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The solidarity of the Arab defense ministries with China

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After my study on the ground, the real situations of the Chinese Judaizers from Kaifeng Province in China, I have exposed to many risks, such as attacking me in the “Chabad House of Beijing for the Jewish prayers”. But, after my official complaint, I have received an official Israeli letter of apology addressed to me after the attack on me in the Chinese capital, “Beijing”, to prevent me from studying the file of Judaization and conscription for the Chinese in the Israel Defense Forces… As an important document that I leave to the Arabs and to the Arab military and defense institutions in the face of Israel.

  The danger of my practical study of the conditions of the Judaizers of the Chinese Kaifeng region, and their tracking by Israel after the process of Judaizing them, leading to their transfer to Tel Aviv, their recruitment into the Israel Defense Forces, and then playing them with the Chinese government and its military, defense and security authorities. And as a practical and even global academic experience – as the first Egyptian and international academy to be allowed by the Chinese to study the conditions of the Chinese Kaifeng Judaists in practice – so, I decided to transfer my experience to the military, defense and international academic research community, documented with all the evidence and proofs that prove everything I studied and experienced on the ground, to the stage of following me by the Israeli Mossad intelligence service, and the exposure to me, up to the stage of my protest and the presentation of the Israeli embassy in Beijing to an official apology addressed to me, after a number of Jewish and Israeli worshipers attempted to attack me inside the “Chabad House of Beijing”, to prevent me from studying the file of Judaization of the Chinese by Israel and its organizations operating in China, especially “Shavei Israel Organization”, and its director, “Michael Freund” who is constantly in China, “Stand With Us and Support Us” organizations, and other such organizations, claiming that they were trying to discover the roots of the Jews in the world, and then invited them to Tel Aviv, and recruited a number of their youth, such as the youth of the Chinese Kaifeng region, into the Israeli Defense Forces, as well as the role of a number of Jewish and Israeli Zionist organizations, permanently residing in China.                                                              

After studying this file on the conversion and recruitment of the Chinese in the IDF, and the intimidation and intimidation that happened to me after that, my whole life changed completely from just an ordinary girl, to a brilliant international academic, after whom the world came to understand the dimensions of her case, from studying the file of Kaifeng Jews and their recruitment in the Israeli Defense Army, and the dramatic changes that occurred in my entire life, and Israeli and American intelligence pressures, to force me to overlook several points, and not to shed light on them, so that neither the Arabs nor their ministries of defense and defense, military, intelligence and security institutions would understand all the circumstances of my case with evidence, and the reasons for those pressures  Which I suffer from, to force me to muzzle and close my mouth, and not to be exposed to the pictures and recruitment points of the Chinese Judaizers from the Chinese Kaifeng region in the Israel Defense Forces, to the point of spreading madness, so that no one understands my case with them specifically, and so that no one, Egyptian, Arab and international, listens to me, to understand well the circumstances of the case and what Israel and its Zionist organizations are doing in China, in terms of recruiting Chinese, especially young people from the Chinese Kaifeng region, then transferring them to Tel Aviv, training and enrolling them  The Israeli Ministry of Defense, to use them in the future to fight the Arabs and our sons in the Gaza Strip in Palestine.                    

  The Comments came to me from the whole world on my book, about: “Chinese Judaizers from the Chinese Kaifeng Province in the Israel Defense Forces”… of which I bought copies of major American and international universities, led by Harvard University, which is ranked number one around the world, as well as universities, such as: (New York, Washington, Stanford, Michigan, Pennsylvania, Ohio) Universities, and others. Therefore, I decided to devote myself completely in the coming period to developing my book on the file of conversion and recruitment of the Chinese into the IDF, God willing, because the whole world asked about it in an unprecedented manner internationally to understand the analyzes of the future, and what can be relied upon to confront the transgressions of the Israeli military establishment in the face of China, the Arabs and the people of the Gaza Strip at Palestinian.             

I have decided to develop my book referred to about the Chinese Kaifeng Judaists, so that I focus on future plans, and how the Chinese and Arab defense ministries and military institutions are uniting together to demand the expulsion of the Chinese Judaizers in the Israel Defense Forces, along with 6,000 other mercenaries recruited in the Israeli army, due to the illegality of this internationally.  According to the Geneva Conventions relating to treaties on prisoners of war and prisoners of war in 1977.  For those reasons mentioned, Israel and its intelligence services are waging a fierce war against me, for my demand of the Chinese Ministry of Defense to address its Israeli counterpart to expel the Judaizers of the Chinese Kaifeng region from the IDF, due to the danger of this to the future of Sino-Arab relations.                                           

The most dangerous thing to me, and what I have already warned the Chinese about, is that the Chinese Judaizers in the Israel Defense Forces will be a real cause of the crisis in the future Chinese-Arab relations, due to the Israeli army pushing them to the forefront of the fighting fronts… Therefore, the Arabs and peoples will wonder, about:                                

With whom do we fight? Are we fighting Israel or China?

