Remittances to Reach $630 billion in 2022 with Record Flows into Ukraine
Officially recorded remittance flows to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are expected to increase by 4.2 percent this year to reach $630 billion. This follows an almost record recovery of 8.6 percent in 2021, according to the World Bank’s latest Migration and Development Brief released today.
Remittances to Ukraine, which is the largest recipient in Europe and Central Asia, are expected to rise by over 20 percent in 2022. However, remittance flows to many Central Asian countries, for which the main source is Russia, will likely fall dramatically. Thesedeclines, combined with rising food, fertilizer, and oil prices, are likely to increase risks to food security and exacerbate poverty in many of these countries.
“The Russian invasion of Ukraine has triggered large-scale humanitarian, migration and refugee crises and risks for a global economy that is still dealing with the impact of the COVID pandemic,” said Michal Rutkowski, Global Director of the Social Protection and Jobs Global Practice at the World Bank. “Boosting social protection programs to protect the most vulnerable, including Ukrainians and families in Central Asia, as well as those affected by the war’s economic impact, is a key priority to protect people from the threats of food insecurity and rising poverty.”
During 2021, remittance inflows saw strong gains in Latin America and the Caribbean (25.3 percent), Sub-Saharan Africa (14.1 percent), Europe and Central Asia (7.8 percent), the Middle East and North Africa (7.6 percent), and South Asia (6.9 percent). Remittances to East Asia and the Pacific fell by 3.3 percent; although excluding China, remittances grew 2.5 percent. Excluding China, remittance flows have been the largest source of external finance for LMICs since 2015.
The top five recipient countries for remittances in 2021 were India, Mexico (replacing China), China, the Philippines, and Egypt. Among economies where remittance inflows stand at very high shares of GDP are Lebanon (54 percent), Tonga (44 percent), Tajikistan (34 percent), Kyrgyz Republic (33 percent), and Samoa (32 percent).
“On the one hand, the Ukraine crisis has shifted global policy attention away from other developing regions and from economic migration. On the other hand, it has strengthened the case for supporting destination communities that are experiencing a large influx of migrants,” said Dilip Ratha, lead author of the report on migration and remittances and head of KNOMAD. “As the global community prepares to gather at the International Migration Review Forum, the creation of a Concessional Financing Facility for Migration to support destination communities should be seriously considered. This facility could also provide financial support to origin communities experiencing return migration during the COVID-19 crisis.”
Globally, the average cost of sending $200 was 6 percent in the fourth quarter of 2021, double the SDG target of 3 percent, according to the Bank’s Remittances Prices Worldwide Database. It is cheapest to send money to South Asia (4.3 percent) and most expensive to send to Sub-Saharan Africa (7.8 percent).
The costs of sending money to Ukraine are high (7.1 percent from Czech Republic, 6.5 percent from Germany, 5.9 percent from Poland, and 5.2 percent from USA). The global goodwill towards refugees and migrants from Ukraine opens an opportunity to develop and pilot programs to facilitate their access to jobs and social services in host countries, apply simplified anti-money laundering and counter-terrorist financing procedures for small remittance transactions to help reduce remittance costs and mobilize diaspora bond financing.
The war in Ukraine has also affected the international payment systems with implications for cross-border remittance flows. The exclusion of Russia from SWIFT has added a national security dimension to participation in international payments systems.
“Lowering remittance fees by 2 percentage points would potentially translate to $12 billion of annual savings for international migrants from LMICs, and $400 million for migrants and refugees from Ukraine,” added Ratha. “The cross-border payment systems, however, are likely to become multipolar and less interoperable, slowing progress on reducing remittance fees.”
World Bank Launches International Working Group to Improve Data on Remittances
The COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine have further highlighted the need for frequent and timely data. In April, the World Bank, under the auspices of KNOMAD and in collaboration with countries where remittances provide a financial lifeline, launched an International Working Group to Improve Data on Remittance Flows. Having improved data on remittances can directly support the Sustainable Development Goal indicators on reducing remittance costs and help increase the volume of remittances. This will also support the first Objective of the Global Compact on Migration, to improve data.
