 years, there will be an active and hopefully successful attempt at ushering in a future of dignity and peace also known as the 2030 Agenda.
For each nation, there is a different ranking of the goals following their level of need and priority. Following is the ranking for Pakistan.
Goal 2 Zero Hunger
The second goal defines eradicating global hunger and reaching food security for all. This involves the production, processing, and distribution of food and sustainable agriculture. This goal is at the top of Pakistan’s priority list due to its status as an Agrarian State. Due to the recent inflation in the state, the food crisis has become a reality for a sizable portion of the Pakistani population.
Goal 3 Good Health and Well Being
Places focus on the overall health of all people. The focus is on preventative strategies for all ages. This goal covers the improvement of life expectancy in all developing and underdeveloped nations. It also includes immunization coverage, epidemics such as malaria and dengue, the Covid-19 pandemic, and emergency aid going out to all in times of global distress and disaster.
Goal 4 Quality Education
Good quality education that is inclusive and available to all is a cornerstone of a prosperous and peaceful society. This includes not only various education sustainability initiatives but also caters to accessible and high-caliber school and university infrastructure. This goal works for a bright future for not only the global youth but for the global economy as well.
Goal 6 Clean Water and Sanitation
Universal access to clean water and a hygienic living environment makes up Goal 6. This will help counter water pollution and reduce the spread of diseases like cholera, malaria, dysentery, typhoid, and Hepatitis A. Clean water and sanitation will ultimately lead to water efficiency and its use as a renewable energy source.
Goal 7 Affordable and Clean Energy
Clean Energy is the key to having a future landscape that this generation can pass on to the next. This goal works for the distribution of electricity across the globe, in poverty-stricken and hard-to-access areas. Renewable energy sources (windmills, hydro-electricity, solar power) are being focused on so that there can be a time when weaning off of non-renewable and quickly depleting fuels such as coal, gas, and oil is not harmful to both society and the economy.
Goal 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth
Economic growth is a necessary factor to keep states progressing and afloat. Goal 8 emphasizes the importance of productive and decent employment. It promotes a greener economy, sustainable tourism, and social protection for all.
Goal 16 Peace, Justice, and Security
Accountable and Just national institutions and law enforcement is the path to peace, justice, and security. There is an active need for local participation at the grassroots level. Peace can only ever be delivered from the bottom up. Pakistan has always had a conflict simmering at some level. Be it a population overflow at the borders or a politico-religious conflict. Effectively working on prevention and counter operations can foster peace and security for all.
Goal 1 No Poverty
The first goal is to end poverty globally. The poverty line has been decided over various factors and definitions in the past few years. Once it was declared that any person who consumed less than 2400 kcal over twenty-four hours was under the poverty line. Currently, it is set for members of society who live under Rs. 3000 monthly, in Pakistan.
Goal 5 Gender Equality
It is common knowledge that we live in a majorly patriarchal society that is disadvantageous to women and girls all over the world. Goal 5 aims to fix that by focusing on the elimination of gender-based violence and empowering more women to step into professional and operational roles by reducing in-house gender discrimination. There is also special care taken to recognize and reduce the unpaid labor and double standards which women face daily.
Goal 9 Industry. Innovation, and Infrastructure
A resilient and good quality infrastructure is a must to keep a state of more than 220 million people functioning properly. The innovation of the tech industry is the spearhead for Pakistan’s entry into a competitive future. There is still a need for better infrastructure including highways and high-rise buildings with proper sewage piping as well. Inclusive industrialization will bring about better credit, a more stable economy, and reduced unemployment.
Goal 10 Reduced Inequalities
The focus lies on reducing international inequalities and reducing the massive chasm existing between different classes of society. Income equality is directly tied to gendered equity, improved industrialization, and economic growth. Apart from reducing financial disparity, this also focuses on socio-political, cultural, and religious inclusion. Pakistan is a multicultural and diverse state with citizens belonging to various religious sects, castes, and ethnicities. However, this has often led to intersectional conflicts. This goal aims to counter that through various representative policies and global cooperation.
Goal 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities
These are such areas that practice, promote, and support sustainability in every aspect – energy, water, economy, infrastructure, and environment. This goal aims to ensure that due to the massive population migrations from rural to urban, there is no concentration of poverty due to the economic shift. Cities are to be safe havens for their constituents with public transport, parks, recreational spaces, and economic opportunities.
Goal 17 Partnerships for Goals
No system of such a scale can work in isolation therefore, to bring sustainability to Pakistan, there needs to be a joint effort by international powers and national institutions. Global platforms such as the UN, WTO, SAARC, ASEAN, and IMF are all contributing their part be it through funding, medical aid, or economic policing. Pakistan also partakes in multiple confidence-building measures and FTAs to live up to this goal.
