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Climate Action Can Help Kazakhstan Diversify its Economy Away from Oil

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Effective climate action to reduce carbon emissions could help Kazakhstan diversify its fossil fuel-dependent economy and open up new drivers of economic growth and prosperity for its people, says a pioneering World Bank report released today.

According to the Kazakhstan Country Climate and Development Report (CCDR), transitioning to a more sustainable economy can open up three potentially important areas of opportunity for Kazakhstan: (1) energy efficiency and clean energy production (2) extraction of minerals critical for the low carbon transition globally; and (3) greater participation in global trade value chains that are increasingly becoming ‘green.’

The cost of inaction would be significant. Climate shocks could shrink Kazakhstan’s economy by 1.6% by 2050, increase poverty by 3%, and decrease real wages by 2.1%. If the rest of the world decarbonizes and Kazakhstan does not, it could suffer a consistent long-term contraction in growth of 2-2.5% a year.

“In order to achieve its aspiration of becoming one of the world’s top economies by 2050, Kazakhstan needs a growth model that is less dependent on fossil fuels and more dependent on investment in new sectors and technologies over time,” said Anna Bjerde, World Bank Vice President for the Europe and Central Asia region. “We look forward to partnering with Kazakhstan on a green and people-centered transition to increase productivity and protect lives and livelihoods.”

The report calls for a deep decarbonization of the energy sector, which is responsible for over 80% of the country’s carbon emissions due to Kazakhstan’s near-complete dependence on fossil fuels, particularly coal for heating and power, and oil and gas for export revenues. It also emphasizes the need for a people-centered transition out of coal as well as climate-smart agriculture and careful management of water resources.

It identifies ways in which Kazakhstan can achieve its development objectives while transitioning to a greener, more resilient, and inclusive development pathway. It recommends policy reforms and investments in the following priority areas:

  • Power: Decarbonizing the energy system is key, as 90% of electricity is currently generated from coal and gas. Dramatically boosting electricity production from renewable sources, especially solar, wind, and energy storage are the main drivers of the energy transition combined with a planned phase-out of coal and improving energy efficiency across buildings, transport and industry.
  • Agriculture, water, rangelands: Rising temperatures and shifts in rainfall are exacerbating desertification and degradation of croplands and pastures. Climate-smart agricultural practices, such as modern greenhouses and more sustainable livestock practices, and measures to renew and modernize aging water supply systems will need to be part of an integrated strategy on adaptation.
  • People-centered transition out of coal: Coal regions, such as Pavlodar and Karaganda, and coal towns will face profound challenges in transforming to a very different socio-economic future. The transition out of coal will require measures to support a ‘just’ transition for affected workers and communities, to minimize the impact on jobs and income of poorer households by facilitating the development of new skills through vocational training; incentivizing entrepreneurship capabilities and adoption of greener technologies and practices by small and medium enterprises; and promoting inclusive finance and economic participation of women and youth.
  • Enabling environment: Decarbonization will require broader reforms to promote economic diversification and create an environment conducive to attracting investment. These would need to include reforms to promote competition, stimulate private sector participation, and build financial sector capacity for green finance.

Actions on these fronts are among major changes Kazakhstan needs to make to reverse course as the world’s 20th largest carbon emitter and to achieve its goals on a 15 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, from 1990 levels, and carbon neutrality by 2060.

“Kazakhstan’s shift toward a greener, less resource-dependent economy is vital and will require the mobilization of large amounts of private capital. For that to happen, the country will need to undertake a number of actions,” said Hela Cheikhrouhou, International Finance Corporation’s Vice President for the Middle East, Central Asia, Türkiye, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. “Reducing the state’s role in the economy, developing a comprehensive climate policy, greening the financial sector, and implementing climate-smart infrastructure projects will help unlock investment, while putting the country on a low emission and climate resilient path.”

The economic risks of inaction could be considerable for Kazakhstan. For example, demand for Kazakh oil and gas will decline over time should countries act to meet their climate targets, and demand for goods produced using fossil fuel-intensive energy are at risk from global climate policies, such as the European Union’s (EU) Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM). According to World Bank estimates, Kazakhstan could lose over $250 million a year in export earnings due to CBAM, with the iron and steel sector at most risk. These losses could rise to $1.5 billion in the future if CBAM is extended to include oil.

“Kazakhstan has established a solid framework for tackling climate change. However, the country will need to substantially strengthen its policy ambition and implement concrete actions on mitigation and adaptation. Robust programs in water resources, agriculture, and decarbonization of the energy sector could provide the foundations for a broader economic base to ensure prosperity for the people of Kazakhstan,” said Tatiana Proskuryakova, World Bank Regional Director for Central Asia.

The country’s vast steppes have globally competitive wind and solar power resources. Clean renewable power could not only become Kazakhstan’s dominant domestic energy source, but a significant export commodity as well.