Regional Remittance Trends
Remittance flows to the East Asia and Pacific region fell 3.3 percent following a 7.3 percent drop in 2020. Flows reached $133 billion in 2021, close to 2017 levels. Excluding China, remittances to the region grew by 2.5 percent in 2021. Remittances to the Phillipines benefitted from job creation and wage gains in the United States where a large number of Filipino migrants live. Among economies where remittance inflows constitute a high percentage of their GDP are Tonga, Samoa, the Marshall Islands, the Philippines, and Fiji. Excluding China, remittance inflows are projected to grow by 3.8 percent in 2022. The average cost of sending $200 to the region fell to 5.9 percent in the fourth quarter of 2021 compared to 6.9 percent a year earlier.
Remittance inflows to Europe and Central Asia increased by 7.8 percent in 2021, reaching historic highs of $74 billion. The growth was due in large part to stronger economic activity in the European Union and rebounding energy prices. In 2021, Ukraine received inflows of $18.2 billion, driven by receipts from Poland, the largest destination country for Ukrainian migrant workers. Personal transfers constitute a vital source of finance and growth for the economies of Central Asia, for which Russia is the prime source. As a share of GDP, remittance receipts in Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic were 34 percent and 33 percent respectively in 2021. Near-term projections for remittances to the region, which are expected to fall by 1.6 percent in 2022, are highly uncertain, dependent on the scale of the war in Ukraine and the sanctions on outbound payments from Russia. By contrast, remittance flows to Ukraine are expected to increase by over 20 percent in 2022. The average cost of sending $200 to the region fell to 6.1 percent in the fourth quarter of 2021 from 6.4 percent a year earlier.
Remittance flows to Latin America and the Caribbean surged to $131 billion in 2021, up 25.3 percent from 2020 due to the strong job recovery for foreign-born workers in the United States. Countries registering double-digit growth rates included Guatemala (35 percent), Ecuador (31 percent) Honduras (29 percent), Mexico (25 percent), El Salvador (26 percent), Dominican Republic (26 percent), Colombia (24 percent), Haiti (21 percent), and Nicaragua (16 percent). Recorded flows to Mexico include funds received by transit migrants from Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Venezuela, Cuba, and others. Remittances are important as a source of hard currency for several countries for which these flows represent at least 20 percent of GDP, including El Salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, and Haiti. In 2022, remittances are estimated to grow by 9.1 percent, though downside risks remain. The average cost of sending $200 to the region was mostly unchanged at 5.6 percent in the fourth quarter of 2021 compared to a year earlier.
Remittances to the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region grew by 7.6 percent in 2021 to $61 billion, driven by robust gains into Morocco (40 percent) and Egypt (6.4 percent). Factors supporting the flows were economic growth in host countries in the European Union as well as transit migration which further boosted inflows to temporary host countries such as Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. In 2022, remittance flows will likely ease to a 6 percent gain. Remittances have long made up the largest source of external resource flows for developing MENA—among ODA, FDI, and portfolio equity and debt flows—accounting for 61 percent of total inflows in 2021. The cost of sending $200 to MENA fell to 6.4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2021 from 6.6 percent a year ago.
Remittances to South Asia grew 6.9 percent to $157 billion in 2021. Though large numbers of South Asian migrants returned to home countries as the pandemic broke out in early 2020, the availability of vaccines and opening of Gulf Cooperation Council economies enabled a gradual return to host countries in 2021, supporting larger remittance flows. Better economic performance in the United States was also a major contributor to the growth in 2021. Remittance flows to India and Pakistan grew by 8 percent and 20 percent, respectively. In 2022, growth in remittance inflows is expected to slow to 4.4 percent. Remittances are the dominant source of foreign exchange for the region, with receipts more than three times the level of FDI in 2021. South Asia has the lowest average remittance cost of any world region at 4.3 percent, though this is still higher than the SDG target of 3 percent.
