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BIMSTEC and Bangladesh-India Cooperation: Mutuality and Prospects



Since 1971, Bangladesh and India have maintained warm relations with each other. Bilateral cooperation in the economic sector, diplomatic domain, socio-cultural arena, energy, and security are widely visible since these are the priorities for both the governments. Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is one of those rostrums which helps to reconnect and think in different ways to uphold the relations. Although BIMSTEC was established more than two decades ago, it needs to implement regional development projects for its expected contribution in the Bay of Bengal region. The Bangladesh-India relationship is considered to be a critical factor for consolidating the BIMSTEC. For Bangladesh and India, it is a bridge to connect with the South East Asian states.

The Fifth BIMSTEC Summit was held in Sri Lanka under the theme of “BIMSTEC – Towards a Resilient Region, Prosperous Economies, Healthy Peoples”. The theme showcases that BIMSTEC is a platform to uphold and boost economic growth and social progress among members across 14 priority aspects. Trade and investment, technology, energy, transportation and communication, tourism, fisheries, and agriculture, were selected as priority areas of collaboration by BIMSTEC members as early as 2008. Aquaculture (both inland and coastal), hydrography, seabed mineral exploration, coastal shipping, eco-tourism, and renewable ocean energy were added to this list in 2016 as a reflection of the Blue Economy and the Mountain Economy. Climate change was added in 2008. Public health, poverty alleviation, counter-terrorism and transnational crime, environment and disaster management, people to people contact, and lastly cultural cooperation can also be stated. These are the principal area of cooperation among BIMSTEC countries.

On 30 March 2022, member states of BIMSTEC signed the BIMSTEC Charter and witnessed the signing of the BIMSTEC Convention on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters, the Memorandum of Association on the Establishment of the BIMSTEC Technology Transfer Facility, and the MoU on Mutual Cooperation between Diplomatic Academies/Training Institutions of BIMSTEC Member States. The summit was held in a hybrid fashion in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Cooperation between Bangladesh and India can further be strengthened by using the platform of BIMSTEC. And bilateral cooperation complements both their bilateral and regional integration as well as the key focus of BIMSTEC.

Why BangladeshIndia Cooperation

The importance of Bangladesh-India bilateral cooperation lies in the widening of connectivity, trade and investment cooperation, security and defense cooperation, energy security, and socio-cultural bond. Bangladesh is one of the most strategically needed friends of India given the geopolitical environment in this vicinity. Similarly, India is the most important strategic partner of Bangladesh. Trade with the Southeast Asian states, Bangladesh’s transit is more feasible and viable rather than bypassing Bangladesh. India’s Act East Policy becomes cost-effective and successful if India has warm relations with Bangladesh. The Bay of Bengal is a prominent feature for India since its northeast is landlocked. Bangladesh is the best option to negotiate with the obstacles.

The Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Sheikh Hasina, presented three points at the Fifth BIMSTEC summit, urging all leaders to commit to making the process fully functioning by activating all 14 areas of collaboration. In the first point, Bangladesh’s prime minister chose to implement and operationalize all agreed-upon decisions, such as the BIMSTEC Free Trade Area, BIMSTEC centers, and entities such as the Disaster Management Centre, the Energy Centre, and the Cultural Commission, as well as connectivity projects and energy grid connectivity, in order to provide immediate tangible benefits to the people. Here lie the interests of Bangladesh since Bangladesh’s energy sector and disaster management need support to sustain itself. She advocated for expediting the completion of all other legal instruments and policy documents that were already in the works but had not yet been finalized, in order to keep the organization’s momentum moving forward. Lastly, Prime Minister recommended that the organization be empowered to engage in creative and innovative processes by increasing its partnerships and engagement with relevant entities outside of BIMSTEC in order to confront rising challenges and seize new possibilities.

