Nature has provided abundant resources and can be used into various processed products that can help ease human life. With the enormous potential of nature that is already available, it is the human task to utilize it and maintain the preservation and balance of nature so that it does not become extinct or lost due to excessive use without being accompanied by environmental conservation. One of the wealth that is widely available in nature is natural fiber. Natural fiber is a raw material used in the textile industry which can then be processed into various useful needs, not only into cloth, but many products actually require fiber as a raw material, one example is composites. Composites are generally made of powder or particles which are usually used to increase the strength of the material. However, in the era where technology began to develop, various composites derived from fiber. Fiber composites themselves are the same as composites in general, but the material used is not wood powder or particles but the main ingredient is fiber. So that the type of fiber greatly affects the strength of a composite made.
Generally, fiber comes from 2 sources, namely synthetic fiber and natural fiber. Natural fiber itself can come from animals and plants. Animal fibers such as wool, silk, alpaca, camel, etc. The highest content of animal fiber origin is protein. Then the fiber from plant can be further divided into several types according to its origin, fiber from seeds, stems and leaves. Fibers from seeds such as cotton and kapok, fibers from stems such as ramie and bamboo fibers, fibers from leaves such as pineapple and sisal leaf fibers. Chemically, all fiber derived from plants, the main element in the fiber is cellulose, although other elements in varying amounts are also contained in it, such as hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, ash (Hidayat, 2008).
The trend of using natural fiber to be processed into objects that have benefits and selling value continues to increase from year to year. This happens because many people have realized the importance of protecting the earth, so many have started to use materials that come from nature so that they can be decomposed and do not create waste that is difficult to decompose such as plastic, metal, and styrofoam. The trend of using sustainable materials is very positive and has a good impact in the long term. Because with increasing public awareness about the importance of protecting this aging earth, it can help protect nature and reduce the extinction of animals and plants.
Here are some examples of types of natural fibers and their unique characteristics.
Pineapple leaf fiber
Who would have thought if it turns out that pineapple leaves can be made into fiber that has a high selling value. Pineapple leaf fiber is fiber taken from pineapple leaves. The extraction of fiber from the leaves is carried out by a series of special processes. Pineapple leaves have an outer layer consisting of an upper and lower layer. Between these layers there are many bonds or strands of fibers that are bound to one another by a kind of gummy substance in the leaves. From the weight of fresh green pineapple leaves, approximately 2.5% to 3.5% of pineapple leaf fiber will be produced (Hidayat, 2008). The properties of this pineapple leaf fiber include being able to absorb moisture, its unique color because it has a whitish or silvery accent, it has a very high cellulose content, this fiber is quite strong and does not shrink easily, has antibacterial properties, has a distinctive smell and is shiny.
Is a fiber produced from the stems of the flax or flax plant. According to several sources, hemp fiber is one of the fibers that has been used for hundreds of years and is still being processed and utilized. Hemp fiber has a low lignin content, which makes this fiber have a white color. The characteristic properties of hemp fiber are its relatively long fiber, this fiber has better tensile strength than cotton, the absorption capacity of this fiber is quite high, and it has resistance to bacteria and fungi (Fitinline, 2020).
Is a type of fiber that is processed from the bamboo plant. There are many types of bamboo in this world but the most commonly used bamboo for processing into cloth is banbu moso (Phyllostachys edulis). The process of processing bamboo into fiber is quite complicated but it is comparable because it turns out that bamboo fiber has many advantages. Some of the characteristics of the properties of bamboo fiber include antibacterial and antifungal properties, even after washing it many times, these properties do not disappear but remain, can absorb and reduce odors, have a good absorption rate, and this fiber is very smooth and soft so it is suitable for several applications. people who have sensitive skin (Bamboo, 2016).
Is a fiber that comes from the agave plant, types of agave cantala and agave sisalana. Agave itself is one of the unique types of plants because the stems and leaves are united and the fiber contained in the leaves is quite strong. Sisal fiber itself has the characteristics of hard, rough, very strong and yellowish white. Sisal fiber has many functions that can be used, among others, for textiles, geotextiles, car body reinforcement, crafts, building and construction materials, etc. One sisal plant produces about 200-250 leaves and one leaf contains 1000-1200 fiber bundles(Basuki, 2017).
Is a fiber derived from the leaves of the abaca plant (Musa Textilis) including the family of Musaceae or types of bananas. Abaca fiber has the characteristics of being strong, waterproof, flexible and has good buoyancy. Because of these advantages, this fiber is widely used for the production of ropes and nets, which can also be used for making clothes. As well as raw materials for making filter paper, stencil paper to paper that requires high durability and storage power such as banknotes, securities, document paper, map paper, and other commercial products. Abaca fiber is used as a material for making currency because it has the advantages of fiber, including having the strength not brittle and not easy to break, having a very good texture, shiny like reflecting light, durable, flexible, and resistant to salinity (Balittas R & D agriculture, nd).
Each natural fiber has its own advantages and uniqueness. It is estimated that in the future the use of natural fibers will continue to increase considering the various human needs that are increasing from year to year and increasingly sophisticated technology does not rule out the possibility that in the future the use of natural fibers can be more optimal than now. However, to achieve this, we need to protect and preserve nature and protect the earth so that natural fibers can still grow and not experience extinction or scarcity.