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Rapprochement and De-rapprochement: An Analysis of Pakistan-Russia Ties



Pakistan’s foreign policy has failed to achieve strategic coherence, clear direction and astute posture due to a combination of domestic, strategic, and policy factors. The country’s dependence on the US, tendency towards strategic drift, and short-term policy decisions have all contributed to its inability to build positive relationships with Russia or the former Soviet Union. Domestically, the political instability and military coups have had a major impact on foreign policy. The frequent changes in government and military leadership have made it difficult for the country to establish a consistent and effective foreign policy. Additionally, the country’s inability to address its internal security issues, such as terrorism and violent extremism , has made it difficult to establish positive relationships with other countries.

Pakistan and Russia have attempted to build trust and establish a lasting strategic relationship in the past decade. However, the relationship has been heavily influenced by historical events and trajectories such as Pakistan’s close ties to the US, the Soviet role in Afghanistan, the Soviet policy of Indo-centrality , and domestic instability in Pakistan. The global balance of power also played a role in shaping Russia’s behaviour towards Pakistan.

Despite these challenges, civilian regimes in Pakistan have attempted to reduce dependence on the West and improve relations with Russia. However, it will take time for the two nations to develop a friendship that will endure despite external factors. The history of their strategic ties illustrates a complex interplay of domestic and structural factors in shaping the relationship.

Systemic bipolarity and the cold war 

When Pakistan gained independence in 1947, it sought to establish relations with a country that could provide economic and military support. The new country faced a strategic dilemma due to bipolarity, colonial history, and economic needs. However, the Soviet Union did not respond to Pakistan’s economic needs as they saw post-colonial states as tools of western containment in South Asia. Due to economic hardship, internal insecurity, governance issues, and foreign policy crises, Pakistan shifted away from neutral and non-aligned policies and aligned itself with the West in 1953.

Pakistan’s foreign policy interests were protected by the visit of Liaqat Ali Khans’ visit to Washington in 1950. The shift towards the West was driven by the perceived threat of Indian aggression along the border and the complexity of the Kashmir dispute. Pakistan’s support for the US during the Korean War, and its support for the 1951 peace treaty with Japan solidified its alliance with the US.Pakistan joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954 and the Baghdad Pact (CENTO) in 1955, which positioned it against the Soviet Union.

In the bipolar security system, the US used Pakistan’s geographic position to further its own interests by using its territory as a base for gathering intelligence and maintaining surveillance on the Soviet Union and other regional militaries. The downing of a US U-2 spy plane, flown from Peshawar air base in the 1960s, nearly provoked Soviet retaliation. Entangled in the Cold War framework of Great Power rivalry, Soviet Union remained in a retaliatory posture to US protégé Pakistan in international fora vetoing against its interests, particularly with respect to Kashmir issue, due to the entrenched Pakistan-US strategic connection.

Afghan annexation and Durand 

Pakistan played a crucial role in advancing US strategic goals in its backyard over the course of next two decades, at the cost of ties with the Soviet Union. Pakistan was at the centre of America’s containment policy in the 1970s, lobbying for the weakening of the communist-leaning government in Afghanistan which prompted the Soviets to invade Afghanistan in 1980. In addition, Pakistan’s acted as a conduit to facilitate talks between China and Washington during a phase of Sino-Soviet adversarial relationship, which culminated in the US-China diplomatic dialogue (1971). The geopolitical objective of settling the Durand Line dispute with Communist Afghanistan was an immediate one. The soviets were backing the communist government regarding the Durand Line issue during the 1970s and 1980s and Pakistan supported Mujahideen rebels in their attempt to overthrow the soviet-backed regime so that it could achieve its goal of integrating the Khaybar Pakhtunwa and FATA regions. The dismemberment of east Pakistan (Bangladesh) by India in 1971 was retaliation for the west-dominated strategy, for which Soviet external support was critical especially at the sea. Russia sent nuclear submarines to ward off possible US navy assistance, forcing Pakistan’s armed forces into a humiliating submission.