Kazakhstan is also well-placed to take advantage of the growing global demand for critical minerals needed for low carbon technologies. It has the world’s largest developed reserves of zinc, tungsten and baryte; it is second globally for copper and fluorite and has 10% of the world reserves of iron ore. Kazakhstan is also the largest uranium producer and exporter in the world, with 25% of the world’s uranium reserves, positioning it well as a supplier of highly valued rare earth elements.

The country has already started producing electric vehicles (EVs), building on strengths and opportunities in the EV value chain. The climate transition offers increased opportunities to participate in higher value-added sectors by tapping into emerging green global value chains.

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Your brand needs to be on Twitter, here is why

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Most of us are familiar with doing business physically through stores, but with the introduction of the internet, there are new ways that businesses can showcase and sell their products or services. One of the most used avenues for that is social media which comes with many alternatives depending on the target market you are looking for. While some cater to specific age groups, others cater to multiple age groups. There’s a platform for everyone and more are still coming onto the scene.

Some popular social media platforms include Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, and Twitter. Our focus is on Twitter which is a text-based platform that allows sharing of information in real-time. Many brands are leveraging the power of Twitter to increase their brand awareness that potentially could result in sales. This can only happen by drawing in more followers either by yourself or using growth services. It is very easy to buy real Twitter followers via a growth service like Twesocial, and the choice is dependent on your budget and capacity. Some of the reasons why Twitter should be on your social media platform list will be shared in this article.

Talk to Consumers

Twitter is an interactive platform. Besides sharing content about your brand, you get to interact through their different engagement features such as retweets, likes, and comments. This creates a voice behind your brand that allows users to connect. Users want to associate with brands that sound human which means they speak and respond to their queries. Due to its real-time sharing features, you also get to share as much as you can with users that helps them get to know what your brand is all about and what value it can add to them. Being communicative on Twitter will also help you build trusting relationships with your audience and create a devoted community faster. To make this process even more efficient and less time-consuming, you can also buy Twitter followers for your brand account and create your own fanbase with ease.

Drive Traffic

There are options in your profile to add different things including a bio, profile picture, and link to your website. If your bio is attractive, customers may be drawn to investigate more through your website which you should include in the profile. This means it will drive traffic toward your site. Additionally, you may add a link in responses to questions asked by users on Twitter that can direct them to sections of your site that answer their questions. This gives your website more visibility and allows users to get much more information than they may be able to find on your Twitter page.

Research Your Sector

Fortunately, Twitter has so many other businesses that may be in your niche. To understand how your niche works, you may consider doing research through Twitter on the competition to help you understand the ins and outs and guide you on what works best both on and off social media. You do not have to learn it all on your own if you can leverage social media. You can learn some marketing tactics like hosting promotions, events, using hashtags, and using videos in your tweets to boost engagement. There is a lot of benefit to using Twitter to research the best ways to market your business and stand out from the competition.


You do not need to carry a whole marketing team with you to tweet. Since Twitter is available on mobile devices, you can take it anywhere you go including your trips, and still be able to post and engage with your customers at any time. This means you can respond to customer queries anytime and anywhere. This makes a brand more available to customers which can help it stand out in a time where people want immediate responses to their queries. Additionally, it is also free to join Twitter which makes it very affordable for any business especially those starting.


Twitter is a great platform once you learn how you can use it best to create awareness about your brand. It offers many features that if used right, can push your business to the next level. Since information is regularly changing on the platform, you can constantly update posts to get more engagement depending on your niche. The value you get includes convenience, a research resource, increasing website traffic, and engaging consumers.

If you want an affordable means to get the word out and interact with customers regularly, you should consider Twitter and all its features. Used correctly, the sky’s the limit for your business.

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How Twitter can help your business

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Twitter is easily one of the leading online platforms which encourages networking on a global scale. The number of users, more than 300 million, is staggering and this is not through sheer luck on their part. The virtual destination provides many advantages including a delectable smorgasbord of ideas for your business. Avoid it at your peril. Here, you can in very little time, easily and cost-effectively develop your brand, its awareness, relationships with customers, past, present, and future, especially if you decide to buy real Twitter followers. A tweet is a post, Twitter style. It will include content, copy and visuals are possible, which captivate your followers. Playstation, Starbucks, and Chanel are among the most popular brands, with a combined following of 42 million people. Brainstorm these ideas as relates to your business and upon implementation, you’ll enjoy their effects.

1. Brand Story
The story about your multi-faceted business should be diligently threaded across your content calendar. Whether your business is complex in its offering or not, your tweets must be diverse in their topic. Impress with accolades received, ooze humility sincerely with a question about a product color you’re grappling with, showcase team member achievements, or the fun on offer at the trade expo you’re attending. Your followers will be converted to loyal and long-term customers if you bear all, professionally. Because Twitter is such a good place to build a dedicated community, you should use it for your own good. The best way to ensure stable community growth is to buy Twitter followers for your account and see the immediate results for your business.