An effective multilateral cooperation cannot be developed without bilateral support between Bangladesh and India. Bangladesh-India cooperation can be a game-changer in the BISMTEC. The areas of cooperation suggest that a strong and common stand between Bangladesh and India on vital issues such as free trade, security, connectivity and disaster management is the key to the success of this regional process. It would motivate other powerful members such as Thailand and Myanmar to become proactive and more committed to achieving the goals of BIMSTEC.

Domains of Bangladesh-India Cooperation for the Success of BIMSTEC

There are several areas, which would benefit BISMSTEC through Bangladesh-India bilateral cooperation and vice versa. First, Bangladesh Prime Minister, Sheikh Hasina, during the fifth BIMSTEC Summit, emphasized the importance of developing consensus solutions for rebuilding a sustainable and resilient Bay of Bengal Region by utilizing the region’s full potential. Blue Economy, coastal welfare, rule of law, illicit trades, piracy, armed robbery, maritime enforcement, maritime mixed migration are the areas to be taken care of. For extraction of huge unexplored resources in the region, member countries need bilateral partenrhsips. Bangladesh-India partnerhsip is a case in point. India being the trusted neighbor can be a better option as the issues mentioned must also have some security concerns. Second, basically, BIMSTEC addresses the non-traditional security issues. Both Bangladesh and India need one another to deal with these issues. The Rohingya crisis brings about some aspects of non-traditional threats such as human trafficking, illicit drug smuggling, money laundering, and illegal migration etc.

Third, connectivity is another significant area of cooperation relevant to BIMSTEC.The Patna to Pandu via Bangladesh voyage of food grains on the 6 March 2022 indicated the opportunity and the current state of friendship between Bangladesh and India.  The voyage describes, “The vessel starts its sail on National Waterway-1 (river Ganga) through Bhagalpur, Manihari, Sahibganj, Farakka, Tribeni, Kolkata, Haldia, Hemnagar; Indo Bangladesh Protocol (IBP) route through Khulna, Narayanganj, Sirajganj, Chilmari and National Waterway-2 through Dhubri, and Jogighopa covering a distance of 2,350 km. The vessel will take about 25 days to cover the entire voyage and is expected to reach Pandu in Guwahati by early March.” This gives another perspective of connectivity between Bangladesh and India. India has introduced a Master Plan to enhance regional integration, through envisioning multimodal connectivity projects across BIMSTEC sub-regions by air, land, and sea.

Bangladesh and India share a long border. Apart from that, India also has vulnerability with its Northeast in terms of connectivity with the sea. Bangladesh allowed India to use two of its ports. And the landlocked Northeast can be connected through the Maitri Setu over Feni river which can connect the Tripura to the Bay of Bengal. The Kaladan project is also there to make the connection between the Northeast and the Western regions of India. If Bangladesh can make India think of using Bangladesh’s ports as a refueling hub, it would boost mutual understanding. From the Bangladesh’s point of view, India’s Northeast can be a big market. The Northeast can open further economic prospects by connecting Bangladesh with the South East Asian countries. Bangladesh also needs transit through India to connect with Bhutan and Nepal.

Bangladesh and India have scope to use its growing trade cooperation for BIMSTEC. India’s exports to Bangladesh have climbed at a yearly pace of 8.46 percent over the last 25 years, from $1.04 billion in 1995 to $7.91 billion in 2020. Bangladesh has also achieved a milestone by exporting $1.01 billion to India in 2020. The Trade Negotiating Committee (TNC), Working Group on the Rules of Origin (WG-RoO) and the Working Group on the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (WG-DSM) may help the two countries to remove trade barriers.

Bangladesh is a role model to most of the South Asian countries for its achievement in fighting against terrorism. After the Gulshan’s Holey Artisan incident in 2016 both the countries emphasize countering terrorism in the region. BIMSTEC has also placed terrorism in its top priority.

Conclusion: Spill-Over Effects

A deepened Bangladesh-India relationship will have spill-over effects within the BIMSTEC. Through Bangladesh-India relations, it can be showcased that cooperation is possible and it has larger canvas. The connectivity with India will attract other regional powers to think about establishing or strengthening relations within BIMSTEC. Bangladesh-India cooperation may help approaching approach Thailand and Myanmar to create trade opportunities by implementing long pending BIMSTEC Free Trade Agreement. The current chair of BIMSTEC is Thailand, who can promote relations with Bangladesh and India.