The Soviet Union’s disintegration and the victory of the US strategic order were made possible by Pakistan’s facilitation of the asymmetric struggle to drive the Soviets out of Afghanistan. This was seen as a competent policy to limit the Soviet leverage that it had gained post-Bangladesh liberation. The Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, on the other hand, exacerbated a power struggle between the armed Mujahideen, who posed a serious security threat and were a source of instability for Pakistan.

After contributing to destabilize each other, Pakistan and Russia faced new security concerns. Pakistan was in desperate need of military modernization when its closest ally, the United States, imposed nuclear sanctions. Russia, on the other hand, was economically shaky and preoccupied with solidifying its position in disintegrating nations; thus, both were unable to make meaningful strides in formalising strategic cooperation. On the other side, India used the Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation (1971) to strengthen its connection with Russia. This meant that Pakistan’s policies had to be redirected in order to preserve its position vis-à-vis India while also fearing spillover from Afghanistan, with whom it shared the porous Durand border. The recognition of the Taliban regime in 1996 was another setback to bilateral ties, for Russia believed that it would embolden Chechen insurgents to speed up operations by establishing recruiting channels from Central Asian regions to Pakistan’s tribal areas. The War on Terror in 2001 once again oriented Pakistan with the US strategic alliance, making it a launch pad in the international combat against Al-Qaeda and Taliban forces. Russia was consistent with its internal efforts and maintained a cordial relationship with Pakistan, given that the country backed the US-led campaign in Afghanistan.

Converging interests and the India factor

Amid an exhausting Afghan campaign, Washington began to look beyond Pakistan over disagreements over combat strategy and the prolonging of the conflict. The spillover had tremendously increased homegrown extremist and radical elements, especially in the western region, inflicting heavy costs on the civilian and economic sectors of Pakistan. the new-founded strategic partner, India, signified a shift towards Indian ocean region in the American foreign policy. The US came to recognise India’s nuclear ambitions in 2008 and its rising status internationally. Pushing Russia and Pakistan to converge their interests. In 2010, Russia expressed its renewed desire to engage with Afghanistan, culminating in a summit including Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. This convergence coincided with a deterioration in relations between Pakistan and the United States in 2011, when US Rand missiles killed Usama bin Laden on Pakistani soil, followed by a US attack on the Pakistani military that killed 24 soldiers. These incidents, however, pushed for a policy change in Pakistan to lessen its dependence on the United States. In the following years, Pakistan attempted to exercise independence in its foreign policy, especially toward Russia, and made considerable progress in the areas of counter-terrorism and trade. However, the relationship still seems to be transactional and laden with constraints like Pakistan’s incoherence and oscillatory nature. The India factor has always been a constant in Pakistan’s relationship with Russia, given its diplomatic bargaining capacity.

Lingering domestic impediments in Pakistan

The historical record of Russian-Pakistani relations illustrates the benefits of democratic leadership aimed at reducing dependence on the West in foreign policy. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s democratic socialist coalition made a notable effort to improve relations with the Soviet Union, marking the first time in Pakistani history. Bhutto’s foreign policy sought to detach Pakistan from SEATO and CENTO, and his 1974visit to the Soviet Union enabled both countries to establish agreements on mutual trust, cooperation, technical assistance, and friendship. In striving to enhance ties with the Communist bloc, Prime Minister Bhutto concurrently made a conscious effort to build relations with Russia. The close relationship between Pakistan and the Soviet Union from 1973 to 1979 proved advantageous for both countries.

The democratically elected Imran Khan regime attempted to de-Americanize Pakistan’s foreign policy and engage in reproachment with Russia, America’s rival. However, Khan’s removal at the military’s behest and its strong ties to the US suggest that Pakistan-Russia relations will continue to suffer setbacks, halting progress toward a comprehensive partnership. American pressure for Pakistan to join in condemning Russian military operations in Ukraine suggests that the US opposes Pakistan’s Russia-oriented policy as outlined in the new national security document. Pakistan’s shift toward Russia and China presents a challenge to US hegemony in South and Central Asia. This convergence could prove challenging in the Eurasian region.

