It is almost the 7th month since the Russian Military Operation has begun in Ukraine. Despite outright condemnations and harsh sanctions on Russia, Kremlin’s resistance is unprecedented in the face of any foreign pressure. There are chiefly two reasons for the successful Russian assault: the supremacy of strategy of geo-energy and the rationale they maintain for expansion, Moscow believes, is justified and legitimate. However, it poses a question mark to Russian strategic behavior due to its medieval style land-grab that has not ceased to exist even in the 21st century. It leaves ambivalence in academic and foreign policy circles that why Russia behaves the way it behave. What rallies Moscow for expansions, and what makes Russia to have strategic preferences that are incompatible and irreconcilable from that of the West?
The American Political Scientist John Mearsheimer claims that the Russian expansion is the result of NATO enlargement towards the east. If it is so, why Russia expanded when NATO was not established? The NATO encirclement is rather the triggering event. Yet this proposition does not answer to understand Russian strategic preferences. Understanding Russian Strategic behavior, Russian Strategic Culture, and Russian Political Conservatism help reduce the uncertainties.
History, geography, political culture and the socialization of the state form its strategic culture. And strategic culture shapes strategic preferences. Therefore, the interaction and behavior of a state are largely contingent on the nature of the socialization of the state. Consequently, states’ socialization differs, causing diversification in foreign policy choices in a particular foreign policy scenario. Put simply, a middle-class teenager will react toward hamburgers differently as compared to a millionaire’s child due to their respective socialization and socioeconomic conditions.
Russian strategic culture is no exception to that. Moscow grew seeing several invasions from its western border by western ambitious leaders Such as Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler. Similarly, centuries before that Mongols invaded Russia and established Golden Horde. Let’s not count Crimean War and Russo-Turkish wars. That said, NATO enlargement will inevitably cause high alert in Kremlin due to its war-torn history. President Putin in his article On the Historical Unity of Russians and Ukrainians writes that the NATO enlargement is the chain of 20th-century invasions of Russia. Therefore, Moscow understands Eastern Europe as its ‘sphere of influence to avert any invasion on mainland Russia and cannot tolerate any sort of social engineering miserable to Russian interests.
Russia also has been a victim of Western deception. In 1939, Nazi Germany signed the German-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact with the Soviet Union. The rationale behind this was that Adolf Hitler knew he could not fight on two fronts simultaneously. It is better to attack Russia just after conquering France. Time and space favored Germany. Having conquered France, Hitler attacked the Soviet Union breaking the pact. A similar instance can find in the demise of the USSSR where it was declared that the West would not expand NATO an inch. However, Poland, the Hungry and Czech Republic were incorporated into the transatlantic alliance. Amid these uncertainties, how can Russia believe that Ukraine incorporated in the trans-Atlantic alliance would not open the way for the Western assaults on mainland Russia from the chicken neck of Moscow: the North European Plan? Russian security issues are therefore legitimate since the West is no more credible and the international structure which sets directions for our nation-states is anarchic that permits war and incentivizes self-help
Having considered Russia’s security concerns, it is also indispensable to note that from the epoch of Golden Horde and untill the demise of the Soviet Union, Kremlin played a decisive role in European politics. President Medvedev stated in 2008 that the end of the Cold War allowed for the establishment of equal cooperation between Russia, the European Union and North America as three branches of European civilization.
On the contrary, the Western Capitals saw an opportunity to turn this trend on the eve of the Soviet demise. Since then, Russia has been isolated from regional affairs. It is something atypical and does not comply with Russian prestige and the essence of politics. Russians believe that they saved Europe from the wrath of Mongols, Hitler and Napoleon. They gave a tough time to Ottomans and run shoulder to shoulder with the US during Cold War when all European powers were accumulating their ruins. Moscow also maintains that they are European by identity and are formidable military power which makes them to play an active role in continental affairs. Thus, the more the West isolates Russia, the harder the reaction and expansion will appear.
As part of Russian Political conservatism, it does not refer to forestalling change rather it is concerned with the problems emerging from the change. Russian conservatism is also a byproduct of Russian Strategic culture. However, it has taken a firm hold in Russian politics since President Putin has come to power, and is, therefore, pertinent to emphasize it.
Historically, the roots of conservatism emerged in Russia in the face of westernization. The process strengthened with the advent of the industrial revolution and later the free market economy. It led Russian thinkers namely Slavophiles to retrace the development of Russia in early Russian history that was based on traditions, values and orthodoxy.
