Connect with us

Economy

Why Will Population-Rich-Nations Lead Knowledge-Rich-Nations?

Avatar photo

Published

on

What a difference a century makes? Global economic recovery demands economic intellectualism to embrace futurism where tectonic shifts of power start moving from ‘knowledge-rich-nations’ to ‘population-rich-nations’ to change economic behavior across the world. How will all this unfold and what preparations are needed for positive results?

The Population-Rich-Nations, primarily Asian nations, during the last century considered themselves cursed; visibly under the burden of extreme poverty, struggling to feed hungry mouths. Today that extra population is considered a blessing; when citizens armed with mobile tools emerge as online transactional profit centers, humming and trading with billions of devices twinkling across the world, now visible as economic vibrancy. There is massive uplift of grassroots prosperity, along with up-skilling of exporters and re-skilling of manufacturers, today’s population rich nations are now raising economically with global reach. With the digital world already shrunk into their pockets, the portability of business models installed at every turn of the corners, the highly populated clusters, happily rise during the days and shine during the nights. In masses, they are learning the art of creating value, productivity, performance and profitability. Unlimited, rains of free technologies creating pools of untapped entrepreneurial powers, today, population-rich nations are rapidly gaining special smart-powers to lead this century. National mobilization of entrepreneurialism is visibly alive around the clock gaining global access.

The Knowledge-Rich-Nations: mainly developed nations from the West, highly educated and with century long standings on higher standards of living, heavily relied upon image supremacy of knowledge but today harshly tested as power of knowledge no longer a bargain chip, now gone globally generic. The Knowledge-Rich-Nations still boxed in superiority, some visibly confused, some crypto-driven, some witnessing their prosperity and civil order in sharp decline. Now comes the ideological testing; futurism demands futuristic literacy, therefore, mathematically speaking the economic modeling of the West has failed, the creative development of the economy based on fancy schemes only created the towers of debt. But the biggest loss is creating a lost generation, missing out on national mobilization of entrepreneurialism therefore unable to stand up to the global age of competitiveness. Most government economic development agencies of the Western economies loaded in debt are mostly the sing-song parades of the Kumbaya movements.

The Children of 2000: Centuries ago by the time a person acquired ‘worldly knowledge’ it was just about time to die, today an average teen-ager across the world has worldly knowledge, thanks to the Internet, the biggest invention ever and the greatest gift from the West to the world. The Children of 2000, born in the year and after, will start reaching the age of 30 by 2030, the largest and most informed generation in the world, since the land before time. Is it possible that this post-internet generation will have far more required brain-power and worldly-knowledge to understand and cope with global challenges and common good? Whereas, the present dying age of Machiavellianism that struggled so hard during the last two and half World Wars of sorts as their doctrine of seek and destroy thrived on dystopia. Today, it splits the global opinion on availability of political and economical intelligentsia now thrown in the big dumpsters on the main global strada. (Excerpted from literature and lecture series The Children of 2000, published 1995 Naseem Javed)

The power of special knowledge still rests with mostly the knowledge-rich-nations, but the remaining ocean of workably general and business knowledge is now free for the population-rich-nations to swim. Today, the quality of new global-age knowledge available in remote tribes from mostly barely clad natives in rainforests to extremely isolated millions of villages around the world where digitally connected are enough to change the regional and economic behavior of the world. The dynamic growth of Population-Rich-Nations is glittering but in an Asian style, developing nationalism, mannerism while deeply rooted in civility and common good.

Futurism calling: Knowledge-rich nations must rapidly re-learn how to compete and survive against highly agile and low-cost brilliance, creating shine within some 100 emerging population-rich nations. The monopoly of knowledge has been shattered. Now the time of National Mobilization has arrived to stand up to tidal waves of competitive skills. The Private Sectors of knowledge-rich nations critically need up-skilling to forget their past assurances and relearn the future shortcomings to advance with new and better thinking. Collaborative global economic activity is a fine art and understanding global diversity is a new science. Futurism calls knowledge-rich nations for massive up-skilling to survive and take notice of such tsunamis. When was the last time such topics debated on the national stage? (Referenced from “15 Monster Trends– by Naseem Javed” Published Dec 2014)

The survival of the fittest is the master collaborator: The time has come when the global economies desperately need immersion on the real differences between the two; the ‘physicality of work’ and the ‘mentality of performance’. Study the first industrial revolution of the mind and decide your market positioning as job searching challenges the national strategies to economical survival and compete in the global arena has brought them in dust and now Economic Exorcism becomes some possible options. Going forward, open some bold debates and global cooperation across many dozens of nations, as this is where the future prosperity is hidden. The current upside down world offers opportune time to recreate new vision and start collaborative processes based on global diversity and tolerance all on a fast track. Ignoring the rise of economic power of small medium businesses across the world is a serious mistake.