In addition, Israel will actually sacrifice foreign mercenaries, led by the Chinese Judaizers from the Chinese Kaifeng region, on the front lines of the fighting fronts, especially in the (Gaza Strip, the Syrian Golan Heights and southern Lebanon), and others.                                          

Hence, I make an important international appeal, and consider that it has become an obligation on all international human rights organizations (by inviting them from all countries whose nationality holders serve in the ranks of the Israeli military establishment and the Israel Defense Forces, to hasten to withdraw them after the Israeli army registered horrific human rights violations and war massacres in the attacks it launched on the Gaza Strip in Palestine), given the possibility that these mercenary soldiers in the Israel Defense Forces are “Israeli military exploitation of them to commit war crimes”.                                          

The Egyptian researcher discovered, “The presence of many mercenaries, holding nationalities of other countries, including China, who “volunteer” for military service as foreign mercenaries – international criminals – in the ranks of the Israeli army, within the Israeli special forces, which participated in the killing of Palestinian civilians.  especially in the Gaza Strip”.  Bearing in mind, that there is a program in Israel that allows any Jewish person “not necessarily Israeli” to serve in the IDF. However, the Egyptian researcher, after an extensive analytical reading of the general Israeli military scene in this regard, concluded that: “there are mainly non-Jewish mercenaries serving in the IDF, despite this being internationally criminalized, due to the illegality of using foreign mercenaries in any international military institution”. Perhaps the thing that made me laugh a lot was Israel and the United States of America’s demand for Turkish President “Erdogan” to expel the Syrian mercenaries in the Turkish Defense Army, in order to exploit and sacrifice them quickly at the forefront of the fighting and war fronts in Syria, Libya, and others. This confirms the principle of “double standards held by Israel and America with regard to the files of foreign mercenaries in the  Israeli and Turkish defense armies”.                                                                                      

The estimates reached by the Egyptian researcher from various sources, mainly related to research and studies centers of the relevant Israeli and American defense ministries, indicate that (the Israeli army uses more than 6000 foreign mercenaries, who hold different nationalities), including: Chinese and American citizenships as well. And Israel put them at the forefront of the war and fighting fronts, in order to racistly preserve the element of Jewish blood from Israel and the leaders of its armies and soldiers from the danger of death and fighting in the foreground, and put them in the back rows and fronts of war, on the front of the Gaza Strip in Palestine, the Syrian Golan Heights, and southern Lebanon, where the elements of “Hezbollah in Lebanon” are concentrated, near the Shebaa Farms areas and others, close to Iran.                                            

This reminds me to remember what the Egyptian researcher has been looking at very carefully a few years ago, from the data of the US Department of Defense “Pentagon”, as well as other data of the US State Department, announcing the killing of two American mercenary soldiers in the clashes in the “Gaza Strip”, most of whom were fighting as mercenaries within an army  The Israeli defense in the “Golani Military Brigade”.                     

After highlighting all these previous points, which perhaps no one paid attention to, the Egyptian researcher studied them intelligence, militarily, and practically on Chinese lands for several years, and got acquainted fully so far with all the Jewish and Israeli Zionist organizations operating in China, and all their activities and movements there. Accordingly, Israel and its military intelligence services have been waging the worst retaliatory war against me in the heart of Cairo, to thwart all its future military plans with China and the Arabs. And because I studied it and analyzed it from within China itself… Therefore, Israel and the United States of America with it, or more precisely the Jewish lobby in America, are waging the fiercest and fiercest confrontation against me, causing me to thwart their military plans with China for another 30 years.                                                  

Despite the enormous suffering and pain due to the great dangers that the Israelis were exposed to, I considered that what happened was the real beginning for all of us, as long as we have known new, real and innovative weaknesses in confronting Israel… Hence, it is necessary to play against them all militarily to aachieve a brilliant military victory over them. Which I greatly welcome being taught in all Egyptian, Arab and even international military institutions and colleges, which I welcome all of them communicating with me, to make a series of real lectures, to explain all the real, new and innovative loopholes, to penetrate the heart of the Israeli army with the help of China. And achieving a military victory over them, as I discovered by experience how easy it is in practice, and the possibility of penetrating the heart of the Israeli army itself. This was the real beginning of embarrassing Israel and its military institution internationally and in the Arab world, with the help of our military institution and the leaders of our Arab army and armies.                        

I have decided to make for my beloved country “Egypt” and its defense and military institutions, and for all our researchers and academics, something new, something I present to the Arabs and the world, because of my strong and absolute belief that I was the beginning, I was the spark that bore on your behalf all those atrocities and painful strikes by the Israeli Mossad and the Military Intelligence Service  The Israeli and the American CIA… They came after me in Cairo after tracing my provocative trip to them in Beijing, and the Beijing authorities – according to their perception – overlooked my exposure to prevent me from following their network of interests.  While the truth lies in China’s enormous anger at what is happening to it, Israeli and American, through their Zionist organizations and permanent residence in China, and making its ultimate task is to recruit the Chinese, and send their Judaizer youth to the heart of Tel Aviv, to complete the procedures and tactics of their Judaization, that is, their introduction to the Jewish religion, after completing  The procedures and actions of Judaization, which are called “high” and in Hebrew, mean: the stage of elevation and escalation to change their previous religion from non-Jewish to the stage of elevation and transcendence and jumping them to a higher rank, which is the stage of the Jewish religion.  

