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How students impacted the US Civil Rights Movement?

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The US entered a new era with the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Martin Luther King Jr. and Rosa Parks inspired thousands of college students. These students were as vital as America’s heroes. Young people of different ages fight in all revolutions. Several students from various schools have read this civil rights piece. A civil rights college is one of their masterpieces. The 1960s movement was a turning moment in American history. A group of African-Americans initiated a movement to end apartheid and discrimination in the U.S. and provide equal legal rights for everyone.

Brown V. Board Education

It was in 1954 that the Brown v. Board of Instruction of Topeka case became a landmark case in American legal history. “Separate but equal” was a popular belief in the United States for the better part of six decades. Public facilities might be separated, as long as the amenities for both races were similar. In numerous instances, these different systems and organizations weren’t equal at all, including schools. School integration was declared to be necessary after the landmark Brown v. Board judgment.

Achieving racial integration in school, was the beginning. Nowadays, pupils can read civil rights movement essays on Gradesfixer and have a better insight into it. There, they can find many beneficial texts and learn about their predecessors’ influence on the entire riot. In terms of political and ethnic issues, the 1960s were a difficult decade. African Americans were beginning to integrate into society, which was a watershed event for the civil rights movement.

Coordination Committee For Students Opposing Violent Extremism

Established in 1960, this group is mostly composed of students of color. A number of significant civil rights gatherings were attended by both of them. Freedom Rides were one of their initial concepts.

Violence, imprisonment, and even setting one of their buses on fire were some things they encountered on their voyage. However, the public’s outpouring of sympathy pushed President Kennedy to take action to end the violence against them. There is a clear demonstration of the committee’s influence on the issue of racial disparity, which was so profound that it could not be reversed.

The Rides Of The Liberators

The undergraduates’ group described in the preceding paragraph planned the Freedom Rides. When the Supreme Court’s Interstate Commerce Commission demanded fair opportunities and travel, civil rights advocates were encouraged to join this investigation. Six whites and seven blacks made up the first party of freedom riders to depart Washington and arrive in New Orleans. As the students made their way to Alabama, they ran into some trouble. Whites assaulted several passengers and set fire to one of the buses.

To underscore their commitment to racial equality, the group, and the CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) embarked on the Freedom Ride to Montgomery. Thousands of white guys assaulted them there. When the riders were attacked and the police officers showed no remorse, people all around the United States rallied to their side.

What About Medgar Evers?

When Medgar Evers became an activist, he was still a university student. He was born and raised in Decatur, Mississippi, and studied at a local high school before enlisting in the United States military. When he and his five companions were deprived of the opportunity to vote, they felt a sense of injustice. Even yet, he continued to attend Alcorn State University and participate in the school’s leisure pursuits, despite his previous experience in prison.

After being engaged in two high-profile Mississippi trials, Evers garnered popularity among white nationalists. Emmett Till’s execution in 1955 and the sentencing of Clyde Kennard, a Black civil rights fighter who was framed for offences he didn’t commit, exposed Evers to assault. Before they succeeded on June 12, 1963, white supremacists attempted to assassinate the student on multiple occasions. He was gunned down as he got out of his vehicle, wearing T-shirts proclaiming “Jim Crow Must Go,” and died less than an hour afterwards in the hospital.

Conclusion

The mid-1950s saw the emergence of the American civil rights movement as a national focal point for demonstrations against racial inequality in the South. For generations, descendants of enslaved Africans have been fighting against racial discrimination and for the abolishment of slavery. Emancipated slaves were given civil rights under the U.S. Constitution’s 14th and 15th amendments after the Civil War. Still, fights for government preservation of those rights raged for the next century after the war ended.

Hopefully, we’ve managed to present to you what was the true impact of the understudies during this period. It was a tragic period for youngsters. So, it’s a great opportunity for us to show the real results of their activities during the movement and how it all ended up.

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Fight against human trafficking must be strengthened in Ethiopia

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A group of internally displaced people due to the Tigray conflict gather in a site in Ethiopia's Afar region, Ethiopia. © UNHCR/Alessandro Pasta

Throughout Ethiopia’s Tigray, Afar and Amhar regions, women and girls are becoming increasingly vulnerable to abduction and sex trafficking as they flee ongoing armed conflict, a group of UN-appointed independent human rights experts warned on Monday.

The protracted conflict in the three northern regions have heightened risks of trafficking for sexual exploitation as a form of sexual violence in conflict, the experts said in a statement.

“We are alarmed by reports of refugee and internally displaced women and girls in the Tigray, Afar, and Amhara regions being abducted while attempting to move to safer places,” they said.

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“We are concerned at the risks of trafficking, in particular for purposes of sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery.” 

Women and children in crosshairs

Amidst abductions and displacement, the UN experts raised serious concerns over Eritrean refugee women and children being at particular risk of sex trafficking.

“Urgent action is needed to prevent trafficking, especially for purposes of sexual exploitation, and to ensure assistance and protection of all victims, without discrimination on grounds of race or ethnicity, nationality, disability, age or gender,” they said.  

Meanwhile, the hundreds of children who have been separated from their families, especially in the Tigray region, are particularly vulnerable, warned the independent experts.

“The continuing lack of humanitarian access to the region is a major concern,” the experts continued, urging immediate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent all forms of trafficking of children and to ensure their protection.

