China considered that improving people’s living standards, eliminating poverty, protecting the environment and improving the education system are an important part of promoting human rights issues both domestically and internationally. Therefore, China has tried to set an internal and international agenda at the level of the United Nations and its relevant agencies, in order to (support the developing countries of the South in development and the elimination of poverty, as one of the indicators of improving the human rights situation globally). Accordingly, we can evaluate the Chinese measures and policies related to the field of “global human rights governance as a common destiny of mankind”, according to the proposal of Chinese President Comrade “Xi Jinping”, as follows:
Today, the Chinese leadership seeks, within the framework of an ambitious plan, to achieve a “well-off society” for all the Chinese people, by developing a “comprehensive and institutional reform plan” in a way that includes the structure and frameworks of legislative institutions, the Communist Party, and state government institutions, and supervising private institutions of an economic nature, development and services, while retaining the characteristics that distinguish Chinese socialism. It is expected that these changes will positively affect China and its relations with the outside world, especially major countries, neighboring countries and third world countries.
In this context, after strengthening the environment for internal reform, China seeks to revive new Silk Roads. There is no doubt that the push towards a (coherent social construction), which is called the process of opening up to the outside smoothly, requires strict control over the implementation of laws, and a permanent development of political and administrative legislation at the same time.
It should be noted that China has signed (26 international conventions on human rights). China was one of the countries that proposed and supported the (Declaration on the Right to Development and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). It was also elected as a member of the (United Nations Human Rights Council) four times.
In March 2017, the concept of “building a bond of a common future for mankind”, put forward by Chinese President “Xi Jinpin”, was included in two resolutions on the rights of economy, society, culture and the right to food of the Human Rights Council, and this concept was also adopted in (Security Council Resolution United Nations) in 2017, during the 37th meeting of the United Nations Human Rights Council, in which China put forward the resolution “Strengthening Cooperation and Enjoying Win-win in the Protection of Human Rights”, and the resolution was adopted at the 39th session of the Human Rights Council in September 2018, and the representative of China, on behalf of some 140 countries, delivered the joint statement, entitled: “Eradicate poverty through cooperation and promote the development of human rights in the world”.
In November 2018, China pledged to donate $800,000 each year to the Office of the (United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights) “OHCHR” for the next five years in order to support the work of the Office. In addition, China established the (South-South Cooperation Assistance Fund to help countries other developing countries to eradicate poverty).
The Chinese political leadership of President “Xi Jinping” began removing all political obstacles, which paved the way for China to enter a new era of economic reform and openness to the world, in line with strengthening and increasing the role of the market and planning “private cities”, while reducing government planning in the economy, to bring China more into the world economy.
The leaders and comrades of the ruling Communist Party in China were keen to emphasize that (in terms of ideology) this was portrayed not as abandoning socialism, but as a better way towards achieving it, as the Communist Party announced that China was in the basic stage of socialism, according to which the capitalist economy was Prosperity, as a prerequisite for the subsequent transition towards comprehensive reform.
The number of employees and volunteers of the (non-governmental organizations) in China is more than one million, working in the fields of (charity, environmental protection and human rights protection), and other matters of interest to the Chinese citizen. These organizations are considered a platform to highlight the creative creative abilities of the masses, and play a positive role in improving the lives of citizens and addressing many social problems. The Chinese government is currently exploring and experimenting with new approaches to managing NGOs.
The Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, and the ruling Communist Party comrades are keen to highlight (the relationship between the state and society as an important element in managing the political system and the Chinese state and working for the benefit of the people). During the era of President Comrade “Xi Jinping” China is carrying out continuous reforms at the party and governmental levels in order to (adjust the relationship between the state and society), which gives more opportunities for citizens to express their views.
With the great economic openness during the era of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, the freedom of the Chinese citizen has increased in the areas of movement, housing, treatment, study, entertainment and consumption, so the government no longer manages people’s lives directly. Chinese citizens’ criticism of government policies and the performance of government officials has become a regular occurrence.
The Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping” has given a lot of credit for the successful implementation of economic reforms, as he was on the right political line, in addition to taking political reforms even further, by working with a number of (new think tanks, founded in the universities and research institutes at Beijing and all other provinces and cities). We found out that some new research groups and think tanks have been formed to discuss and formally central discussion on all issues of political reform in the Chinese state, and the blessing was later given to studies of bold political changes, and the citizens of China continued to consider (liberation politics, criticizing policies, expressing their political opinions), and other matters, as valid topics for public discussion.
According to Chinese President Xi Jinping’s vision, if China is to continue to advance in a rapidly changing world, it must safely manage the major social and economic transformation, and most importantly to (improve state governance). In order to ensure the long-term survival of China’s one-party system, the reform of state and party institutions has been initiated. Indeed, for President “Xi Jinping”, political reform was a prerequisite for economic reform.
Chinese President “Xi Jinping” did not try to follow the pattern of modernity in the manner of the West, that is, to establish China as a superpower on an equal footing with the United States of America. On the contrary, President Comrade “Xi Jinping” believes that his current challenge is internal and his message is domestic in the first place. He knows that success in this will determine his place in history. This is his main concern.