Remittance inflows to Sub-Saharan Africa soared 14.1 percent to $49 billion in 2021 following an 8.1 percent decline in the prior year. Growth in remittances was supported by strong economic activity in Europe and the United States. Recorded inflows to Nigeria, the largest recipient country in the region, gained 11.2 percent, in part due to policies intended to channel inflows through the banking system. Countries registering double-digit growth rates include Cabo Verde (23.3 percent), Gambia (31 percent), and Kenya (20.1 percent). Countries where the value of remittance inflows as a share of GDP is significant include the Gambia (27 percent), Lesotho (23 percent), Comoros (19 percent), and Cabo Verde (16 percent). In 2022, remittance inflows are projected to grow by 7.1 percent driven by continued shift to the use of official channels in Nigeria and higher food prices – migrants will likely send more money to home countries that are now suffering extraordinary increases in prices of staples. The cost of sending $200 to the region averaged 7.8 percent in the fourth quarter of 2021, a small decline from 8.2 percent a year ago.
The Role of Edubirdie in Fostering Academic Growth: A Comprehensive Review
Most college students usually have a hard time studying for hours, submitting their assignments on time, preparing for upcoming exams, and finding time for their hobbies. Life becomes tougher when you have a part-time job and a family to take care of. While college life can be stressful, it doesn’t have to be. You can save a lot of time and get the results that you want by getting help from your colleagues, tutors, and online experts. When it comes to online experts, there are a lot of platforms that will help you submit your assignments on time. However, you should always use reputable ones to avoid getting scammed. Among them is Edubirdie. By googling this platform, you’ll find a lot of Edubirdie reviews on various platforms such as Reddit and numerous sites. In this post, we are going to answer the question – Is Edubirdie legit?
Why you need an Edubirdie essay
The rise of technology has led to the creation of numerous academic writing platforms in the digital space. These platforms exist to help learners submit high-quality papers on time and get good grades. Since there are a lot of essay writing platforms on the web, it’s not easy to find one that is ideal for you. It is crucial to invest time in researching and reading comprehensive reviews, for example, edubirdie.com review, and familiarizing yourself with the platform’s terms and conditions to avoid any potential pitfalls. I am pleased to report that Edubirdie ratings are quite high in the USA and other nations across the globe. The developers created a website that is not only easy to access but also navigate.
Every writer that you’ll interact with here has been screened thoroughly to ensure that you always get value for your money. If you are worried about paying huge amounts of money to the site, don’t fret. Their prices are pocket-friendly. Plus, the more you use their services, the easier it will be to get an Edubirdie discount code.
|Price range||Starts from $13.99|
|Payment options||Visa, MasterCard, PayPal|
|contact number||+1 888 337 5415|
Most websites that deal with academic writing usually display the services that they provide together with a price list. After reading a comprehensive Edubirdie review and testing the platform, I discovered that there is no fixed price on the homepage. However, you can easily figure out how much you’ll pay for a particular service by visiting the website, heading to my account, and inputting login information. Next, place your order and choose a writer. The platform will calculate the amount that you’ll pay based on a wide range of factors. They include the experience of the writer and the complexity and urgency of your paper assignment. Several reviews on Edubirdie at Yelp have shown that the average price of an academic paper starts from $13.99 per page. Compared to other reputable platforms in 2023, you’ll realize that Edubirdie legit is 100 percent true.
Quality of academic paper
Navigating the site is one of the easiest things that you’ll do in the essay-writing process. Once you put in the details of your assignment, you’ll be provided with a list of reputable writers who can work on your assignment. You’ll get to choose based on their qualifications and experience. And this will improve the quality of your paper. Choosing the ideal writer will ensure that your definition essay is error-free and original. You won’t have to use a dictionary to know the meaning of particular words while reading your essay.
Customer service review
A common trait of unreliable essay writing platforms is poor customer service. They may start ignoring you, especially after sending them money. This doesn’t happen at Edubirdie. I initiated contact numerous times with Edubirdie customer agents via different channels. And they responded accurately and on time. They were there to help me throughout the process. You can converse with them via social media platforms, contact number, live chat, or email. You can ask them about coupon codes, promo codes, or any other questions that you may have in mind.
Pros and cons
There is nothing perfect in this world. And this applies to Edubirdie. Here are its pros and cons:
- Responsive customer service department
- Unique and error-free essay papers
- Easy access to screened writers
- Numerous factors determine the amount that you’ll pay
- Most reviewers publish inaccurate information about the site
- Fake bio photos of a few writers
1. What is Edubirdie legit?
It is one of the leading essay writing platforms in the digital space. According to Ressellerratings, it has assisted thousands of students in different countries to achieve their biggest goals in life.