So, my exciting start was to study the conditions of the Chinese Kaifeng Judaists, and my severe beating by the Israeli embassy guards in Beijing, who were hired from inside the “Chabad House of Beijing Jewish Prayers”, which is a synagogue for Jewish prayers, and then my protest and my loud cry in Beijing, and my threat to escalate the matter internationally unless an official apology is presented to me, until the former Israeli ambassador in Beijing “Matan Vilnai” presented an official written apology to me in Beijing for what happened to me of the severe assault and racist abuse by Jewish and Israeli worshipers, according to a well-thought-out plan, by making me a tool to take revenge on me in the hands of everyone, for causing confusion and dispersal of all Israeli and American interests, especially the military ones, in the heart of Beijing. Therefore, the process of revenge against me has become complex and extreme, in order to make me a public objection to beating and bullying everyone.                               

Knowing that Ambassador “Matan Vilnai”, who gave me the official written apology after the scandal of the attack on the (Chabad House of Beijing for Jewish prayers), was the Deputy Israeli Defense Minister, and the first Israeli ambassador ever to come from a military and not a diplomatic background to hold a diplomatic position in China and the world, which indicates and confirms the seriousness and dimensions of his military position with his country’s government in Beijing at that time, and I may go further, given the military background of General “Matan Vilnai”, and his first military use in foreign missions in Israel, by linking the incident of my beating the attack on the (Chabad house in Beijing), and the role of General “Matan Vilnai” and his military background in this context.  Which made me, in 2016, write a full intelligence analysis that I published at the time, entitled: “Matan Vilnai: A Professional General Managing the File of Relations between Beijing and Tel Aviv”… After my careful research on the background of General “Matan Vilnai”, I realized the seriousness of his precise location in Beijing, especially militarily, and linked this at the time to the Chinese, with the fact that Matan Vilnai’s military background is the biggest bet for Tel Aviv, and its military, security and defense institutions, to pass a number of Israeli military plans to Beijing, and then to study the file of Judaization and recruitment for the Chinese Judaized youth from the Chinese Kaifeng region, until the stage of their transfer to Tel Aviv.                                                                    

                                                                                                                   On the hand, I followed up on the file of confusion and disagreement between the former Israeli general ambassador to China, “Matan Vilnai”, with a number of Israeli security and military personnel, in response to this growing relationship with China, as it resembles the relationship of a “full dwarf with a threatening giant”, and they believe that China is not a friend. It is not a substitute for urgent American support for Israel, and it is as if Israel gave the Soviet Union control over its strategic positions prior to the 1967 and 1973 wars.                                 

  Here, a number of Israeli academics and military personnel analyze the danger of Chinese projects in Israel on their national security. In an analysis of both the retired Admiral, General Shabtai Levy, and the head of the Center for Naval Policy and Strategic Research in Israel, Professor “Shaul Horev”, his assertion was that:                                                  

  “Chinese economic projects in Israel – especially in the field of strategic infrastructure – are not desirable, as China is trying to use the Jewish mind”

  As for the former head of the Mossad, “Ephraim Halevy”, he links between “Chinese investments in Tel Aviv and the danger of this to China’s strategic rapprochement with Iran as an ally of China”, and his warning came as follows:

 “Chinese control of strategic investments may weaken Israeli sovereignty, and weaken its ability to deal with the escalation of the conflict against Iran”

 In the same direction, the head of the Shin Bet security service, General “Nadav Argaman”, went on to explain the danger of the Chinese presence in all Israeli infrastructure projects, due to its easy access to all our military and defense secrets, and the threat to our security, emphasizing:

 “Chinese influence in Israel has become dangerous, especially when it comes to strategic infrastructure and investments by major economic companies”

 There is almost an agreement between the Israeli and American militaries, that “China’s political positions and goals can conflict with Israeli and American interests”, and the two parties may find themselves on opposite sides in international forums such as the United Nations, which is what happened during China’s presidency of the Security Council’s periodic session during the year  2021, by voting against the Israeli violations in the Gaza Strip, and the strong Chinese opposition to the Israeli approach to the Palestinians.

 The American assertion has also become clear, that (Chinese companies building and operating Israeli facilities may enable China to spy on land and in the digital world on the United States of America and its Israeli technology). In addition, the Chinese presence represents a real threat to the technological security of Israel and its American counterpart, and to the future prospects of their economy, such as:

(China’s handling of intellectual rights, the acquisition of major Israeli companies, and China’s ability to penetrate the Israeli market)

 This is what the Israeli young man “Shane”, who held the position of “President of the Likud Party Youth League”, and who in 2016 headed a large delegation to visit China made up of young Israeli parties, came to his analysis, by going to:

 “Israel has a lot that can be offered to China to achieve its declared goals in the commercial and economic fields, while the Chinese view it as a leading commercial station and an important economic source, especially in the fields of advanced technology, as the Chinese have a historical legacy that considers the world”. We find that “Albert Einstein”, as a model for the successful Jew in his field of study and work, and his images appear in textbooks and universities in China.