The Entrepreneurial March: Across the world mostly in Asia, some Billion new entrepreneurs are on the march. In perspective, some 100,000 entrepreneurs secured the supremacy of America for over a century. Ministries of Trade and Economic Development Bodies of the world and Immigration Control Agencies need special skills and blueprints on how to create large-scale special Visa programs to attract and allow such forces to energize their own economies. Prerequisites are finding out on why Western education and government programs failed to create new armies of entrepreneurs. Why in November 2022, thenew world of G20 and national mobilization of small medium business economies missed the biggest topic?

Why are such ideas considered a forbidden path, controlled by a trail of silence? Why not create a 10-year tax-free plan for all SME under USD$10 Million in turnover. Create and attract new armies of entrepreneurs. They become the fastest machines for new job creation. Eliminate all fees and unnecessary paperwork, make telecommunication and exportability costs subsidized, but let them grow, charge them taxes but much later… current knowledge base demonstrated by National Ministries of such departments critically missing special skills and deployment blueprints. All profiles of the staff within various Ministries and any economic development all available all across the world. Up-skilling is the number one priority. Study on Google how Expothon is tabling new options.

The Summary: Why so forbidden are such debates amongst nations, sector-by-sector or association by association, the trade groups caught in digital or mental-divides and economic development missing out on tempo. Fears of facing truth, admitting missing the boats or unable to demonstrate skills on digitization, a freeze of action support their silence.  Nevertheless, there are hot spots; there are great open-minded teams. There are new leaders aggressively seeking answers and exploring new passages during economic recovery. However, the majority of economies across the world are already on the precipice, as recovery is a long path but critically in need of dramatic actions and revolutionary executions, so what are the missing links and who is ready to start some action as it is time to lay out some blueprints? National mobilization of entrepreneurialism will harness the restless citizenry, up-skilling exporters and re-skilling manufacturers will uplift the small medium business economies. Nevertheless, highly skilled and dynamic teams to lead are critically essential.  The rest is easy.

Naseem Javed is a corporate philosopher, Chairman of Expothon Worldwide; a Canadian Think tank focused on National Mobilization of Entrepreneurialism Protocols on Platform Economy and exportability solutions now gaining global attention. His latest book; Alpha Dreamers; the five billions connected who will change the world.

Continue Reading
Comments

Economy

Explainer: African Leaders Should Accelerate Industrialization Without Short-Haircut Processes

Avatar photo

Published

on

At the end of their four-day deliberations, African leaders and participants have issued a joint statement relating to the future of economic diversification and industrialization in Africa. The summit provided the opportunity to take stock of the progress made during the year on the drive towards industrialization, it also provided a policy dialogue platform to firmly recommit to accelerating structural transformation. 

Convening in Niamey, Niger, the Extraordinary Summit on Economic Diversification and Industrialization, the ministers and participants collectively, in a the report, suggested that the key policies and regional integration issues should be drastically addressed to support industrialization in Africa, reminding further that Africa is widely seen as a future investment and development frontier given its extraordinary economic potential in Africa.

It was, however, acknowledged that it was held at the backdrop of a completely uncertain global landscape owing to the prolonged effects of the coronavirus pandemic, the pressing challenges posed by climate change and the Russia-Ukraine conflict that have disrupted the global supply chains with huge consequences globally and more fundamentally on African economies.

According to the summit reports these circumstances have revealed the extreme fragility of African economies against external shocks and reinforced the need for structural changes necessary for the acceleration of productive transformation through a determined shift towards sustainable and resilient industrialization in the years and decades ahead, the statement says.