At any cost, it cannot allow a frontline state to become a geopolitical impediment in a strategically important region. It can allow Russia to exploit the region to accelerate its outreach to South Asia and create connectivity through the warm waters of the Persian Gulf, creating a strong block connecting Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and China. However, the recent regime change in Pakistan and renewed orientation towards the US has put a renewed strain on growing Russia-Pakistan relations. The change in policy in Moscow can be seen in light of the fact that Russia denied selling crude oil at a discount to Pakistan, soon after Imran Khan’s government changed.

It is imperative that Washington be uneasy with Pakistan’s independent policies. Pakistan has not succeeded in balancing its engagements with the West and Russia. Internal power imbalance and political chaos prevent Pakistan from having independence in foreign policy. In order to improve its foreign policy, Pakistan must re-evaluate its domestic, strategic, and policy decisions and prioritize long-term strategic considerations over short-term gains. Economic progress, strong democratic institutions, and political competence contribute to the formulation of objective foreign policy. Unless Pakistan achieves these parameters, its Russia policy will continue to suffer despite its efforts. Russia can be a long-term partner for weapons, trade, and commerce.

PhD Candidate, Centre for West Asian (Middle East) Studies Jamia Millia Islamia, (central University) New Delhi India-110025

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Pakistan’s Priority Ranking of SDGs

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Sustainable development goals are also known as Global or Universal goals that are meant to guide developing and underdeveloped nation-states to a sustainable and peaceful future. Development is a combination of innovation and improvement over a consistent time. It requires the collaboration of several social, cultural, economic, legal, and political sectors. All such sectors are interdependent and function sustainably when allied towards the same goal. 

What are SDGs? 

Developmental goals outline the priorities of a state in terms of its international progress. They are meant to track and counter non-traditional security threats. Such threats are somewhat intangible and have a deeper, more impactful presence. If not countered through structured programs, infrastructure, and policymaking; they will only become a visible reality once the issue is nearly impossible to resolve.

Origin and purpose

These were born from the United Nations Conference that was hosted in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2012. Global issues of all sorts were raised which revolved around aspects such as the environment, clean energy, sanitation, education, health, and security. 

Goals and Commitments

The year 2015 decided that within the upcoming 15 years, there will be an active and hopefully successful attempt at ushering in a future of dignity and peace also known as the 2030 Agenda. 

For each nation, there is a different ranking of the goals following their level of need and priority. Following is the ranking for Pakistan.

Priority I

Goal 2 Zero Hunger

The second goal defines eradicating global hunger and reaching food security for all. This involves the production, processing, and distribution of food and sustainable agriculture. This goal is at the top of Pakistan’s priority list due to its status as an Agrarian State. Due to the recent inflation in the state, the food crisis has become a reality for a sizable portion of the Pakistani population.  

Goal 3 Good Health and Well Being

Places focus on the overall health of all people. The focus is on preventative strategies for all ages. This goal covers the improvement of life expectancy in all developing and underdeveloped nations. It also includes immunization coverage, epidemics such as malaria and dengue, the Covid-19 pandemic, and emergency aid going out to all in times of global distress and disaster. 

Goal 4 Quality Education

Good quality education that is inclusive and available to all is a cornerstone of a prosperous and peaceful society. This includes not only various education sustainability initiatives but also caters to accessible and high-caliber school and university infrastructure. This goal works for a bright future for not only the global youth but for the global economy as well.

Goal 6 Clean Water and Sanitation

Universal access to clean water and a hygienic living environment makes up Goal 6. This will help counter water pollution and reduce the spread of diseases like cholera, malaria, dysentery, typhoid, and Hepatitis A. Clean water and sanitation will ultimately lead to water efficiency and its use as a renewable energy source. 

Goal 7 Affordable and Clean Energy 

Clean Energy is the key to having a future landscape that this generation can pass on to the next. This goal works for the distribution of electricity across the globe, in poverty-stricken and hard-to-access areas. Renewable energy sources (windmills, hydro-electricity, solar power) are being focused on so that there can be a time when weaning off of non-renewable and quickly depleting fuels such as coal, gas, and oil is not harmful to both society and the economy. 

Goal 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth

Economic growth is a necessary factor to keep states progressing and afloat. Goal 8 emphasizes the importance of productive and decent employment. It promotes a greener economy, sustainable tourism, and social protection for all. 