 Even for the Chinese side, they admit that “Israel is the easiest way to access the key and secrets of American advanced technology”, which is what the professor of international relations at Beijing University of Studies “Liu Qing” went to, explaining that:

 “Israel is known to have a competitive power in the field of technology, especially information technology, artificial intelligence, modern agricultural techniques and others, and there is no doubt that China is looking forward to strengthening cooperation with it in these areas”

  • My plan is for the Chinese to exploit their converts from the Chinese Kaifeng region in the IDF, through:

 1) Training them to obtain (the Israeli military secrets) that it obtained from Washington, such as: advanced American bombs capable of penetrating Iranian shelters deep in the ground, and the (military planes that refuel Israeli fighters in the air).

 2) China will also be able, through its citizens in the Israel Defense Forces, to (penetrate the “Israeli depth command”, which was announced by the Israeli army, and which was assigned to carry out operations in the strategic depth of the enemy).  We find that the Israeli General, “Shai Abital”, was the first person chosen to establish and preside over this command, immediately after he retired, and he previously held the position of commander of the Israeli staff command unit. Here, we find that the new command of the Israeli depth will be focused, meaning: it will not be large in size, as it will include only 100 soldiers, but (the role assigned to it in all Israeli wars is central, as it will initiate campaigns that are complex in the strategic depth of the enemy, directing and activating the forces in these  Operations), and the Israeli depth command was established, against the background of the various vibrations that the Arab world has experienced after the Arab Spring revolutions, as well as the overall situations that may arise from them in the future.

 3) Simply put, China will be able, through its Jewish citizens in the Israel Defense Forces after their recruitment and training, to approach the depth of the “Israeli Depth Command”, and will understand its mission and the timing of the opportunities through which it can inflict powerful blows into the strategic depth of the enemy at (distances exceeding more than  100 km from the Israeli border) and out of balance, by a complex operation of relatively large Israeli land, air and naval forces.


4) China will make the task of the Chinese recruits in the Israel Defense Forces, in tracking the missions of the leaders, orders and instructions of the Israeli strategic depth, to know the timings (planning and making suggestions to the Israeli chief of staff, as he is directly responsible for them, as well as planning tactics for all Israeli military operations), in the event that  It was approved by the Israeli Joint Chiefs of Staff and the senior generals of staff in Israel, to bring these military operations to Israel into effect.

 5) By exploiting its converts from the Chinese Kaifeng region in the Israel Defense Forces, China can penetrate all the Israeli military colleges and its important military offices, especially:

  • Tactical Command College
  • Command and Staff College
  • College of National Security
  • Government Coordination Office in Israeli Territories and Settlements
  • Financial Adviser to the Israeli Chief of Staff
  • Military Secretary to the Israeli Prime Minister

 6) China, through its citizens in the Israel Defense Forces, will be able to penetrate the Israeli military institutions, especially the civilian ones, in particular:

  • The Israeli Arms Development and Technology Industry Department
  • The Engineering and Construction Department of the Israeli Ministry of Defense

7) What stopped me the most for a long time as an intelligence analyst with a penetrating eye, and alerted the Chinese to him, was the data issued by the (Manpower Department of the Israeli Occupation Army), according to what was confirmed by the Hebrew Channel Two in a report, which was that (one out of every four  Israeli soldiers are suffering from economic and financial distress, and it has been found that tens of thousands of them suffer from poverty and seek aid within the Israeli military and defense institutions). In light of the inability of the Israeli army leadership to deal with this phenomenon, the (financial aid associations for the poor Israeli soldiers) provided aid to them, and this led to a reflection of the extent of the economic situation experienced by the Israeli society and the inability of its budget to cover all the departments of the Israeli army.  Especially if we know that approximately 30,000 Israeli soldiers, officially and militarily, are classified as suffering from financial hardship, and the amounts provided as aid to poor Israeli soldiers amount to more than half a billion shekels in Israeli currency.

 8) From my insightful intelligence point of view, and my deep analytical vision, I realized that the immediate previous point, regarding the poverty of more than 30,000 Israeli soldiers, and their subsistence on poverty grants, support and government social services, is (the real beginning of the Chinese military penetration in the heart of Tel Aviv and its military institutions). The defense, security and intelligence services, by trying to recruit them for its benefit and benefit from them after addressing the issues of their financial deficit, to respond to that Israeli slap in the recruitment of a number of Chinese citizens in the IDF, and sacrifice them in the front and front ranks to fight in the Israeli wars on several fronts, in (the Gaza Strip, the Syrian Golan Heights, and southern Lebanon).                      