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World Order Is Old Order: New World Order Is No Order



The grand hallucinations: When there is any order, it always becomes visible as an orderly progression, when it is supposed to be a secret or an invisible order, then it is grand hallucinations for a cult of illusionists. Observe how the World Order is an old order, and notice how the new world order is no order. The random engagements in illusionary cultish acts of chaos sold as order. Fakery sold and resold as victory, illusions pushed as hallucinations of success. Courage is needed to see the big magical acts of grand hallucinations.

The feel of afternoon-high: Across the world, free economies are already bent, twisted or broken, while procedures, policies and laws, everything on sale for the right price. Mighty-money, delivered crisply stacked, shrink-wrapped as freshly printed solutions, to buy more chaos, spread misery and create the economic hallucinations and stage the smoke and mirrors, all without any totals, balances or columns. Sold to feel a real afternoon-high.

The interchange: When integrity gone, fakery dominates, when real value-creation gone value-manipulation regulates, when vision gone illusions thrives, when national economics gone hallucinations declared as great success and reality interchanges to fakery.  

The elasticity left: Needed across the free economies of the world, no further proof required, a total change, no further verification needed, as political power no longer economical power, no further help needed, as most nations in need of basic diaper change. Visible damage to skills and competency, inability to understand and articulate the real problems with grassroots solutions is now a big tragedy of our times. Nations already stretched via rubber band economy, some with elasticity left before going bust.

The truth: Which nation has the capacity to face the truth? Which nation can fix itself not just top reshuffle, but rather from top to bottom to the real core? Which nation can uplift its citizenry to stand up to global age skills and cope with global speed and competitiveness? Which nation is capable of understanding and has the right to mobilize its hidden national entrepreneurialism and provide a future for the next generation?

No electricity and missing bulbs: Is there any value left in the most cherished Machiavellian style political power without ever creating any economic power? Is there any remaining value in economic power play of today without entrepreneurial growth models? What good are economies when stuck in waste paper baskets still without digitization like a nation being without electricity? What real economic value is created when odd mindsets playing with economic development procedures like creating light but with no bulb?  

Welcome to cold facts and warm realties.

The branded nations: Why each and every single nation of our planet is now branded every single day of the year? Like it or not, agree with what is said, disagree with what gossiped, simple fact of the day,  each nation is branded, between each sunrise and sunset. Here is some advanced level insight for the national leaderships on global corporate communication challenges, as what may be altering their efforts on global affairs, what might mold their global trades as the deep undercurrents of global ‘likes’ and ‘dislikes’ from the global populace shape their national global image and rate of popularly and any level of respect on world stage.

The global opinion: Observe how fast the world changed, how the ocean of “global opinion” is now drowning ponds of “national opinion”. Notice, nations already intoxicated, in joy over the popularity of their own national opinion, while having just an opposite global opinion on the world stage. What does this mean to a nation’s image supremacy, how does this translate into economic impacts? Why is any global opinion of any kind important anyway? Be cautious, if such important topics are not discussed in your boardrooms, check out the restrooms.

The fabric of humankind. Every huge, little, deadly, serious or funny incident of any kind, becomes ‘alive’ in global social media, where despite all controls its is processed with common sense with common emotions, commented and circulated around the world, many times, registered, measured, analyzed, criticized and humanized as good, bad or ugly in the minds of the global populace.  No one can stop it. Facing truth is now a new global challenge of moral strength, something that increasingly demands insight and awareness. Shunning, arguing or defending and fighting has little or no power, as the real power hidden is in critical thinking to solve common good, humankind issues.   