Goal 16 Peace, Justice, and Security

Accountable and Just national institutions and law enforcement is the path to peace, justice, and security. There is an active need for local participation at the grassroots level. Peace can only ever be delivered from the bottom up. Pakistan has always had a conflict simmering at some level. Be it a population overflow at the borders or a politico-religious conflict. Effectively working on prevention and counter operations can foster peace and security for all. 

Priority II

Goal 1 No Poverty

The first goal is to end poverty globally. The poverty line has been decided over various factors and definitions in the past few years. Once it was declared that any person who consumed less than 2400 kcal over twenty-four hours was under the poverty line. Currently, it is set for members of society who live under Rs. 3000 monthly, in Pakistan.

Goal 5 Gender Equality

It is common knowledge that we live in a majorly patriarchal society that is disadvantageous to women and girls all over the world. Goal 5 aims to fix that by focusing on the elimination of gender-based violence and empowering more women to step into professional and operational roles by reducing in-house gender discrimination. There is also special care taken to recognize and reduce the unpaid labor and double standards which women face daily.

Goal 9 Industry. Innovation, and Infrastructure

A resilient and good quality infrastructure is a must to keep a state of more than 220 million people functioning properly. The innovation of the tech industry is the spearhead for Pakistan’s entry into a competitive future. There is still a need for better infrastructure including highways and high-rise buildings with proper sewage piping as well. Inclusive industrialization will bring about better credit, a more stable economy, and reduced unemployment.

Goal 10 Reduced Inequalities

The focus lies on reducing international inequalities and reducing the massive chasm existing between different classes of society. Income equality is directly tied to gendered equity, improved industrialization, and economic growth. Apart from reducing financial disparity, this also focuses on socio-political, cultural, and religious inclusion. Pakistan is a multicultural and diverse state with citizens belonging to various religious sects, castes, and ethnicities. However, this has often led to intersectional conflicts. This goal aims to counter that through various representative policies and global cooperation.

Goal 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities

These are such areas that practice, promote, and support sustainability in every aspect – energy, water, economy, infrastructure, and environment. This goal aims to ensure that due to the massive population migrations from rural to urban, there is no concentration of poverty due to the economic shift. Cities are to be safe havens for their constituents with public transport, parks, recreational spaces, and economic opportunities. 

Goal 17 Partnerships for Goals

No system of such a scale can work in isolation therefore, to bring sustainability to Pakistan, there needs to be a joint effort by international powers and national institutions. Global platforms such as the UN, WTO, SAARC, ASEAN, and IMF are all contributing their part be it through funding, medical aid, or economic policing. Pakistan also partakes in multiple confidence-building measures and FTAs to live up to this goal. 

Priority III

Goal 12 Responsible consumption and Production

Focuses on management and usage of natural resources to not run out before other renewable sources are in place. This goal actively works to reduce the negative impact of state consumption on the environment – be it through chemical dumping, food waste, or wasteful consumption. 

Goal 13 Climate Action

The recent floods in Pakistan and the searing temperatures in June and July point to the absolute necessity of taking climate action. Extreme temperatures, droughts, and flooding are all contributing to the deterioration of human and environmental health. Being a primarily agrarian exporter, Pakistan needs to be vigilant regarding any threat to its agricultural economy and counter it through planning, policies, and preventive strategies. 

Goal 14 Life below Water and Goal 15 Life on Land

The sustainable Development goals have provided guidelines to ensure a hospitable future. This includes protection and conservation of the living habitat aka Oceans and Land. Due to the rapid rate of globalization, modernism, and human development, ecosystems both above and below have suffered. Many species have gone extinct as well, due to unregulated hunting and fishing throughout the year. Ocean acidification and pollution are major concerns due to it being a major food source for the global population. Similarly, deforestation, desertification, and poaching need to be eliminated on land. Pakistan has participated in such initiatives to conserve and protect forests through artificial reforestation – the Changa Manga Forest.

Pakistan is constantly making progress in seeing the SDGs through. Consistency is key to success and in this case, sustainability. 