  Hence, through the intelligence and military analysis referred to, the Arab military and defense institutions can cooperate with their Chinese counterparts to penetrate the Israeli military, security and intelligence institutions with ease and ease, whether through (the Judaizers of the Chinese Kaifeng region within the IDF, or through the Israeli recruits themselves of the poor and needy within the Israeli Ministry of Defense, whose number, as I mentioned, is estimated at more than 30,000 Israeli soldiers). In my opinion, this is the real beginning of penetrating the depth of the Israeli army and achieving a brilliant Egyptian and Arab military victory over them, with the help of China and its Jewish citizens recruited in the Israel Defense Forces. From here, I think that the picture is now more clearly visible.

Associate Professor of Political Science, Faculty of Politics and Economics / Beni Suef University- Egypt. An Expert in Chinese Politics, Sino-Israeli relationships, and Asian affairs- Visiting Senior Researcher at the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)/ Lund University, Sweden- Director of the South and East Asia Studies Unit

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Russia and the end of North Korea’s Tong-mi bong-nam strategy

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North Korea’s decades old strategy of ‘Tong-mi bong-nam’ (Engage the United States, Block South Korea) and its rare variant ( ‘Tong-nam bong-mi’ or Engage South Korea, Block the US) of breaking the Washington-Seoul axis by alternatively cooperating with one in order to isolate the other so as to manoeuvre its way through it has seen a shift recently as Pyongyang moves closer to Russia.

Tensions have been high on the Korean Peninsula since the election of the conservative President Yoon Seok-youl, who has adopted a “Kill Chain” strategy to preemptively target the Kim regime in the face of an imminent nuclear threat. Cooperation has been restricted to calls for reunion of families across the border along with disarmament linked “audacious”  economic aid in order to denuclearise Pyongyang, which stands at the cusp of its worst economic crisis post the pandemic. However, surprisingly, North Korea has not only rejected the offer but has declared itself a nuclear state by adopting a law which rules out the possibility of denuclearisation by allowing Pyongyang to conduct preemptive strikes to protect itself. With a possible nuclear test on the cards, the Russian hand behind such bold moves cannot be overlooked.

Moscow’s invasion of Ukraine has emboldened North Korea in more ways than one: it has not only challenged the invincibility of the Western powers whom Pyongyang defines as “hostile” but has also created demands for North Korean weaponry for a sanction pressed Russia to continue the war, promising to fill Pyongyang’s coffers with much needed foreign reserves. While North Korea has denied these claims, its increased proximity with Moscow is too conspicuous to gloss over. The most significant consequence however has been a change in North Korea’s policy towards Seoul and Washington.

Efficiently using it to challenge Seoul’s participation in any peace negotiations since the Korean Armistice Agreement of 1953, the strategy of Tong-mi bong-nam was employed again in 1994 when faced with recurrent famines and massive food shortages, Pyongyang agreed to denuclearise under the Agreed Framework and eventually normalise its relationship with the US. The idea was to extract economic aid while isolating Seoul after tensions soared over the latter not sending official condolences on Kim il-Sung’s death. 

The strategy was reversed in South’s favour  when relations with Washington soured after it imposed a fresh series of sanctions against Pyongyang’s nuclear proliferation programme in April 1998 and North Korea positively responded to Kim Dae-Jung’s Sunshine Policy which resulted in the historic June 15 summit of 2000, where the  the leaders of the two Koreas met for the first time post the division in 1945. President Bush’s “Axis of Evil” comment further worsened US-North Korean ties which led Pyongyang to not only break off contacts with both the US and South Korea but also withdraw from the NPT in January 2003. Although South Korean efforts and North Korea’s mounting economic crisis  succeeded in bringing Pyongyang to the Six Party Talks where Seoul argued that North’s security concerns be taken into account before pushing for denuclearisation, Washington’s rigid stance that North Korea denuclearises first  resulted in a stalemate. Pyongyang conducted its first nuclear test in 2006 inviting more stringent sanctions and eventually withdrew from the Six Party talks in 2009. After successive conservative governments which favoured a hard stance towards North Korea virtually stalled negotiations, President Moon Jae-in’s friendly approach resulted in a major breakthrough in Inter-Korean relations in the form of the 2018 Panmunjom Declaration which called for phased disarmament, at a time when Pyongyang’s economy was at its lowest in the past two decades and tensions with the Trump administration soared high. The breakdown of the 2019 Hanoi Summit between North Korea and the US finally ended cooperation.

The above cases illustrate how efficiently North Korea has used Tong-mi bong-nam as a manoeuvring tool where negotiations were undertaken only during times of economic crisis while nuclear proliferation continued to remain a priority to achieve  reunification of the peninsula in a way favourable to Pyongyang. Moreover, Kim Jong-un has learnt from the case of Gadaffi’s Libya that engaging the West in denuclearisation would only provide limited respite while possession of nuclear weapons not only creates a strong deterrence against attacks by much powerful adversaries but also fuels nuclear nationalism thus reproducing regime legitimacy even at its weakest moments. Hence, he has nipped all chances of achieving complete denuclearisation in the bud. While China has so far played a major role in moderating Pyongyang’s aggression by prioritising regional stability considering its own geopolitical and economic interests over countering the US; Russia’s bold violation of UNSC sanctions by not only trading with Pyongyang but also demonstrating active interest in  employing North Korean workers and labelling the bilateral relationship as being of “mutual interest” speaks volumes about the greater latitude it is willing to provide its anti-American ally in pressing forward with its agenda.