2. Will I spend a fortune?
No. Edubirdie offers pocket-friendly services to its clients. While many factors determine how much you’ll pay, the starting price of a college paper is $13.99 per page. No to mention the discounts and promo codes that you’ll get in the process.
3. Will my work be 100 percent original?
Yes. Edubirdie does not tolerate any form of plagiarism. In case a writer submits duplicate content, you can always report it and have them rewrite the paper. If they fail to correct issues, they won’t be paid.
If you’ve been struggling with your assignments, you should consider getting help from the experts. One of the popular platforms for essay help on the web today is Edubirdie. It’s perfect for students who want nothing but the best at an affordable price. The more you use the site, the easier it will be to get discount codes. Don’t hesitate to get help from the agents via live chat, email, or phone. They will be glad to assist you achieve your long-term goals.
ETH Price Predictions and Upgrades for Ethereum in the Future
Excerpt: If one assumes a steep, monotonic increase in price for Ethereum, along with a natural expansion of the network across several other countries, the price of Ethereum will likely touch $16,024.42 by the end of 2030.
Ethereum, which is the second-largest cryptocurrency by market cap, has become a vital part of the decentralized finance (DeFi) and Non-Fungible Tokens (NFT) environments. Ethereum, with its indigenous currency Ether (ETH), has suffered massive instability and growth over the years.
DeFi and NFTs have earned significant traction and have massively contributed to Ethereum’s valuation. DeFi proposes several financial services while NFT is a class of digital collectibles that represent exclusive ownership of assets. Both DeFi and NFT significantly depend on Ethereum’s smart contract feature, making Ethereum a vital component of the digital markets.
Several factors can change the price of Ethereum. For example, factors such as market demand, regulatory developments, technological advancements, and macroeconomic trends. Below are some of the price predictions for the upcoming years.
Ethereum (ETH) Price Prediction from 2023 -2030
The entire of 2023 will be spent recovering from the crypto winter. Ethereum is estimated to touch $3,277.72, and the minimum price can be predicted at $2,185.15. The average price for the years should hover around $2,731.44. Ethereum is predicted to achieve newer heights in 2024 and present an average price of $4,552.39. In 2025, Ethereum is expected to increase to an average of $6,373.35.
If one assumes a steep, monotonic increase in price for Ethereum, along with a natural expansion of the network across several other countries, the price of Ethereum will likely touch $16,024.42 by the end of 2030. Moreover, the average price of the token will steady itself at $15,478.14. The major bull run over the past five-six years is likely to uphold the market sentiment and hence, the price of Ethereum will rise accordingly.
Several other price predictions for Ethereum in the future are provided below.
Ethereum prediction by Raoul Pal
The Chief Executive Officer of Real Vision Group, Raoul Pal says all things positive about Ethereum. In a recent interview, he estimated that Ethereum would reach $20,000 by the end of 2023, and would be a significant hike from its present price.
Ethereum Prediction by Michael Van de Poppe
According to crypto analyst and trader Michael Van De Poppe, Ethereum could achieve a price between $2700 and $3000 in the next couple of months. His estimates are based on the increasing adoption of DeFi and NFTs along with Ethereum’s incoming upgrades.
Ethereum’s Upgrade and its Impact
Etereum 2.0 is a network upgrade that is focused on enhancing the platform’s scalability, privacy, and energy efficiency. This upgrade is highly anticipated by the blockchain community and hence, can have a massive impact on Ethereum’s price.
Ethereum 2.0 is a series of upgrades curated to make Ethereum more scalable and secure. Essentially, the Ethereum network’s upgrade revolves around transitioning from the current Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism to the Proof of Stake (PoS) model. PoS, which is a way to validate transactions on the blockchain, makes the network more energy-efficient and environment-friendly than the PoW model. This transition has gained traction from several investors and crypto enthusiasts who are environment-conscious and want to use a network that is easy on the planet.
Since the most recent Ethereum upgrade uses lesser gas fees, it shall be assumed as the next blockchain of choice. Moreover, the network upgrades enhance the network’s scalability via the application of sharding and several other optimizations. This will enable more transactions per second while lessening the congestion.