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Breaking Diplomatic Norms: Indian Response to OIC & Turkish Support for Kashmir Issue




Recently, the Indian government has been facing backlash for its highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support to the Kashmir issue at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). The Indian government has also criticized the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) for its statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IIOJK).

India’s long-standing hostility towards Pakistan has been a subject of much criticism in international diplomatic circles. While the two countries have a history of conflicts and disputes, India’s approach towards Pakistan has often been seen as unconstructive and counterproductive. The Indian government’s hardline stance on Pakistan has resulted in a deepening of the mistrust between the two countries, which has had serious implications for regional stability and security.

India’s rhetoric towards Pakistan has often been marked by derogatory and aggressive remarks, particularly in the context of the Kashmir issue. In recent years, India has sought to internationalize the issue of Kashmir and has baselessly accused Pakistan of supporting terrorism in the region. This has resulted in a hardening of positions on both sides and has made any meaningful dialogue between the two countries almost impossible.

India’s recent criticism of Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC and its condemnation of the OIC’s statement on Indian human rights abuses in IIOJK is another example of its obsession with Pakistan. The Indian government’s response to these developments has been highly un-democratic and derogatory, with Indian officials using aggressive language and personal attacks to discredit Turkey and the OIC.

India’s preoccupation with Pakistan has also had implications for its relationship with other countries in the region. India’s increasingly assertive foreign policy and its strategic partnership with the US have raised concerns among its neighbors, who fear that India’s pursuit of its own interests could undermine regional stability and security. India’s aggressive stance towards China and its border disputes have also added to regional tensions and have led to a deterioration in its relationship with Beijing.Bottom of Form

It is important to note that Turkey has always been a strong supporter of the Kashmir issue, and has been vocal about the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in the region. In September 2021, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan raised the issue of Kashmir during his speech at the UN General Assembly, stating that the “Kashmir conflict, which is also key to the stability and peace of South Asia, is still a burning issue.”

In response to Turkey’s support of the Kashmir issue, India’s Ministry of External Affairs issued a statement condemning Turkey’s stance, claiming that it was “completely unacceptable” and that Turkey had no right to interfere in India’s internal affairs. India’s statement also accused Turkey of using the Kashmir issue as a “distraction” from its own internal problems.

This reaction from the Indian government is highly undemocratic and uncalled for. It is the right of any nation to express its views on global issues, and India’s attempt to suppress Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a clear violation of this right. The Kashmir issue has been a longstanding dispute between India and Pakistan, and the international community has a responsibility to support a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a step in the right direction towards achieving this goal.

Furthermore, the Indian government’s criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK is also highly inappropriate. The OIC, a group of 57 Muslim-majority countries, has expressed concern over the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in IIOJK, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and enforced disappearances. The OIC’s statement is a reflection of the international community’s concerns over the situation in IIOJK, and it is the right of the OIC to express its views on this matter.

India’s response to the OIC’s statement has been highly critical, with the Indian government accusing the OIC of interfering in India’s internal affairs. This response is yet another attempt by the Indian government to suppress international criticism of its human rights abuses in IIOJK. The Indian government’s stance on this issue is highly hypocritical, as it has repeatedly called for international support in its own disputes with other nations, including Pakistan.

Indian government’s highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC, as well as its criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK, are reflective of its lack of respect for international law and global human rights standards. The Kashmir issue is a longstanding dispute that requires a peaceful and just resolution, and the international community has a responsibility to support this goal. The Indian government must recognize this and work towards a peaceful resolution of the conflict, rather than resorting to undemocratic and inflammatory rhetoric.

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The Taliban’s Loss of Popular Support in Afghanistan

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image source: Tehran Times

Afghanistan is currently facing an unprecedented crisis due to the Taliban’s takeover of the country in August 2021. Despite initially claiming to have widespread support from the Afghan population, reports from within the country now suggest that the Taliban’s grip on power is increasingly fragile. The Taliban’s regime has been marked by egregious human rights violations, economic hardship, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and brutal tactics during the war, all of which have contributed to their diminishing popularity. The people of Afghanistan continue to suffer under the oppressive rule of the Taliban, and urgent action is needed to address the humanitarian crisis and restore stability to the region.