The 200 nations, now under their own global digital spell, responding, and adjusting their own feedback and updating reality checks, influenced by the five billion, connected populace driving the world opinion.  The voices are no longer the big old-media, as they have already lost their credibility and power,  but across the world the new known and unknown big and small clusters of people sharing their thoughts amongst their local and global connectivity and surroundings. The truth rises, because this is how the critical needs for common good and social justice advances. The fabric of humankind stretches, starts to cover all nations.

Weaponization of Ideologicalism:  Why are most nations increasingly unable to control their restless citizenry? How much more will the citizens of these nations, continuously influenced by the global opinion, facing common sense, chasing truth, turning internal tribalism, into cultural wars defining limits of ideologies, as Weaponization of Ideologicalism slowly ripping local social fabric and crushing economies. Where are the repairmen, where are the solutions, which leadership is ready to articulate and bring national mobilization of entrepreneurialism as an untapped national treasure. Which nation is ready to face reality and show their advanced skills?

The aimless directives: When nations appear aimlessly drifting into hallucinations, the lack of vision, absence of social justice, unable to control internal tribalism, cultural wars move to ideological wars. Nations fragmented and splintered, now facing street by street mental wars. The visible lack of skills at the top management, lack of speed of execution at middle level and the absence of any motivation at remaining workforces now seriously limits all new options.

The coming revolution: The next global revolution, driven by economic chaos based on social failures, while the middle classes already disappeared, may not be about the mobs of commoners with broom-sticks but most likely the imploding calm and silent systemic collapse of bureaucratic administrative blockades and fall of economic intellectualism for destroying the fabric of humankind.

The absence of dialogue, only proves lack of real pragmatic solutions, skills and competence. Electioneering, sloganeering and fakery of wars to remain in power with no real economic solution, in global opinion a colossal failure.  Therefore, “Self Mastery” urgently needed to differentiate between a mesmerized mind with an enlightened one will possibly be a way to face the new challenges. Economies will only improve when old methodologies declared broken

The new world order: No other time in the history of civilization, so many globally connected will hold responsible the so few in power for destroying the remains of world order and bringing the world to a nuclear war.  A war, suggested to eliminate five billion people. It is possible, the coming revolutions to be less about anarchy but more about establishing real meritocracy. The need to search, find and strive for real value creation to answers grassroots prosperity affairs and eliminate lingering bureaucracies with fermented layers of incompetency. How soon will the five billion connected reach a critical point to select the right players with right policies and declare common good the new ultimate goals? This may eventually lead to a new world order. Pandemic was just a sneeze, economy, now like a hole in the empty pocket, leadership like a circus show, while billions looking up. Acquire mastery. Get ready for major global shifts of major economic behaviorism. The rest is easy. 

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Mosul’s recovery moves towards a circular economy



Five years since the end of the ISIL(so-called Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant) conflict in 2017, the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Iraq and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), with funding from the Government of Japan, has established a debris recycling centre in Mosul. After its initial use, the centre has now been handed over to Mosul Municipality for its continued, sustainable operation.

“On behalf of the Iraqi Government, the Ministry of Environment expresses its gratitude to the Government of Japan for generously supporting this important project and to UNEP and IOM for enabling the sustainable management of the huge quantities of conflict debris and restabilization of the liberated areas in an environmentally sustainable manner,” said Iraq’s Minister for Environment, Dr. Jasim Abdulazeez Humadi.

The handover of the Mosul debris recycling centre marks a significant step in the sustainable management of the huge volumes of debris — an estimated 55 million tonnes — created by the ISIL conflict. It also opens the way for the recycling of routine construction and demolition waste, contributing to ‘building back better’ and an increased circularity in Iraq’s development.

UNEP West Asia Regional Director, Sami Dimassi, emphasized that “by reducing waste, stimulating innovation and creating employment, debris recycling also creates an important business opportunity.” Indeed, construction companies in Mosul have expressed interest in purchasing the recycled aggregate, thereby underscoring the longer-term sustainability of debris recycling.