The summit highlighted the role governments and other non-government actors play in addressing the constraints to industrial development, strategies for countries to re-invigorate the role of development finance institutions to promote industrial financing while drawing lessons from existing challenges, strategies for the countries to deal with global issues such as climate change in their efforts to industrialize, and reflected on the experience on industrial policy, design, implementation and monitoring its new industrial strategies. 

Ms. Aissata Tall Sall, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Senegalese Abroad and the current Chairperson the Executive Council, underscored the critical role of the private sector in supporting innovation in high-potential areas such as agriculture, agro-industry, health, education, infrastructure, and especially energy, which remains a crucial issue in advancing industrialization. 

She observed that “this decision has a high strategic significance because the aim of the industrialization and productive transformation process in our countries is to improve their capacity to take advantage of the many human and natural resources that the continent has to offer. Indeed, the industrialization of Africa can unlock the continent’s potential for inclusive growth by expanding access to the economic opportunities thus created to all segments of the population, especially women and youth. In addition to these challenges, all of which are important, there is the issue of mobilizing domestic resources to finance our economies, as well as the fight against illicit financial flows that encourage tax evasion and corruption.”

Massoudou Hassoumi, Niger’s Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation emphasized on the urgency for inclusive industrialization that harness the demographic divide of the youth, which he noted would also sustainably address issues of irregular migration, manipulation and recruitment into outlawed groups.

He added that “industrialization and economic diversification are therefore a lasting economic legacy that we must leave to the younger generation, because it is a solution to the challenges of the moment, especially those related to insecurity. In this regard, it is important to reiterate the African position for a fair and equitable transition to defend the right of our countries to exploit their available resources such as gas, alongside their efforts to develop the energy mix.” 

To accelerate the progress made in operationalizing the African Continental Free Trade Area, Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the African Union Commission restated the need to conclusively address the structural challenges that hinder the optimal functioning of the common market. 

“The major challenge here is to be able to strengthen trade between African countries that are more open to the outside world through agreements that have already been signed and that manage the bulk of their trade. It is therefore a matter of developing the capacity to successfully transform our productive structures with a view to increasing the complementarity of intra-African trade. It would also be necessary to ensure convergence by reducing the major gaps between Member States and between the Regional Economic Communities in terms of development and level of integration. The AU Commission’s State of Integration in Africa 2022 report has highlighted the reality of such gaps,” according to Moussa Faki Mahamat.

Africa possesses 60% solar irradiation in the world, 70% of cobalt global production and significant reserves of other battery minerals, world class carbon sink assets in our forests and peatlands, huge green hydrogen potential, which Antonio Pedro, UNECA Acting Executive Secretary noted can position the continent to become a powerhouse and a globally competitive investment destination for multi-sectoral investments combining climate action, job creation and industrialization. 

“As we drive industrialization, we also need to realize that industrialization is not an event, but it is a process, and a long one at that. And, of course, we should be mindful that industrialization is not the business of Ministries of Industry alone. Instead, the implementation of true industrial policy requires a whole of government and beyond approach and action. It requires aligning industrial, trade and other sectoral policies and putting science technology and innovation at the centre to ensure that we remain globally competitive beyond our initial endowments and comparative advantages,” noted Antonio Pedro.

To rally the support of the private sector, Dr. Amany Asfour, started the commitment by the AfroChampions Initiative to mobilize the private sector to enhance the public-private partnership as the continent moves from commitment to action on industrialization and trade. Empowering the private sector through market-based solutions and resolving finance barriers remains critical.

Among the recommendations of the minsters of the appointment of the African Union Champion for Sustainable Industrialization and Productive Transformation to provide political leadership, awareness and ensure effective implementation of Africa’s industrial development. And further considering endemic factors that have stifled the Africa’s economic transformation, it is important to reassess the continent’s capabilities in the face of external shocks. 

In this regard, it is important for the African Union members to set up innovative and inclusive institutions capable of designing and implementing effective industrial policies and processes that will advance socio-economic transformation, as stipulated in global and continental frameworks such as the African Union Agenda 2063, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the Third Industrial Development Decade for Africa.

Continue Reading

Economy

Bregret Reigns Britain: Blaming Brexit over Economic Exigency?