Goal 12 Responsible consumption and Production
Focuses on management and usage of natural resources to not run out before other renewable sources are in place. This goal actively works to reduce the negative impact of state consumption on the environment – be it through chemical dumping, food waste, or wasteful consumption.
Goal 13 Climate Action
The recent floods in Pakistan and the searing temperatures in June and July point to the absolute necessity of taking climate action. Extreme temperatures, droughts, and flooding are all contributing to the deterioration of human and environmental health. Being a primarily agrarian exporter, Pakistan needs to be vigilant regarding any threat to its agricultural economy and counter it through planning, policies, and preventive strategies.
Goal 14 Life below Water and Goal 15 Life on Land
The sustainable Development goals have provided guidelines to ensure a hospitable future. This includes protection and conservation of the living habitat aka Oceans and Land. Due to the rapid rate of globalization, modernism, and human development, ecosystems both above and below have suffered. Many species have gone extinct as well, due to unregulated hunting and fishing throughout the year. Ocean acidification and pollution are major concerns due to it being a major food source for the global population. Similarly, deforestation, desertification, and poaching need to be eliminated on land. Pakistan has participated in such initiatives to conserve and protect forests through artificial reforestation – the Changa Manga Forest.
Pakistan is constantly making progress in seeing the SDGs through. Consistency is key to success and in this case, sustainability.
Breaking Diplomatic Norms: Indian Response to OIC & Turkish Support for Kashmir Issue
Recently, the Indian government has been facing backlash for its highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support to the Kashmir issue at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). The Indian government has also criticized the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) for its statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IIOJK).
India’s long-standing hostility towards Pakistan has been a subject of much criticism in international diplomatic circles. While the two countries have a history of conflicts and disputes, India’s approach towards Pakistan has often been seen as unconstructive and counterproductive. The Indian government’s hardline stance on Pakistan has resulted in a deepening of the mistrust between the two countries, which has had serious implications for regional stability and security.
India’s rhetoric towards Pakistan has often been marked by derogatory and aggressive remarks, particularly in the context of the Kashmir issue. In recent years, India has sought to internationalize the issue of Kashmir and has baselessly accused Pakistan of supporting terrorism in the region. This has resulted in a hardening of positions on both sides and has made any meaningful dialogue between the two countries almost impossible.
India’s recent criticism of Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC and its condemnation of the OIC’s statement on Indian human rights abuses in IIOJK is another example of its obsession with Pakistan. The Indian government’s response to these developments has been highly un-democratic and derogatory, with Indian officials using aggressive language and personal attacks to discredit Turkey and the OIC.
India’s preoccupation with Pakistan has also had implications for its relationship with other countries in the region. India’s increasingly assertive foreign policy and its strategic partnership with the US have raised concerns among its neighbors, who fear that India’s pursuit of its own interests could undermine regional stability and security. India’s aggressive stance towards China and its border disputes have also added to regional tensions and have led to a deterioration in its relationship with Beijing.Bottom of Form
It is important to note that Turkey has always been a strong supporter of the Kashmir issue, and has been vocal about the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in the region. In September 2021, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan raised the issue of Kashmir during his speech at the UN General Assembly, stating that the “Kashmir conflict, which is also key to the stability and peace of South Asia, is still a burning issue.”
In response to Turkey’s support of the Kashmir issue, India’s Ministry of External Affairs issued a statement condemning Turkey’s stance, claiming that it was “completely unacceptable” and that Turkey had no right to interfere in India’s internal affairs. India’s statement also accused Turkey of using the Kashmir issue as a “distraction” from its own internal problems.
This reaction from the Indian government is highly undemocratic and uncalled for. It is the right of any nation to express its views on global issues, and India’s attempt to suppress Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a clear violation of this right. The Kashmir issue has been a longstanding dispute between India and Pakistan, and the international community has a responsibility to support a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a step in the right direction towards achieving this goal.
Furthermore, the Indian government’s criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK is also highly inappropriate. The OIC, a group of 57 Muslim-majority countries, has expressed concern over the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in IIOJK, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and enforced disappearances. The OIC’s statement is a reflection of the international community’s concerns over the situation in IIOJK, and it is the right of the OIC to express its views on this matter.
India’s response to the OIC’s statement has been highly critical, with the Indian government accusing the OIC of interfering in India’s internal affairs. This response is yet another attempt by the Indian government to suppress international criticism of its human rights abuses in IIOJK. The Indian government’s stance on this issue is highly hypocritical, as it has repeatedly called for international support in its own disputes with other nations, including Pakistan.
Indian government’s highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC, as well as its criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK, are reflective of its lack of respect for international law and global human rights standards. The Kashmir issue is a longstanding dispute that requires a peaceful and just resolution, and the international community has a responsibility to support this goal. The Indian government must recognize this and work towards a peaceful resolution of the conflict, rather than resorting to undemocratic and inflammatory rhetoric.