ChineseLeader “Xi Jinping” has become the most powerful leader in China today since the era of Deng Xiaoping, and has been able to shape his legacy according to his own vision, relying on sufficient political capital to carry out the necessary political reforms. China has followed a positive path in improving education, judiciary on poverty, increasing development and prosperity, and taking measures to raise development rates in all provinces and cities, as well as adopting economically advanced strategies to deepen the necessary reforms alongside political reforms.
Education has helped in (developing innovative capacity and strengthening competitiveness), with attention to developing skilled manpower from the top to the bottom, as manpower skills have become the main competitive weapon for China at the present time.
The reforms and measures undertaken by the Chinese state have led to progress in all aspects of public servant management, which (reflected on economic performance, improvement of the investment climate, success in reducing the size of institutions and the number of employees, strengthening the separation between party leadership and government functions, and separating government tasks from administration companies), has reduced the number of government employees in the framework of the reform of the State Council by almost half, as well as transferring and transforming government jobs, separating government functions from project management, strengthening the power of companies in management and decision-making, reducing administrative procedures and approvals, and stimulating initiative in local governments through administrative decentralization through Giving these local governments more power in making decisions in the areas of finance, taxes and employees, and giving more autonomy to individuals and society.
China has formulated and implemented (three action plans on human rights) since 2009. During this period, the Chinese people’s living standards have improved, their rights are better protected, policies and legal procedures protecting the rights of certain groups have been improved, and legal guarantees for human rights have been strengthened, according to the action plan. China has also fully shared its experience in the global governance of human rights, and made a great contribution to the international human rights cause.
The (Recent Action Plan for Human Rights in China, through a set of goals for the period 2021-2025) was drawn up, and this latest plan for Chinese human rights affirmed that China will promote the free, comprehensive and common development of all its citizens as a general goal. According to the plan, China will strengthen equal protection of the rights and interests of certain groups, especially in minority autonomous regions, by providing them with additional assistance to ensure that everyone gets an equal share of the fruits of development, and providing political support for the comprehensive development of all the Chinese people.
The Chinese leadership was keen to conduct continuous research, as well as improve education and training levels and build awareness, to create a social environment that respects and protects human rights.
The adoption of the United Nations Human Rights Council in its (third periodic review) has received a report submitted by China in Geneva, Switzerland, on March 15, 2019, with the participation of representatives of more than 120 countries, who delivered speeches at the Council’s meeting to support human rights in China, praising China’s achievements in developing human rights. The representatives of the countries at the meeting also referred to China’s positive role in alleviating poverty and promoting economic, social and cultural rights, emphasizing the importance of China’s contributions to (promoting the common development of various countries).
The “Beijing Human Rights Forum” was also held in September 2018, entitled: “Eradication of Poverty: Building the Bond of a Common Future for Humanity Without Poverty and Seeking Common Development”, with the international praise from well-known officials and experts, regionally and internationally, representing more than fifty countries and international organizations, the human rights conditions in China.
The Chinese government’s emphasis, during its development of the last plan for human rights until 2025, came on (China’s participation in the global governance of human rights), as well as its participation in all work related to the human rights mechanisms of the United Nations, and pushing the international community towards establishing a more governance system Justice, equity, reasonableness and inclusiveness, and working together to build a (community with a shared future for humanity).
Here, we found out that “Michelle Bachelet”, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, opened the meeting of the Human Rights Council in its (forty-seventh session) in June 2021, which was attended by representatives of 47 UN member states around the world, with accusations against the Beijing government.
But the representative of the Chinese mission to the Human Rights Council in Geneva, “Liu Yuen”, rejected all accusations from the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, assuring him that China would not allow any outside forces to interfere in what he described as the inalienable parts of China’s territory, and Liu Yuen issued a warning. Strongly worded to “Michelle Bachelet”, in order to work to “respect the facts and stop making false statements about China”.
In my personal analysis, what stopped me the most about the strict Chinese position to ensure her election to the (United Nations Human Rights Council), despite all the American and Western criticism directed at her in this context, is (the extent to which the Chinese government is officially keen to represent the largest number of people from the United Nations by its Chinese nationals in all major UN agencies). Which reflects Beijing’s smart diplomacy as a rising power, and its position as the second largest economy in the world.
Therefore, US President Joe Biden’s objection to all the leadership positions held by China in the United Nations and its relevant agencies, emphasizing that: “the time has come for Western allies to unite to confront China’s growing influence at the level of multilateral relations and policies”. Over the past few years, China has provided or supported candidates for some key positions in United Nations agencies and international organizations, such as:
The International Telecommunication Union and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the World “ITU & FAO”
Based on the previous analysis of the Egyptian researcher, we conclude that China relies on following the pattern of development internally and externally, in order to reach the best models and ways to achieve them globally away from this narrow concept of human rights. Therefore, China resorts to solving emerging issues through development, considering that this is the main experience of China that to the world, especially emerging and small countries. With this unprecedented state of great changes and adjustments in the whole world, China here faces opportunities and challenges unparalleled in history, and China still adheres to development as a major topic, and pushes peace and development forward with visions, ideas and solutions for development constantly, especially in the face of new topics and tests.