Mikhail Suslov argues that Russian conservatism is based on anti-westernization, regeneration of the nation following its traditional paths of development and emphasis on traditional values. He further maintains that Russian conservatism emerged in the first place due to ‘counter-hegemonic reactions’ to Moscow by the west since Kremlin holds Messianic discourse in its long and heroic history in European affairs. It led to the idea of Russian expansion which is also deeply entrenched in the religious discourse of Russian Orthodoxy widely known as Katechon or retainer. The concept refers to the expansion of Russian land to protect Christians from anti-Christ.
In sum, it must be clear that an authoritarian leader does not run the Kremlin, rather Kremlin runs its leaders. The action Putin is exercising in Ukraine is a re-exercise of what had been exercised by Golden Horde, Russian Tsardom, the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. It is not the leader who determines the policy. It is Russian Socialization that determines the policy and will continue to do so- and this trend will also continue in the foreseeable future in the 21st century. Thus, to resolve the unresolved plight of the Ukrainian crisis, it is pertinent that West must reassess its policy and make an inclusive setup keeping in great consideration Russian Strategic Behavior and Political Conservatism.
The Alliance of Downtrodden Empires
There are many commonalities and differences, to the point of contradiction, in the Russian, Iranian, and Turkish political and economic positions, calculations, and priorities. Nevertheless, Moscow, Tehran, and Ankara maintain an alliance or, at least, close coordination that includes conflict files, that all or some of which are involved in different arenas.
To explicate this, it is possible to go back to the modern history of the three states, and to the fall of their empires. The empires that had their center in geography continued for long periods of time with space for their expansion and contraction and for their wars and the alteration of the territorial and water borders between them.
Russia witnessed the fall of two empires that ruled and sometimes fused their surroundings, and they played a central role in international relations for centuries. From the Russian Empire, which expanded in Europe and Central Asia and extended from the maritime borders in the east to with Japan to the Polish lands in the west which collapsed during World War I, to the Soviet Union, which ruled from Moscow an empire similar to the one that its leaders had brought down before its power increased after World War II to include Europe the entire East. The fall of the Union in the early nineties was a humiliation for the Russians and bitterness for an imperialist ambition that became unable to achieve its aspirations. In that humiliation and the bitterness that followed and the difficulty of being satisfied with the nation-state borders, Putinism was formed, and its rise attempted to marry Russian nationalism, Tsarist Orthodoxy, and Stalinism, based on violent suppression of the independence rebellion (Chechnya). Direct military intervention in the periphery (Georgia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan), leading to two comprehensive wars in Syria to declare a return by force to the international arena, and a denial of the legitimacy of the existence of an entity in Ukraine under the pretext of an American and Western threat to national security.
Iran, for its part, has not adapted to its national borders since it was drawn after the fall of Qajar rule and the rise of Reza Pahlavi to power after the First World War. The imperial intransigence of the new Shah and then of his son Muhammad, with historical arguments or a connection to a Persian bond, brought down Iranian relations with Afghanistan, Iraq and Bahrain ambiguities and tensions that remained until 1979. Then the Khomeinist “exporting revolution” ideology after the overthrow of the Shah, and the erupting Iran-Iraq war that followed in the eighties, transformed the Iranian ambition into a basis for forming alliances and loyalty in the Shiite communities in nearby states. Relying on previous attempts to influence the states were minorities of the Persian League and the historical Persian influence. Iran’s political and strategic expansion was enshrined after the fall of the Taliban in Afghanistan and Saddam Hussein regimes in Iraq. Tehran took advantage of the American occupation and the chaos it created to extend its influence to the west and complete a strategic arc that passes through Baghdad and Damascus, which is ruled by its ally Assad, and then reaches Beirut, where Hezbollah is founded and supported by Iran. Through it, it was able to engage directly with the Israelis, in order to raise a political-ideological position that provides popularity, and as a response to Tel Aviv’s threat to its nuclear program. Furthermore, Tehran provided finance and arms for Palestinian forces on one hand and Yemeni forces on the other, placing it at the heart of the conflict in Palestine and on the edge of the Red Sea overlooking vital navigation that affects the global economy.