2. Generate Traffic
Social media content calendars often include a call to action, usefully encouraging a specific activity and how and where to do so, which very often will direct the individual to your website, blog, or perhaps an insightful video. Twitter generates traffic to your other important locales, which is one or more steps closer to a purchasing decision. This is what you want and lots of it!

3. Tweet from Anywhere
If your launch strategy includes activity on Twitter next Wednesday, while you’ll be basking in the sun on a beach in the Mediterranean, finally enjoying a long overdue vacation, execute it from your lounger, on your mobile device. You don’t need your larger devices to navigate Twitter and enjoy success. The ease with which you can communicate with followers easily categorizes this platform as one of enormous convenience.

4. Massive Reach
You have never had this number of people quite literally at your fingertips. Be crystal clear about who your target audience is. That your offering has a 250km radius limitation, is crucial information. If you have a limited quantity of an item, your content must reference this. You do not want to disappoint someone continents away, who thinks that what you offer is theirs for the taking when that is not the case. You have an opportunity for massive reach. Plan well and your bottom line will impress all stakeholders.

5. Research Competitors
Know what your competitors are doing. Follow their Twitter profiles and make note of what type of content tends to elicit the greatest level of engagement, good or bad. Follow some of their more active followers, which may lead you to more like-minded prospects. Keep a close eye on their influencer activity. All this research will provide a useful understanding and may inform some of your future choices. However, Twitter has over 350 million monthly users, so avoid focusing your efforts on trying to out-perform them. Focus instead on doing what you do, to a level of excellence and soon enough, your competitors will be following your lead.

Twitter must be included in your comprehensive marketing campaign. Its statistics are indicative of an organization that understands very well what it can do for you and it supports your success, with continual enhancements, all of which will continue to generate traffic, conveniently.

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F.B.I. Official’s Indictment Shows oligarch infiltrated the highest echelons of the government

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The search for kompromat on his opponent in a conflict with shareholders was highly regarded by Russian aluminum magnate Oleg Deripaska.

That is the conclusion that can be drawn from studying the F.B.I indictment against Charles McGonigal, who, according to the indictment, headed the counterintelligence unit at the bureau’s New York field office. McGonigal, 54, is a former high-ranking F.B.I. official, who was involved in counterintelligence work and investigations against Russian oligarchs.

The U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Southern District of New York accused him of circumventing sanctions and conspiracy to launder funds. Mr. Deripaska is mentioned in almost every paragraph of the 21-page document. The indictment, signed by prosecutor Damian Williams, says efforts to remove Deripaska from the U.S. sanctions list were made by McGonigal in 2019. The payment is $25,000 a month through a shell firm.

Mr. Deripaska, the aluminum magnate, has been on the radar of U.S. authorities for years and is still under sanctions. The Treasury Department said he had ties to organized crime.

Rebecca Davis O’Brien covers law enforcement and courts in New York wrote: For years, Mr. Deripaska, 55, has employed a small army of lobbyists, lawyers, consultants and fixers to protect his business and personal interests and smooth his access to Western countries.

For 2021, the New York federal prosecutor’s office indicted a number of these individuals for helping to circumvent sanctions.

The name of the person against whom the former F.B.I. agent, obviously not without the help of his colleagues, was supposed to collect sensitive information is not disclosed. In the document, he appears under the code name Oligarch-2. However, behind this wording, it could be guessed Vladimir Potanin, who is an opponent of Mr. Deripaska in the long-running shareholder dispute at Norilsk Nickel.

Mr. Deripaska tried to find dirty evidence on his competitor, possibly lobbying also for the inclusion of his competitor’s companies on sanctions lists in order to weaken his position in the corporation, which they both own roughly equal shares of.

It is not clear from the indictment how Mr. McGonigal got onto Mr. Deripaska’s radar.

According to the indictment against Mr. McGonigal, while he was still working for the bureau in 2018, Sergey Shestakov – a former Soviet and Russian diplomat and translator who was also charged in the case – introduced Mr. McGonigal by email to an employee of Mr. Deripaska. That person was identified in the charges as Agent-1 and described as a former Soviet and Russian Federation diplomat.

In 2017, the Associated Press published an article alleging that Mr. Deripaska paid $10 million to American lobbyist Paul Manafort in 2007-2009 to promote his interests in the United States. Almost at the same time, NBC cover a story about a $60 million loan that Deripaska’s structures allegedly gave to Manafort-affiliated companies.

Mr. Deripaska got rich, in the 1990s, when there was a struggle for control of the largest subsoil resources of the Soviet Union and gained a reputation as a ruthless man with a bad reputation.

He also built relationships with politicians and other key figures in countries in the West, especially in Britain, Europe, and the United States, including hosting parties at the World Economic Forum in Davos.

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