Though Tong-mi bong-nam has served North Korea’s interests by aiding it in extracting economic benefits while dodging commitments over complete denuclearisation, it has simultaneously acted as the only window for Seoul and Washington to negotiate with Pyongyang. As its raison d’être, namely North’s economic and diplomatic isolation, wanes with Moscow’s support; the hope for denuclearisation might be lost forever specifically as the US and South Korea continue to  seek “overwhelming” military response to resolve the crisis which might lead to unimaginably dangerous consequences. The need of the hour is to multilaterally engage with both Russia and North Korea on disarmament and lift sanctions in a phased manner while ensuring that the two abide by their commitments.

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The SCO seeks for a new role in the post-Ukrainian crisis world

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During the Samarkand summit which was held during September 15-16, the Council of Heads of State of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) signed the landmark Samarkand Declaration, advanced Iran’s accession, start the process for Belarus to become a full member, while approving Bahrain, Maldives, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates and Myanmar as dialogue partners. Additionally, the SCO issued groundbreaking statements and documents, marking the first time that member states have jointly spoken out on emerging issues, such as climate change, supply chain security and international energy security. All of these progresses verify that the SCO has come of the age over the past two decades. There is no question that the SCO is now the largest regional cooperation organization in the world. Over half of the world’s population lives in its member states, accounting for about 25% of the global GDP—and those states have a powerful intellectual and technological potential and a considerable part of the global natural resources.

As one of the two leading drivers of the SCO, Russia has played the tremendous role in its development and solidarity of all member states in principle and in reality as well. This year, despite the Ukrainian war drags on for over 200 days, Russia still acted influentially to promote Iran’s “earliest possible accession” to the SCO legally and Belarus’s beginning the accession process. As President Putin said during the summit, “There are many more countries that seek membership in or association with the SCO. All are welcomed because the SCO is a “non-bloc association and rather working with the whole world.” It is also true that in a very complicated international situation, the SCO is not “marking time,” but rather continuing to develop and build its role in addressing international and regional issues—maintaining peace and stability “throughout the vast Eurasian space.”

Echoing the coming changes in global politics and the economy which are about to undergo fundamental and irreversible changes, it is obvious that there are new “centers of power” emerging, and the interaction among them is inclusively based on universally recognized principles of the rule of international law and the UN Charter, namely, equal and indivisible security and respect for each other’s sovereignty, national values and interests. Given this, this article aims to argue what role the SCO would be able to play in the next twenty years?

The SCO holds tremendous potential for the future of international community and particularly in the fields of ensuring energy security and food security. Accordingly, the latest joint statement proposes to avoid excessive fluctuations in the prices of international bulk commodities in the energy sector, ensure the safety and stability of international food and energy resources’ transportation channels, and to smooth the international production and supply chain. To insure these ends, the statement also underlines adherence to the principle of technology neutrality as it is the key to encourage the research and application of various clean and low-carbon energy technologies. Given this, the Samarkand summit is a milestone both in the development of the SCO and building of a SCO community with shared future. Accordingly, the SCO will adhere to the principle of not targeting third parties as the Final Declaration states that the SCO seeks to ensure peace, security and stability. In reality, SCO members intend to jointly further develop cooperation in politics and security, trade, economy, finance and investments, cultural and humanitarian relations “in order to build a peaceful, safe, prosperous and environmentally friendly planet Earth.”

In the overall terms, China has played the significant role in joint promoting of the SCO as Russia admitted that in unison with the Chinese side, the existence of a unipolar world is impossible. Moscow and Beijing have agreed that it’s an impossible situation when the wealthy West is claiming the right to invent rules in economy, in politics and the right to impose its will on other countries. The foundation of the unipolar system has started to seriously creak and wobble. A new reality is emerging. Now it is more apparent that the obsolete unipolar model is being superseded by a new world order based on the fundamental principles of justice, equality, and the recognition of the right of each nation and state to its sovereign path of development. Put it more precisely, strong political and economic centers acting as a driving force of this irreversible process are being shaped in the Asia Pacific region.

Echoing the consensus among the SCO member states and their partners in the Eurasian domain, President Xi spoke at the summit that the successful experience of the SCO has been based on political trust, win-win cooperation, equality between nations, openness and inclusiveness, and equity and justice. They are not only the source of strength for the development of the SCO but also the fundamental guide that must be followed strictly in the years to come. Given that under the volatile world, the SCO, as an important constructive force in international and regional affairs, should keep itself well-positioned in the face of changing international dynamics, constantly enhance strategic independence, consolidate and deepen solidarity and cooperation, and build a closer SCO community with a shared future.

More specifically, China has not only presented the Global Development Initiative and the Global Security Initiative, but also carried out the initiatives with real actions. In addition, the SCO greets the new round of the largest expansion of the SCO membership has consolidated its status and influence as the most populous regional cooperation organization with the vastest territory in the world. The expansion fully demonstrates that the SCO is not a closed and exclusive “small clique” but an open, inclusive “big family”. As a new type of international organization comprising 26 countries, the SCO is increasingly showing strong vitality and bright prospects for development including that it will inject new impetus into peace and prosperity in Eurasia and beyond and play an exemplary role in building a new type of international relations and a community with a shared future for mankind.