Avatar photo

Published

on

Sometimes I blunder that the UK is still a part of the European Union (EU). Whether when discussing a unified policy stance on sanctions targeting Russia or a common polity on sustainable energy strategies for a resilient future of Europe. Brexit may be a figment of the recent past, but its tremors are certainly not bygone. And the European cohesion, which should’ve been envied at a time when Russia is wreaking havoc on its energy security, seems ephemeral as Britain’s vexed relationship with the EU refuses to recede. However, amid the boiling economic crisis in Britain and the rest of Europe, public sentiments betray an inherent admission: Britain’s exit from the Union might have been a mistake. But the connotation of this public rhetoric is just as awry as the Brexit chatter leading up to the 2016 referendum.

The opinion of Britons has been notoriously fickle throughout history. But the outcome of the Brexit referendum was razor-thin at inception. Now, a stagnant economy; a revolving-door political leadership; and decades-high inflation are turning the tide against the championed narrative of the Conservatives. According to a recent opinion poll by YouGov – a leading market research and data analytics firm headquartered in Britain – 56% of the Britons surveyed concurred that leaving the EU had been a mistake. Only 32% believed that Brexit was a good idea. However, while many Brexit critics would jump onto this opportunity to bash the Tories, this perception is misguided, a product of frustration of an irate populace looking to blame something for their woes. And Brexit has been a notable feature of the ruling government.

Britain installed its fourth prime minister since 2016 last month. But the damage was already done a few months back. Britons were already reeling from soaring energy prices and acute food shortages. The economic slowdown was heralding an unfamiliar era of high-interest rates and unemployment. Then entered Liz Truss, the former prime minister who eschewed economic orthodoxy with her trickle-down tax-cut plans. Her disastrous stint in office – that barely lasted 50 days – tipped the pound into a free fall, sparked a liquidity crisis for pension funds, and sent government borrowing costs spiraling to harrowing levels. While the incumbent Prime Minister Rishi Sunak has managed to calm the turbulent economy, the wreckage is still visible in the mortgage market.

Earlier this year, mortgage rates in Britain typically remained below 2.5%. Since October, however, the average two-year fixed rate mortgage is hovering around 6.25% – slightly down from the peak of 6.65% on Oct. 20. The lowest two and three-year fixed rates are still above the 5% mark, according to Moneyfacts Group, a financial information company. Unlike the United States, British mortgages run for shorter terms. For instance, about 2 million mortgages in Britain would reach the end of their fixed terms by the end of next year, pushing many Britons to refinance at rates more than double their initial settlements. An estimated 1.6 million borrowers in Britain have variable mortgages, which track the central bank’s policy rate. Thus, as inflation keeps running ablaze, no respite seems on the cards. 

The annual rate of inflation in Britain has reached a multi-decade high of 11.1%. And at its last policy meeting, the Bank of England (BoE) – the central bank of Great Britain – hiked its interest rates by 75 basis points, taking the policy rate to 3% – the highest level since the financial crisis of 2008. Andrew Bailey – governor of the Bank of England – doubled down on his commitment to raising interest rates higher to deter double-digit inflation fuelled by pandemic-induced supply chain logjams and the mercurial energy prices triggered by the Russian retaliation against Western sanctions. While the logistics backlogs seem to be improving, the Russian dilemma shows no sign of resolution. And as the Western coalition prepares to implement a price cap on Russian energy supplies, economic difficulties would only worsen for the British citizenry.

According to the Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR), a fiscal watchdog group in Britain, inflation-adjusted disposable income is projected to slump by circa 7% over the next two years under the government’s new budget plan. Introduced as the “autumn statement,” the 55 billion pound ($65.4 billion) budget virtually reversed every plan by Ms. Truss. Mr. Jeremy Hunt – the new chancellor of the Exchequer – has frozen the annual taxable income threshold until April 2028 rather than having those bands adjust to the inflation rate. Consequently, the top tax rate of 45% would now be applicable on earnings starting from £125,140 instead of the current level of £150,000. The government has also raised the windfall tax rate on energy firms from 25% to 35% until March 2028. Hence, economists believe that aggressive rate hikes coupled with such steep tax increments could trigger a brutal recession – perhaps the most debilitating since the 1930s.

So blaming Brexit for the economic turmoil battering Britain is not an accurate depiction of the public sentiment regarding Brexit. And it is chiefly because the throes of the British economy are tricky to quantify under a defining rubric. 