As for Turkey, despite retreating from emerging ‘national’ borders and strict neutrality imposed by Atatürk through the establishment of the republic after the First World War and the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. Despite a subsequent political and cultural push towards Europe and the joining of the NATO after World War II, it remained the result of its nationalist discourse. As a result of the massacres that accompanied the fall of the Ottomans, its relations with its surroundings are tense. Of course, the matter applies to Soviet and then independent Armenia, to Greece and then Cyprus, where it intervened militarily in 1974, and it applies to Syria and Iraq, where the border problems and the depth of the Kurdish question, represent its most prominent concerns. Morevore, it relates to some regions of Central Asia where the geographical contact and historical frictions between empires, and where there are Turkish-speaking national minorities. To all of that in 2002 was added a very important element linked to the Islamic identity that Erdogan and his party had elevated. He returned Turkish priorities to an eastern and southern orientation and made Ankara invest in the remnants of the Ottoman League to build an Arab presence (in cooperation with Qatar), then it overtook that about years ago. Building an African economic presence and playing intermediary roles between countries and regional hubs to demonstrate influence beyond the borders of what was a sultanate for centuries.
Undoubtedly, the issue of warm waters, the control of straits, and sea lanes is a priority for the three parties, both in past and present, for economic and geopolitical reasons. In turn, this explains another aspect of the current alliance (and competition) between them.
The Black Sea and within it the ‘Sea of Azov’ is Russia’s only water port that can be permanently relied upon economically and militarily, as it reaches through the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles to the Mediterranean ‘where Moscow’s only base is in Syria’. Obviously this is because of the impossibility of the Russians using their northern, eastern and northwestern seas due to the freezing of its waters for long months. This fact, of course, puts them in direct contact with Turkey, their partner in the maritime domain, and their obligatory waterway to the world. The latter, in turn, seeks to expand its exceptional water presence and establish areas of influence, whether in the Black Sea between Russia and Ukraine, in the Aegean Mediterranean Sea facing Greece, or in the Libyan West to reach the southern Mediterranean shore and energy fields.
When it comes to the Iranian case, the same water priority takes on another dimension, related to the control of the straits in addition to access to the Mediterranean. From the Strait of Hormuz, the oil artery separating the Indian Ocean from the Gulf, to Bab al-Mandab ‘the entrance to the Red Sea connects to the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean’ to Syria, Lebanon, and their Mediterranean ports. Tehran is seeking to impose its control and presence through its armed forces or the forces of its allies ‘the Houthis, the Syrian regime and the Lebanese Hezbollah’.
As a consequence, the maritime water issue, as the overlapping areas of geographical influence, and the recent past, which did not go beyond the complex and confusing present with its consequences during the transition from the empire to the nation-state, bring the Russians, Iranians and Turks together, despite the distinctions and different aspirations.
If we add to all the above, hostile discourses against Western hegemony in the capitals of the three states, an intertwining in their roles and occupations in Syria for years, their economic cooperation in the face of old American and European sanctions on Iran and the latest ones on Russia, examining the characteristics of Turkish mediation between Kyiv and Moscow, monitoring the Russian, Iranian and Turkish cooperation projects with China and India, we will see the depth of the mutual need for coordination between the heirs of the ‘Downtrodden Empires’. This common needs seem sufficient so far to curb the antagonism between Ankara on the one hand and Moscow and Tehran on the other hand in the Azerbaijani-Armenian conflict. It also gives the impression of satisfactory to overcome the difficulties between them in the Syrian arena, where they share the Astana path despite their contradictory positions and locations. Additionally, it puts to limit the repercussions of the clash between Russia ‘through ‘Wagner’ mercenaries; and Turkey ‘through drones and field experts’ in Libya. Finally, it seems sufficient to perpetuate Russia’s request to Turkey to mediate in the Ukrainian war, despite Ankara selling Kyiv the famous ‘Bayraktar’ drones with which the Ukrainians hunt Putin’s tanks crawling on the ruins of their cities.
The bottom line is, situations are not likely to change in the near future, even if the relationship of the three states or one of them changes with the West, given that diversification of options, taking advantage of the position, role, contradictions, and blackmailing the opposing parties have become a feature of international politics today. There are no signs that this needs to be changed.
Russia responds to America’s plan to win WW III
The U.S. Government no longer designs nuclear weapons to prevent WW III, but instead to win WW III.
Whereas both the Soviet Union and the United States used to design their strategy and weapons so as to prevent a Third World War so that neither side would win but both sides (and much of the world) would be destroyed as thousands of nuclear warheads would suddenly be exploding during a nuclear war which would be completed within around an hour or so, the U.S. Government has gradually shifted away from such a “M.A.D.” or “mutually assured destruction” meta-strategy, and been replacing it with the “Nuclear Primacy” U.S. meta-strategy, in which Russia will be totally destroyed but the U.S. will emerge afterward as being sufficiently strong so as to hold unchallengeable sway over the entire planet (which hegemony has been the actual goal of the U.S. Government ever since 25 July 1945).