The Taliban’s Loss of Popular Support in Afghanistan
Afghanistan is currently facing an unprecedented crisis due to the Taliban’s takeover of the country in August 2021. Despite initially claiming to have widespread support from the Afghan population, reports from within the country now suggest that the Taliban’s grip on power is increasingly fragile. The Taliban’s regime has been marked by egregious human rights violations, economic hardship, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and brutal tactics during the war, all of which have contributed to their diminishing popularity. The people of Afghanistan continue to suffer under the oppressive rule of the Taliban, and urgent action is needed to address the humanitarian crisis and restore stability to the region.
One of the most pressing issues facing Afghanistan under the Taliban is the economic crisis that has emerged in the wake of their takeover. The country is facing inflation, food shortages, and job losses, all of which are having a significant impact on the lives of ordinary Afghans. The prices for basic goods such as flour and sugar have skyrocketed and many families are struggling to afford even one meal a day. In 2022, many reports emerged that people are selling their kidneys to feed their families.
The Taliban has struggled to revive the economy, and their policies have not been effective in addressing the economic crisis. According to the New York Times, “the Taliban’s financial plan relies heavily on the illicit drug trade, a strategy that may provide some short-term gains but will ultimately lead to greater instability and economic hardship for ordinary Afghans.”
Human Rights Violations
The Taliban’s history of human rights violations, particularly their treatment of women and girls, has also contributed to their loss of popular support in Afghanistan. The Taliban has a reputation for imposing strict restrictions on women’s rights, including banning girls from attending school and requiring women to wear burqas in public. Various media outlets report suggest that women and girls have been virtually invisible in public since the Taliban took over. The Taliban has also used violence against civilians, including women and children who raised voice for their rights. We see constant demonstrations against ban on girls’ education in Kabul and Taliban use to suppress them by using force. No one is allowed to held a protest against the Taliban repressive policies.
Lack of Inclusivity
The Taliban’s government has been criticized for its lack of inclusivity and representation of Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. The Taliban is dominated by Pashtuns, and there are concerns that other groups may be marginalized or excluded from political participation. No previous polit al leaders who are in politics for decades is a part of the new set up. Taliban have imposed a narrow interpretation of Islam that does not reflect the country’s diversity and tolerance as well as equal opportunities to men and women. The Taliban’s cabinet is made up entirely of men, and there are no non-Pashtuns or Shia Muslims in key positions.
The Taliban’s return to power has resulted in international isolation, with several countries imposing sanctions and restrictions on the Taliban regime. This has limited the Taliban’s ability to access international aid and resources, which has further exacerbated the economic crisis in Afghanistan. The Washington Post reports that “the Taliban’s international isolation is exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan,” and that “the country desperately needs international aid to address its economic woes and provide basic services to its people.” Unless the Taliban bring a change to their repressive policies, they will remain isolated in the international community.
Taliban’s Tactics During the War
The Taliban’s tactics during the war against US-led NATO and ISAF forces, including their use of suicide bombings and targeting of civilians, have also contributed to their loss of popular support among Afghans who have been affected by the violence. The New York Times reported in September 2021 that “the Taliban’s brutal tactics during the war have left a legacy of fear and trauma among the Afghan people.” Many Afghans are deeply distrustful of the Taliban because of the group’s violent tactics during the war and the atrocities they committed against civilians. The Taliban’s reputation as a violent and extremist group has made it difficult for them to gain the trust and support of the Afghan population.
Addressing the Issues
The Taliban faces a significant challenge in regaining the trust and support of the Afghan people. They will need to address the economic crisis, provide basic services to the population, and create an inclusive government that represents Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. They will also need to address human rights concerns especially women rights and restore the rule of law. Also, they will need to make significant concessions if they hope to regain the trust of the Afghan people and the international community. They need to create a more stable and predictable environment for the Afghan people if they hope to build a functioning state. The Taliban has taken some steps to address these concerns, including pledging to respect women’s rights and promising to form an inclusive government. However, the effectiveness of these measures remains to be seen.
The Taliban’s loss of popular support in Afghanistan is a significant challenge for the group as they seek to govern the country. Economic hardship, human rights violations, women rights, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and the Taliban’s tactics during the war have all contributed to their declining popularity. The Taliban will need to address these issues if they hope to regain the trust and support of the Afghan people and build a functioning state. The Taliban’s future depends on their ability to govern effectively and address the concerns of the Afghan people. If they fail to do so, they risk losing the support of the population and facing significant challenges in the years to come. It remains to be seen whether the Taliban can rise to this challenge and create a stable and prosperous Afghanistan for all its citizens.
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