True, the UK is struggling with labor shortages. But this issue is not entirely driven by Britain’s inability to replace workers from Europe, who left after Brexit. A substantial portion of workers are Britons, who left during the pandemic and never returned to the labor force. Many started their own businesses; some settled into the groove of remote work. 

Admittedly, Britain’s sluggish growth further worsened when investments diverted to other epicenters of commerce in Europe after Brexit. Britain is the only member of the Group of Seven (G-7) advanced economies with an economy smaller than its pre-pandemic level. Recently, India replaced Britain as the world’s fifth-largest economy; Paris supplanted London as Europe’s highest-valued stock market, according to data published by Bloomberg. But Britain’s productivity has been in decline since 2009; public funding has been in the dumps ever since austerity policies were implemented in the aftermath of the 2007 financial collapse. High-interest rates are visibly hurting the domestic outlook of the British economy. But it is mainly because people were so conditioned to the ultra-low interest rates over the past decade that their perspective is dovishly askew.

Nonetheless, the British government has the incentive to structure a trade mechanism with the EU. While the hardliner Conservative MPs who voted Sunak into the office would definitely resent (and veto) an intimate relationship – like that enjoyed by Switzerland and Norway – with the single market, a settlement of disputes revolving around the hybrid trade status of Northern Ireland is imperative to Britain’s economic revival. Yet, if the Labour Party manages to topple the Tories in the next general elections, a closer alignment with Brussels should be in the vanguard. Because while Britain’s economic debacle might not be entirely Brexit’s unraveling, the UK cannot resurface without improving relations with Europe in an openly hostile neighborhood with a bleak future.

Continue Reading

Economy

Global Recovery: Mobilize SME, Digitize Economies and Commercialize Exportability

Avatar photo

Published

on

Like an open book, all such deployment ideas are already available for last many years to allow immediate mobilization of any national small medium business economy. On the world stage, as a recovery, nations can digitize on fast tracks any selected sectors of economies and get ready to dance on global digital platforms. Nations can become examples on creating superior exportable goods and services while commercializing innovative ideas on the global stage. There are no secrets on how to achieve all this, but there are huge secrets why it is still not being done despite all the economical struggles?

How to capture opportunity losses; the biggest tragedy of any disconnected economic progress is watching the world ‘continuously’ advancing, consuming and growing, while nations ‘persistently’ despite extraordinary resources abandoned, talented citizenry only herded and left as spectators, trade associations, chambers and government agencies remain disconnected. Therefore, needed are precise world-class goals, as national symbols of unity, diversity and tolerance. So, what are the top missing rules to mobilize a nation on economic development fronts and what is stopping?

How to grow economic development? The fastest way is via right meaningful collaborations, alliances and brokering of deals, the fears of communications must be eliminated, the trepidations of opening global markets is just a mindset issue but not having bold open dialogue on fast track vibrant programs is a killer. Establish, define and articulate a long term agenda and drive like a formula car.

National mobilization of SME entrepreneurialism is a step by step methodology, if there is still no progress after a decade, which only raises serious questions about available skills to lead such a charge. Similarly, 50% mobilization of the qualified SME if allowed to dance on global digital platforms creates productivity, performance and profitability and therefore brings foreign exchange to improve national grassroots prosperity. If local economic development teams do not openly engage, adapt and utilize available blueprints and related mobilization expertise little or nothing will happen.

This is not about good or bad management; this is about core competency to move national economies towards pragmatic progress, particularly, when national mobilization of entrepreneurialism is already an entrepreneurial movement. This is far apart from the traditional bureaucratic procedural paperwork and especially in most cases not necessarily new funding dependent rather execution hungry and deployment starved. In most cases, the lack of knowledge on the global age demands and transformation of digital platforms, that leaves the SME behind. Study more why will population-rich-nations lead knowledge-rich-nations?

Matter of choice: Unless immediately exercised the required departmental tests and measure capabilities matching right mindset and speedy execution requirements, just piling up degree-holders and highly preferred staffing without precision is in reality what is destroying economic development.  So, choose economic progress or choose bad HR, the economic recovery has no time to waste. Explore new options on how to acquire mastery on such affairs. What level of efficiency is required to become a productive nation to cope with the consumption hungry world?