On 3 May 2017, I headlined “America’s Top Scientists Confirm: U.S. Goal Now Is to Conquer Russia”, and linked to a report that had recently been issued by the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, about “revolutionary new technologies that will vastly increase the targeting capability of the US ballistic missile arsenal. This increase in capability is astonishing — boosting the overall killing power of existing US ballistic missile forces by a factor of roughly three — and it creates exactly what one would expect to see, if a nuclear-armed state were planning to have the capacity to fight and win a nuclear war by disarming enemies with a surprise first strike.” I pointed out there that this new technology, called the “super-fuse”, was exactly in accord with the replacement of M.A.D. by Nuclear Primacy. After all, though the proponents of “Nuclear Primacy” didn’t say that this phrase related ONLY to America’s “Primacy” in a U.S.-v.-Russia nuclear war, the context always was clear that this was the intention, and that the phrase meant the exact opposite of (and strongly opposed) any conceivable nuclear “primacy” for Russia. So, “Nuclear Primacy” — a phrase that was introduced in 2006 in the most prestigious scholarly journals, and subsequently adhered-to by all U.S. foreign policies though never explicitly stated (and never publicly advocated) by the U.S. Government — is, in actuality, the new U.S. meta-strategy, the one that now exists.
Other new U.S. military technologies also were discussed in that Bulletin of Atomic Scientists article: for example: “Because of improvements in the killing power of US submarine-launched ballistic missiles, those submarines now patrol with more than three times the number of warheads needed to destroy the entire fleet of Russian land-based missiles in their silos.” Of course, if this is true, then Russians were in a terrifying situation, at least as recently as 2017.
Russia’s response to this challenge had actually started even earlier, by no later than U.S. President Barack Obama’s having grabbed control over the Government of Ukraine in February 2014. (And in this video is shown that video’s full smoking gun of his coup, and here is the transcript and explanation of that crucial smoking gun.) Ukraine is the country that has the nearest foreign border to The Kremlin in Moscow — only 353 miles from Moscow, a mere five minutes of missile-flight-time, away, from the Ukrainian city of Sumy. Ukraine’s having the border with the closest proximity to Russia’s central command (The Kremlin) is the main reason why Obama grabbed it (in accord with his Nuclear-Primacy policies).
Compare that 353 miles to the 1,131 miles from Washington DC that Cuba is and that terrified JFK so much during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis as to have made him willing to launch nuclear war against the Soviet Union if Khrushchev wouldn’t remove the missile sites that the Soviet Union was attempting to build in Cuba. Cuba is over three times farther away from DC than Ukraine is from The Kremlin, and the missiles at that time were far slower than they are today, but when America’s NATO finally rejected, on 7 January 2022, Russia’s demand that Ukraine NEVER be allowed to join NATO, what alternative did Russia have left, other than to reverse Obama’s coup of Ukraine and to do it as soon as possible?
In preparation for Russia’s “Special Military Operation,” Russia has been introducing new weapons systems that are specifically designed to prevent “Nuclear Primacy.” Among the main ones is the Sarmat ICBM, which is vastly the world’s most terrifying weapon, because it will be virtually impossible to detect and track, carrying dozens of precision-targeted huge nuclear bombs, unstoppable by any existing technology, and having a range of 18,000 kilometers or over 11,000 miles, which would cover the entire U.S. empire. Just a few Sarmats could destroy the entire U.S. empire, all of the U.S. and its vassal-nations (self-described as being ‘democracies’ and ‘independent nations’ — neither of which is true).
A Princeton University group of scholars has produced their estimate of how a WW III would proceed, which they label as “Plan A”, and their video-summary of it was posted to youtube on 6 September 2019. As-of now, it has had nearly 4 million views, and five thousand viewer-comments. It assumes that the war would proceed in gradual steps of mutual escalation and ignores that the U.S. regime no longer is following the M.A.D. meta-strategy — that the U.S. regime has replaced M.A.D. by their Nuclear Primacy meta-strategy. Consequently, the Princeton estimates appear to be highly unrealistic, and not, at all, to be describing the type of unprecedentedly brief war that a WW III in our era would entail. A WW III in our time would be predicated upon being initiated in a blitz-nuclear attack by the United States, such as a war that is driven by the Nuclear Primacy meta-strategy would be done: Nuclear Primacy means a war to decapitate Russia’s central command in its first strike and within a mere 10 minutes or (if from Ukraine) even less from that blitz-launch. How would a decapitated Russia be able to retaliate, at all? Only by means of a “dead hand” system, which would automatically launch whatever would survive of its retaliatory capacities after that first, decapitating, nuclear-blitz, attack. The Sarmat would be a part of that, unless the U.S. regime starts WW III before the Sarmats become emplaced. In the meantime, Russia’s main concern will be to maintain a current dead-hand capability so as to make certain that at least the U.S. and its main vassal-nations will be eliminated in the event that the Nuclear Primacy meta-strategy becomes launched before Russia’s dead-hand system becomes completely implemented.