In sum, the SCO has gained greater significance with the outbreak of hostilities in Ukraine, where an economically weaker Russia is turning to East in general and China in particular as Beijing and Moscow vow to be a partner with no limits and leading coordination over the SCO. In addition, the comprehensive strategic partnership of China and Russia covers a bilateral agenda, multilateral trade and economic cooperation and shared security concerns of all concerned. In the face of outrageous Western sanctions, the SCO demonstrates stability, continues to develop progressively, and gains momentum. China is sure to play the constructive role of promoting their business to the global level, including strengthening the basis of economic cooperation among SCO member states, allowing the launch of free economic zones, and implementing large-scale infrastructure projects globally.

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Factionalism in the Chinese Communist Party: From Mao to Now

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With the crucial 20th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) set to commence on October 16, here’s a look at the different factions that have historically existed within the Party, otherwise considered a highly centralised and monolithic organisation.

Democratic Centralism

Described by Lenin as “freedom of discussion, unity of action”, Democratic Centralism is a Marxist-Leninist theoretical concept which attempts to strike a balance between inner Party democracy and organisational unity as an assurance that decisions could be efficiently made without stifling ideological struggles within the Party which emerge in the form of dissent. It was first specifically adopted as the organising principle of a Marxist party in the Soviet Union by both Bolshevik and Menshevik factions of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP)  at their separate conferences in 1905 and was unanimously adopted at the Party Unity Congress in 1906. Initially seen to be compatible with the existence of factions, a more rigid idea of Democratic Centralism was adopted at the 10th Party Congress in 1921 when all factions were outlawed in the name of Party unity. While the intention was not to wipe out the democratic discourse altogether, ‘monolithic unity’ vertically imposed by the late 1920s supplanted all free debate.

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) at its 17th Congress in 1934  defined the four cardinal points of Democratic Centralism as follows:

election of all leading bodies of the Party; their periodic accountability to their respective organisations; strict party discipline &  the subordination of the minority to the majority and decisions of higher bodies to be absolutely binding on lower bodies and on party members.

 In other words, free debate and discussion would be allowed to exist within the ranks of the Party till a decision is taken by the higher body after which it must be faithfully followed and implemented by all lower ranks in the name of Party discipline  without any collective attempts to block the decision. Factionalism thus, came to be seen as a serious offense of sabotaging Party unity. The Third Communist International (1919-43) called for  Democratic Centralism to be strictly implemented by all fellow Communist parties across the world which continued even after its dissolution in 1943.

The Chinese Communist Party, through the  slogan ‘Centralism based on Democracy and Democracy Under Centralist Guidance’ (《民主基础上的集中,集中知道下的民主》), describes its role as focused on the inclusion of popular opinion which is considered  extremely important not just for the successful implementation of its policies but also as the raison d’être of its rule however concurrently, it considers them too vague to be implemented as they exist. The CCP thus sees itself as the central sieve through which mass opinions would be filtered off their vagueness and effective policies could be formulated as it is considered to be in best possession of both the knowledge of Marxism-Leninism and interests of the masses. Party cadres would go to the masses and raise their demands at the Party meetings followed by a debate, also known as the Mass Line approach. Once the decision is taken, there would be no further discussion and the cadres would faithfully implement the policies among the populace with iron discipline.

After a brief period of decentralisation post the 1978 Reform and Opening up, Centralism was reintroduced following the Tiananmen Square Movement of 1989 and more so after the fall of the USSR in 1991 in order to avert a possible legitimacy crisis. Since then streams of Centralism and Democracy have alternatively dominated leadership views. In his speech at the 17th Party Congress, Hu Jintao emphasised on the need to strengthen intra Party democracy as a part of Democratic Centralism. In contrast, Xi Jinping in 2016 emphasised on the need to integrate centralisation on a democratic basis while urging the members to display “pure and utmost” loyalty to the Party.

Guanxi (关系)

Though Articles 3(5) and  10 of the CCP Constitution  prohibit factionalism within the Party in the name of Democratic Centralism, interest groups nevertheless exist through informal networks based on  personal ties called Guanxi (关系). Guanxi has its roots in the Confucian tradition which emphasises on the feeling of belongingness among members of a family or an organisation. Such a  nexus functions in a reciprocal way where the followers look for career security and advancement under the protection of a senior leader who ensures their interests are served in the upper rungs in exchange for their support, for instance, Hu Jintao was known to have led a group of his comrades from his Communist Youth League (CYL) days  called Tuanpai (团派) in his entourage. While in itself testifying the presence of factionalism, this relationship often results in emergence of factions due to its unstable nature. All chosen successors to the General Secretary in the Party’s history have been purged by their own patrons (Mao and Deng) with the sole exception of Deng Xiaoping’s protégé, Jiang Zemin. Inconsistent leadership decision making, with opinions swinging between “Left adventurism” and “Right opportunism” under Mao and “Emancipation of Mind” and “Socialist Spiritual Civilisation” under Deng too has given rise to interest groups within the Party.