Furthermore, to play in global commerce, the global age speed of communication acts as a power of progress rate. There is no room for departmental responses to take days, weeks and months, but must face global age demands as a thriving 24x7x365 living world waiting for immediate response. What will it take to create a LIVE economic development recovery program of highly integrated departments? What levels of expertise are required to start deployments of such thinking? Better understand how other nations are doing, study a new world of G20 and national mobilization of small medium business economies

Capitalism is not failing; it is economic development. Unless mandated differently, the circus will go on. The skills gaps are not about lack of degrees; rather, global age experiences to understand how the pyramid of global consumption works, how to open new markets and how to produce real value to stand up to the global age of competitiveness. Skills are not about degrees, but now translated into global age skills as art of communication, presentation and global age level understanding of diversity, tolerance and entrepreneurial mindsets.

Why blind leading blinds; why high priced and fancy studies on SME always select ‘access to finance’ as the mother lode problem but they critically lack centricity of entrepreneurialism as such studies are academic driven. Hence the biggest disconnect, SME founders are not interested in loans but sales. Sales are more about value creation and globally accepted production standards to cope with global age competitiveness, where they do not require consultants rather developed skills to become better executives and better producers. They need help but not the loans, they need skills and knowledge and not the procedural and conflict resolution compliances. They know too well what to do but need to know how to do it better. Cookie cutter complex forms and rubber stamping will never do the trick, they need entrepreneurial dialogue, but not from academia but real entrepreneurs. They strive for meritocracy and not bureaucracies.

No, this is not an academic study but an entrepreneurial response to grand economic failures by the majority of nations on up-skilling SME and re-skilling manufacturers at national digitized levels. Furthermore, failing to understand the difference between the job seeker and job creator mindsets is the first step to get eliminated from any serious dialogue on the subject of SME economic recovery. Failing to articulate on the national mobilization of entrepreneurialism is the second step to get eliminated from any economic development activity as a whole. Study more on Google.

Proof is mandatory; when it takes 10 days to debate, strategies and finalize a national mobilization programs, and when it takes 100 days or organize digital platforms to deploy 10% to 50% selected SME on digital platforms and 1000 days to turn around small medium business economies so why still there is no show after last 5 or 10 years. If there is nothing wrong, why are the restless citizens marching in protest? Why are economies openly collapsing and what is stopping them to correct the course and how much it has to do with core competencies at the source of economic development? Is it possibly now a time for the first industrial revolution of the mind

Next key steps: What can current teams learn and what can they deploy within 90 days in any sector or any national economic realignment. How can they be framed as a customized national mobilization of entrepreneurialism model? How can they select and identify 5K to 50K SME and get them ready for a digital platform? How can they start intense programs to up skill and re-skill all layers of the economic departments to become a global age expert and start thinking of future applications and methodologies of economic growth? What does it take to acquire mastery on national mobilization of entrepreneurialism within a specific SME sector or across the nation? The rest is easy.  

Continue Reading

Publications

Latest

South Asia48 mins ago

Pakistan’s Governance and Security Challenges: The Way Ahead

Governance and security are the two key areas where states work and progress and lead towards the excellence. Pakistan as...

South Asia5 hours ago

How does ‘1997 CHT peace accord’ pave the pay of ‘Peace and prosperity’ in Bangladesh’s CHT?

To put an end to the brutal confrontations between the government troops and the tribes and hillsmen of the Chittagong...

Europe7 hours ago

Strong will to enhance bilateral relations between Serbia and Pakistan

Although the Republic of Serbia and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan are two sovereigns, independent states, with different cultures, religions,...

Tech News9 hours ago

Airports and harbours prepare to slash emissions as the greening of transport accelerates

By Michael Allan If the European Union is to meet its net-zero targets and become a climate-neutral economy by 2050, the...

World News11 hours ago

Americans are outraged: US has given about $54B of assistance to Ukraine. The EU only 16B

On a broadcast of the Fox Business Network’s “Kennedy,” Rep. Tom McClintock (R-CA) said he will not continue to support...

Energy News13 hours ago

Quiet panic: “We don’t know how oil market is going to function after a certain date”

“How will the market react to the attempts by politicians to rig supply and price?” asks “The Financial Times” in...

Religion14 hours ago

Pakistan On Its Way to Promote Interfaith Harmony

People from various cultural, racial, and religious backgrounds live in Pakistan.  96.28 percent of the country consists of a Muslim...

Trending