The way that a WW III would most likely start has been shaped by the U.S. regime’s objective of not being blamed for the war despite being the first side to nuclearize it; and this objective requires that Russia must have initiated the conventional phase of the war that will have led up to that nuclear phase. For example: if Russia fails to achieve its objective of capturing and holding enough of Ukraine so as to increase that 353 miles to, say, 1,000 miles (or whatever would be their required minimum), then the U.S. might send forces to Ukraine in order to prevent Russia from achieving that objective; and, if Russia then engages U.S. forces in direct combat, the U.S. might use that as their excuse to invade Russia, and, at some stage in that invasion, very suddenly, to blitz-nuclear attack The Kremlin, on the excuse (of course) that “the Russian regime doesn’t respond to anything but military force.” Then, the survivors of WW III will be able to be propagandized sufficiently to cast the blame for WW III onto Russia, and this will help to ease the U.S. regime’s successful take-over of the entire world (or what remains of it).
Already, it is a great propaganda-success on the part of America’s regime, that though they started the war in Ukraine by grabbing Ukraine in February 2014, Russia has gotten the blame for this war, when responding to that coup (which had started this war) eight years later, on 24 February 2022, with their “Special Military Operation.” In fact, most people now might think that Ukrainians always hated Russia’s Government and loved America’s Government, but even Western-sponsored polls of Ukrainians showed consistently that prior to Obama’s coup there, the vast majority of Ukrainians saw Russia as their friend; and America, NATO, and the EU, as their enemy; but that this reversed almost immediately, after the U.S. Government took over Ukraine, in 2014. In the propaganda-war, it’s almost as-if Russia hasn’t even entered the contest, at all.
The Global South be united to end the hegemonic evils of the West
Let me start writing this piece with my statement that “I hate all wars, and particularly the ongoing war in Ukraine because this is the sibling’s killings between the two great East Slavic nations”. Yet, I admit that I must support Russia as a major power of the world today and in the future for the sake of the world equilibrium and global multilateralism. Moreover, this war dragging on for seven months in Ukraine was manipulated to break out simply by the Anglo-American axis since they had aroused Russia to open the first shot.
There is no question that today’s world or a globalized world has been influenced and even transformed tremendously by the West or more precisely by Europe which started global expansion with advanced guns, deadly drugs and all sorts of ideas. For obvious reasons, they conquered the world step by step and then laid down the rules, norms and codes for all diverse nations and cultures. For good or bad, all the world today can communicate easily in English and through the technologies initiated from Europe. Focused on the practice of international relations and foreign affairs where sovereign states interact with each other, all of them have accepted the permanent embassies, international laws, summit conferences and the doctrine of balance of power, all of whom had been practiced in Europe for centuries before they reached out beyond.
However, it is by no means that the West or the ruling powers like the United States and its core allies, no matter where they are, e.g. in the West or in the East like Australia, have legal rights to dictate other countries to obey against their own interests. Moreover, it is notorious that the United States and Britain have for many times made laws and rules and then changed or break them for the sake of their own interests or in the name of the common values. This is the fundamental reason that the Anglo-American elite policy makers have been so arrogant and ignorant to push forward the unilateral world order. One salient case is that the AUKUS pact is an outrageous violation of international consensus of non-proliferation of the nuclear weapons and the related materials.
It is true that the West has been obsessed with the victory during the Cold War in which the former Soviet Union came to the end unexpectedly. For sure, there have been ample arguments over the core roots of a nuclear superpower’s collapse so rapidly and also so peacefully. This article opines that what made the Soviet Union fail primarily due to its domestic leadership and overstretched foreign policy rather than the superiority of the West over the Soviet Union. Particularly the former Soviet Union had a very limited diplomatic depth to maneuver to compete with the West. For example, India and the majority of the developing countries were too weak and too dependent on the West in overall items such as FDI, technologies and even manufactured goods. Then China was not only hostile towards the Soviet Union but also was eager to receive all core assistances from the West including Japan and the four little tigers in East Asia.