Other features of China’s political system which give rise to factionalism include  power entrusted to individual leaders in a hierarchical context; the monopoly of the Communist Party over all legal channels of expression of diverse interests; absence of a formal structure of decision making and interference of the military in politics.

Factions at a glance

The origins of Guanxi networks can be traced back to Shantou (山头)or “mountain top” alliances which date back to the Party’s early days. Facing a hostile Nationalist Party (国民党) and Japanese forces, the CCP was nurtured in independent and isolated rural basecamps which were often located in rugged hilly terrain. Thus, each Shantou became a locus of its leader’s power.  The hostile and dangerous conditions necessitated a close bond between leaders and their followers which fragmented member’s loyalty towards the CCP as a Party as the primary allegiance was paid to the leader and not to the organisation.

Though Mao in his On Contradiction (1937) defined intra Party differences and discussions as a symbol of its vitality and liveliness, he was very strict about expression of dissent outside the Party apparatus which was seen as an attempt to break away from the Party and resulted almost always in purges. Even as Mao successfully established his line of thought as the single ideological core of the Party during the Yenan Rectification Campaign of 1942, ground realities built conditions for the existence of factions which continued as external channels of communication among political associates, outlets of their diverse interests and command system of their forces. Informal Factionalism continued to drive the Party’s inner politics even after the victory in the Civil War in 1949. While Mao could establish himself as the Chairman, his sole legitimacy to rule still faced challenges since all his associates had comparable experience and contribution to enlist. As a result, though working under Mao, leaders such as Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai continued to remain influential in a system where they were not expected to do so. Cautious of not upsetting Mao,these leaders often collaborated amongst themselves to weather any crisis which Mao read as a threat to his own power and hence, he launched the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) as an anti-organisation movement so as to tie all strands of loyalty to himself and not the Party where other leaders still exercised influence.

Interestingly, a penchant for a similar policy did not always translate into unity among members, the classic example being the fallout between Liu Shaoqi and Mao Zedong who did not just share policy preferences on most issues but had also joined the Party at the same time and worked together. Similarly, both Lin Biao and the Gang of Four (四人帮) were on the same page in the trajectory of the revolution but it was the power struggle amongst them which ultimately led to Lin’s fall. During Deng’s regime, Chen Yun and Peng Zhen’s shared conservativeness did not prevent Chen from blocking Peng’s path to the Politburo Standing Committee. Both Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang were reform minded but Zhao held his silence when Hu was ousted. Similarly, it was on the basis of personal networks that Deng Xiaoping and Chen Yun remained the most powerful leaders throughout their lives without holding any official position. 

The economic reforms of the post Mao period further split internal unity into those who continued to stick with the Maoist line, demanding strict obedience to the socialist model of development and those who believed in inching closer to an open, market oriented economy. Economic interests thus play a major role in guiding factionalism, with the emergence of a ‘Petroleum faction’ within the CCP of those associated with the crude oil industry being a noticeable example.

Common political origins have also formed a ground for development of factions. Like Hu’s Tuanpai, Jiang Zemin was known to promote those who had worked for him previously in the Shanghai administration which led to the rise of a “Shanghai Clique” when he ascended the top position. Xi is similarly known to be leading a  “Fujian Clique” as his ascension to power was soon followed by the promotion of his former associates Wang Xiaohong and Deng Weiping to senior positions. He has also promoted his protégés from his home province of Shaanxi. Xi is not only known to secure the interests of “Princelings” (太子党 or children of high ranking Communist leaders as himself) but to also further promote a “Tsinghua Faction” of his alma mater which is known to have existed since 2008 when 1 of the 7 members of the Politburo Standing Committee and 3 of the 25 members of the Politburo were alumni of the prestigious Tsinghua University. Xi Jinping has also actively promoted leaders such as Ma Xingrui and Zhang Qingwei from the Defense-Aerospace industry (军工航天系) to top civilian positions. Perhaps the starkest episode of factionalism within the CCP was the fall of Bo Xilai, Xi’s contender to the position of the General Secretary in 2012, which not just revealed the fault lines within the Party but also brought into question the fragmented loyalty of the military as many senior PLA officers closely associated with Bo such as Zhou Yongkang were found to have actively aided him in securing the most coveted position and were later tried and arrested for charges of corruption and abuse of power.

With speculations high that Xi is likely to evade the “seven up, eight down” (七上,八下) rule which restricts reappointments of senior leaders above the age of 68 and  the retirement of Li Keqiang as the Premier, groups such as the CYL faction are likely to be further marginalised while the prominence of those close to Xi Jinping is bound to prevail at the upcoming Party Congress which might result in the likely promotion of leaders like Chen Min’er and Ding Xuexiang. 

Factionalism within the CCP does not just stand as the testimony of the dynamics in Chinese politics but also provides a window into the otherwise opaque world of its functioning.

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