In the future, the price predictions are estimated to be bullish, however, the crypto market has shown its instability over the past few years and nothing can be estimated with utmost guarantee.
Bloomberg: Germany, Europe’s economic engine, is breaking down
Germany has been Europe’s economic engine for decades, pulling the region through one crisis after another. But that resilience is breaking down, and it spells danger for the whole continent, writes Bloomberg.
Decades of flawed energy policy, the demise of combustion-engine cars and a sluggish transition to new technologies are converging to pose the most fundamental threat to the nation’s prosperity since reunification. But unlike in 1990, the political class lacks the leadership to tackle structural issues gnawing at the heart of the country’s competitiveness.
“We’ve been naïve as a society because everything seems fine,” BASF SE Chief Executive Officer Martin Brudermüller told Bloomberg. “These problems we have in Germany are accumulating. We have a period of change ahead of us; I don’t know if everyone realizes this.”
While Berlin has shown a knack for overcoming crises in the past, the question now is whether it can pursue a sustained strategy. The prospect looks remote. Chancellor Olaf Scholz’s make-shift coalition has reverted to petty infighting over everything from debt and spending to heat pumps and speed limits as soon as the risks of energy shortfalls eased.
But the warning signals are getting hard to ignore. Despite Scholz telling Bloomberg in January that Germany would ride out Russia’s energy squeeze without a recession this year, data published Thursday show that the economy has in fact been contracting since October and has only expanded twice in the past five quarters.
Economists see German growth lagging behind the rest of the region for years to come, and the International Monetary Fund estimates Germany will be the worst-performing G-7 economy this year.
Germany finds itself ill-suited to sustainably serve the energy needs of its industrial base; overly dependent on old-school engineering; and lacking the political and commercial agility to pivot to faster-growing sectors. The array of structural challenges points to a cold awakening for the center of European power, which has become accustomed to uninterrupted affluence.
To its credit, industrial behemoths like Volkswagen AG, Siemens AG and Bayer AG are flanked by thousands of smaller Mittelstand companies, and the country’s conservative spending habits put it on a stronger fiscal footing than its peers to support the transformation ahead. But it has little time to waste.
The most pressing issue for Germany is getting its energy transition on track. Affordable power is a key precondition for industrial competitiveness, and even before the end of Russian gas supplies, Germany had some of the highest electricity costs in Europe. Failure to stabilize the situation could transform a trickle of manufacturers heading elsewhere into a stampede.
Berlin is responding to concerns by seeking a cap on power prices for some energy-intensive industries like chemicals through 2030 — a plan that could cost taxpayers as much as €30 billion ($32 billion). But that would be a temporary patch, and shows Germany’s desperate situation in terms of supply.
Scholz’s administration aims to hook up roughly 625 million solar panels and 19,000 wind turbines by 2030, but promises to accelerate the rollout to months from years have yet to bear fruit. Meanwhile, demand is expected to soar due to the electrification of everything from heating and transportation to steelmaking and heavy industry.
The bitter reality is that resources for generating that much clean power are limited in Germany by its relatively small coastline and lack of sun. In response, the country is looking to build a vast infrastructure to import hydrogen from the likes of Australia, Canada and Saudi Arabia — banking on technology that hasn’t been tested at this scale.
Much of Germany’s wealth and social order rest on a vibrant manufacturing sector that provides well-paid blue-collar jobs. But that strength has led to dangerous dependencies on overseas markets for orders and raw materials — above all China.
Germany needs to address its issues with a long-term program, but that looks questionable. Scholz won the chancellery with the lowest level of support in the postwar era as voters ditched the tradition of handing a clear mandate to either the Social Democrats or the Christian Democrat-led conservative bloc.
With Scholz’s messy three-way coalition racked with bickering, Germany is poised for instability, and the far-right Alternative for Germany has seized on the political vacuum, vying for second in some polls.
In a recent report, the OECD put the scale of the challenges in stark terms: “No major industrialized economy has ever had the very basis of its competitiveness and resilience so systematically challenged by changing social, environmental and regulatory pressures.”
That in turn will ripple across the entire continent, according to Dana Allin, a professor at SAIS Europe. “The health of the German economy is crucial for the broader European economy, and the bloc’s harmony and solidarity,” he said.
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