However, after three decades since the end of the Cold War, there is a new paradigm with new centers of power and new alliances emerging, not centered in the West, and that the nations of the Global South will not be bludgeoned into submission by the West. Given this, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization is a good case to show that radical transformation of the entire architecture of international relations has accelerated and then the development of a multipolar and more democratic and fair world order has entered its active phase. Accordingly, the SCO summit reaffirmed the “fact that the movement toward a multipolar world is the main strategic development line in global politics.” The nations that belong to the SCO are those that firmly believe that the modern world must be polycentric and based on the generally recognized norms of international law and the principles of equal and indivisible security with the central coordinating role of the United Nations and the UN Charter. As President Putin put it at the Samarkand Summit that the resistance to the move toward a multipolar world comes from those nations that are “trying to preserve their dominant role in international affairs and to control everything”—in Latin America, Europe, Asia and Africa. The policies of these “global leaders” may have worked for a while, “but this cannot continue forever; it is impossible.”
Historically, the ruling power like the Anglo-American axis have tried to strengthen their position by imposing illegitimate sanctions and exerting pressure in all areas, including many innocent countries which have been caused poor and stagnant. Consider this, Russia along with the majority of the South need to further promote the unifying interstate agenda, contribute to the search for effective responses to the numerous challenges and threats of our time and help settle acute regional conflicts. Once again, taking the SCO as the case, it has come of the age over the past two decades. There is no question that the SCO is now the largest regional cooperation organization in the world. Over half of the world’s population lives in its member states, accounting for about 25% of the global GDP—and those states have a powerful intellectual and technological potential and a considerable part of the global natural resources. In addition, it is scheduled that the Foreign Ministers of Russia, China, and India have numerous side meetings with the representatives from other member states of BRICS, the Community of Latin America and Caribbean States (CELAC) and the Troika of the GCC during the ongoing UNGA general debate.
In contrast, the United States and Britain have worked desperately to isolate Russia while continuing the weapons flow to Ukraine as they want to fight Russia until the last Ukrainian soldier. To that end, the U.S.-led West will continue to do what it has been doing without thinking of the possibility of making peace between the two Slavic nations. In the eyes of the Anglo-American elites, other nations are simply the pawns in the geopolitical game. Yet, that is not enough since the Western media have been hysteric to attack any person and particularly leading figures whom bravely challenge the West politically, socially, culturally and ideologically. As it is well noted that the Western media cover the Ukrainian war on a daily base while creating a reverse Pygmalion Effect that “aims to produce the worst outcome for Putin who has been described “mentally ill and a psychopath since childhood, lacking normal empathy.” Accordingly, “Putin will be dead in two years as he suffers from ‘several grave diseases.” What a childish game in the democratic and liberal West!
Since last June when the NATO summit, the U.S.-led Western alliance has clearly defined Russia as “the biggest and most direct threat to the security of the Alliance and to peace and stability in the Euro-Atlantic region… because it aims to destabilize the countries of our east and south, in the far north.” Meanwhile, it is also noted that the NATO is not only looking at China as an honorable competitor but as a source of threat no less dangerous than Russia. It is true that it does not see China as a direct military threat to the alliance, as is the case with Russia, but it sees, at the same time, that ‘the declared ambitions of China, and its adoption of a wide range of political, economic and military tools to increase its global presence and demonstrate strength, and its use of malicious methods it aims to control key technological and industrial sectors, critical infrastructure, strategic materials, and supply chains, and use its economic influence to create strategic dependencies and enhance its influence, etc., which constitute a direct threat to the interests, security, and values of the Alliance. What is more arrogant and ignorant statement is that “the deepening of the strategic partnership between China and Russia is incompatible with the West’s values and interests,’ and therefore should be confronted with due firmness.” Given this mentality and hysteria among the Anglo-American elite, it is understandable that the West opines that this is the historic opportunity for the West to humble Russia and then to dictate China to follow their will like one century ago.
Today China and Russia are not only nuclear powers and have substantial strategic assets, but also responsible and rational UNSC members. To the peace and prosperity for all nations, they will work along with the Global South to recreate a multilateral world order according to international laws and norms on which the UN Charter is based. Both China and Russia seek no hegemony in the world or the region, yet they have strong will and sufficient strength to end any hegemonic order of the West.
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