Identifying victims

They added that sufficient measures were not being taken to identify victims of trafficking, or support their recovery in ways that fully takes account of the extreme trauma being suffered.

“The failure to provide accountability for these serious human rights violations and grave crimes creates a climate of impunity, allows trafficking in persons to persist and perpetrators to go free,” underscored the six UN experts.

They urged all relevant stakeholders to ensure that victims of trafficking can adequately access medical assistance, including sexual and reproductive healthcare services and psychological support.

The experts said they had made their concerns known to both the Governments of Ethiopia and neighbouring Eritrea.

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35 years of Cultural Routes: Safeguarding European Values, Heritage, and Dialogue

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A Europe rich in history, heritage, dialogue and values: the Council of Europe Cultural Routes’ programme celebrates its 35th anniversary, on the occasion of the 11th Advisory Forum in Minoa Palace Hotel, Chania, Crete (Greece) on 5-7 October, with a special event to highlight the relevance of Cultural Routes for the promotion of cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue and sustainable tourism.

The Forum is organised by the Enlarged Partial Agreement on Cultural Routes of the Council of Europe and the European Institute of Cultural Routes, in co-operation with the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports, the Hellenic Ministry of Tourism, the Greek National Tourism Organization, the Region of Crete, the Municipality of Chania, the Chamber of Industry and Commerce of Chania, and the Historic Cafes Route. The 2022 edition will be the opportunity to underline the growing relevance of the Cultural Routes methodology and practices in promoting Europe’s shared cultural heritage while fostering viable local development.

Deputy Secretary General Bjørn Berge will participate in the high-level dialogue, together with Minister of Culture and Sports of Greece Lina Mendoni, Minister of Tourism of Greece Vassilis Kikilias, Parliamentary Assembly (PACE) Vice-President and Chairperson of the Greek Delegation Dora Bakoyannis and Chair of the Statutory Committee of Cultural Routes Ambassador Patrick Engelberg (Luxembourg). 

Over three days of workshops and interactive debates, three main general sessions will be explored:

  1. Promoting European Values and Intercultural Dialogue;
  2. Safeguarding Heritage in Times of Crisis;
  3. Fostering Creative Industries, Cultural Tourism, Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Communities.

The Forum will discuss trends and challenges in relation to Cultural Routes, providing a platform for sharing experiences, reviewing progress, analysing professional practices, launching new initiatives and developing partnerships across Europe and beyond. Participants range from managers among the 48 cultural routes to representatives of national ministries, International Organisations, academics, experts and tourism professionals.

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Little progress combating systemic racism against people of African descent

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More than two years since the murder of George Floyd by a police officer in the United States sparked the global Black Lives Matter movement, there’s been only “piecemeal progress” in addressing systemic racism, the UN human rights office (OHCHR) said on Friday, in a new report.While more people have been made aware of systemic racism and concrete steps have been taken in some countries, the Acting High Commissioner for Human Rights called on States to demonstrate greater political will to accelerate action.

“There have been some initiatives in different countries to address racism, but for the most part they are piecemeal. They fall short of the comprehensive evidence-based approaches needed to dismantle the entrenched structural, institutional and societal racism that has existed for centuries, and continues to inflict deep harm today,” said Nada Al-Nashif, who will present the report to the UN Human Rights Council on Monday.

Triggering change

The report describes international, national and local initiatives that have been taken, towards ending the scourge of racism.

These include an Executive Order from the White House on advancing effective, accountable policing and criminal justice practices in federal law enforcement agencies; an Anti-Racism Data Act in British Columbia, Canada; measures to evaluate ethnic profiling by police in Sweden; and census data collection to self-identify people of African descent in Argentina.

The European Commission has issued guidance on collecting and using data based on racial or ethnic origin; formal apologies issued, memorialization, revisiting public spaces, and research, to assess links to enslavement and colonialism in several countries.

‘Barometer for success’

The report notes that poor outcomes continue for people of African descent in many countries, notably in accessing health and adequate food, education, social protection, and justice – while poverty, enforced disappearance and violence continues.

It highlights “continuing…allegations of discriminatory treatment, unlawful deportations, excessive use of force, and deaths of African migrants and migrants of African descent by law enforcement officials”

The barometer for success must be positive change in the lived experiences of people of African descent,” continued Ms. Al-Nashif.

“States need to listen to people of African descent, meaningfully involve them and take genuine steps to act upon their concerns.”

Higher death rates

Where available, recent data still points to disproportionately high death rates faced by people of African descent, at the hands of law enforcement, in different countries.

“Families of African descent continued to report the immense challenges, barriers and protracted processes they faced in their pursuit of truth and justice for the deaths of their relatives”, the report says.

It details seven cases of police-related deaths of people of African descent, namely George Floyd and Breonna Taylor (US); Adama Traoré (France); Luana Barbosa dos Reis Santos and João Pedro Matos Pinto (Brazil); Kevin Clarke (UK) and Janner [Hanner] García Palomino (Colombia).

While noting some progress towards accountability in a few of these emblematic cases, “unfortunately, not a single case has yet been brought to a full conclusion, with those families still seeking truth, justice and guarantees of non-repetition, and the prosecution and sanction of all those responsible,” the report says.

Ms. Al-Nashif called on States to “redouble efforts to ensure accountability and redress wherever deaths of Africans and people of African descent have occurred in the context of law enforcement, and take measures to confront legacies that perpetuate and sustain systemic racism”.

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