Economic Hardship

One of the most pressing issues facing Afghanistan under the Taliban is the economic crisis that has emerged in the wake of their takeover. The country is facing inflation, food shortages, and job losses, all of which are having a significant impact on the lives of ordinary Afghans. The prices for basic goods such as flour and sugar have skyrocketed and many families are struggling to afford even one meal a day. In 2022, many reports emerged that people are selling their kidneys to feed their families.

The Taliban has struggled to revive the economy, and their policies have not been effective in addressing the economic crisis. According to the New York Times, “the Taliban’s financial plan relies heavily on the illicit drug trade, a strategy that may provide some short-term gains but will ultimately lead to greater instability and economic hardship for ordinary Afghans.”

Human Rights Violations

The Taliban’s history of human rights violations, particularly their treatment of women and girls, has also contributed to their loss of popular support in Afghanistan. The Taliban has a reputation for imposing strict restrictions on women’s rights, including banning girls from attending school and requiring women to wear burqas in public. Various media outlets report suggest that women and girls have been virtually invisible in public since the Taliban took over. The Taliban has also used violence against civilians, including women and children who raised voice for their rights. We see constant demonstrations against ban on girls’ education in Kabul and Taliban use to suppress them by using force. No one is allowed to held a protest against the Taliban repressive policies.

Lack of Inclusivity

The Taliban’s government has been criticized for its lack of inclusivity and representation of Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. The Taliban is dominated by Pashtuns, and there are concerns that other groups may be marginalized or excluded from political participation. No previous polit al leaders who are in politics for decades is a part of the new set up. Taliban have imposed a narrow interpretation of Islam that does not reflect the country’s diversity and tolerance as well as equal opportunities to men and women. The Taliban’s cabinet is made up entirely of men, and there are no non-Pashtuns or Shia Muslims in key positions.

International Isolation

The Taliban’s return to power has resulted in international isolation, with several countries imposing sanctions and restrictions on the Taliban regime. This has limited the Taliban’s ability to access international aid and resources, which has further exacerbated the economic crisis in Afghanistan. The Washington Post reports that “the Taliban’s international isolation is exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan,” and that “the country desperately needs international aid to address its economic woes and provide basic services to its people.” Unless the Taliban bring a change to their repressive policies, they will remain isolated in the international community.

Taliban’s Tactics During the War

The Taliban’s tactics during the war against US-led NATO and ISAF forces, including their use of suicide bombings and targeting of civilians, have also contributed to their loss of popular support among Afghans who have been affected by the violence. The New York Times reported in September 2021 that “the Taliban’s brutal tactics during the war have left a legacy of fear and trauma among the Afghan people.” Many Afghans are deeply distrustful of the Taliban because of the group’s violent tactics during the war and the atrocities they committed against civilians. The Taliban’s reputation as a violent and extremist group has made it difficult for them to gain the trust and support of the Afghan population.

Addressing the Issues

The Taliban faces a significant challenge in regaining the trust and support of the Afghan people. They will need to address the economic crisis, provide basic services to the population, and create an inclusive government that represents Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. They will also need to address human rights concerns especially women rights and restore the rule of law. Also, they will need to make significant concessions if they hope to regain the trust of the Afghan people and the international community. They need to create a more stable and predictable environment for the Afghan people if they hope to build a functioning state. The Taliban has taken some steps to address these concerns, including pledging to respect women’s rights and promising to form an inclusive government. However, the effectiveness of these measures remains to be seen.


The Taliban’s loss of popular support in Afghanistan is a significant challenge for the group as they seek to govern the country. Economic hardship, human rights violations, women rights, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and the Taliban’s tactics during the war have all contributed to their declining popularity. The Taliban will need to address these issues if they hope to regain the trust and support of the Afghan people and build a functioning state. The Taliban’s future depends on their ability to govern effectively and address the concerns of the Afghan people. If they fail to do so, they risk losing the support of the population and facing significant challenges in the years to come. It remains to be seen whether the Taliban can rise to this challenge and create a stable and prosperous Afghanistan for all its citizens.

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