“This project supports recovery and livelihoods by drawing on principles of a circular economy, wherein waste and land pollution is limited through production processes that reuse and repurpose materials for as long as possible,” explained IOM Iraq Chief of Mission, Giorgi Gigauri. “Collaboration and sustainability are key priorities in IOM’s work toward durable solutions to displacement, and we are pleased to have partnered with UNEP and the Government of Japan so that this is represented not only in the function of the plant itself, but also in its functioning, by supporting local authorities to be prepared to effectively operate the plant moving forward.”

On 28 July 2022, Mosul Municipality hosted an event to officially hand over the debris recycling centre, attended by senior government officials and academia, as well as representatives from IOM, UNEP and the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI).

Masamoto Kenichi, Charge d’Affaires, Embassy of Japan to Iraq stated: “We are glad to know that the project funded by the government and people of Japan has contributed to cleanup of debris and reconstruction of Mosul. We would like to commend UNEP, IOM and the city of Mosul for their tremendous efforts of turning the legacy of ISIL’s devastation into building blocks of reconstruction”.

Through the rubble recycling project, nearly 25,000 tonnes of debris have been recovered and sorted, of which around half was crushed into recycled aggregate. Material testing of the recycled aggregate endorsed by the National Center for Structural Tests of the Ministry of Planning confirms its compliance with the Iraqi State Commission for Roads and Bridges design standards for road foundational layers and its suitability for several low strength end-use applications such as concrete blocks and kerbstones.

The project created 240 much-needed jobs through cash-for-work schemes targeting vulnerable persons, including 40 women.

Building on this experience, IOM has set up two other debris recycling operations in Sinjar and Hamdaniya in Ninewa Governorate, and a third in Hawija in Kirkuk Governorate, where a pilot phase using a mobile crusher was implemented in al-Buwaiter Village in 2021. In addition, two other conflict-affected governorates — namely Salah al-Din and Anbar — have  also shown a high-level of interest in replicating and scaling up debris recycling in their own regions. 

UNEP has been supporting Iraq in cleaning up the huge volumes of debris created by the ISIL conflict since June 2017. Initially, this included carrying out technical assessments and planning workshops with UN-Habitat, and subsequently designing and implementing debris recycling pilot projects to support returns in Mosul, Kirkuk and other conflict-affected areas in cooperation with IOM.


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Digital Futures: Driving Systemic Change for Women



Authors: Erin Watson-Lynn and Tengfei Wang*

As digital technology continues to unlock new financial opportunities for people across Asia and the Pacific, it is critical that women are central to strategies aimed at harnessing the digital financial future. Women are generally poorer than men – their work is less formal, they receive lower pay, and their money is less likely to be banked. Even when controlling for class, rural residency, age, income, and education level, women are overrepresented among the world’s poorest people in developing countries. Successfully harnessing digital technology can play a key role in creating new opportunities for women to utilise formal financial products and services in ways that empower them. 

Accelerating women’s access to the formal economy through digital innovations in finance increases their opportunity to generate an income and builds resilience to economic shocks. The recently issued ESCAP guidebook titled, Harnessing Digital Technology for Financial Inclusion in the Asia Pacific, highlights the fact that mechanisms to bring women into the digital economy are different from those for other groups, and that tailored policy responses are important for women to fully realise their potential in the Asia-Pacific region.

Overwhelmingly, the evidence tells us that how women utilise their finances can have a beneficial impact on the broader community. When women have bank accounts, they are more likely to save money, buy healthier foods for their family, and invest in education. For women who receive Government-to-Person (G2P) payments, there is significant improvement in their lives across a range of social and economic outcomes. Access to safe, secure, and affordable digital financial services thus has the potential to significantly improve the lives of women.

Despite the enormous opportunity, there are numerous constraints which affect women’s access to financial services. This includes the gender gap in mobile phone ownership across Asia and the Pacific, lower levels of education (including lower levels of basic numeracy and literacy), and lower levels of financial literacy. This complex web of constraints means that country and provincial level diagnostics are required and demands agile and flexible policy responses that meet the unique needs of women across the region.

Already, across Asia and the Pacific, governments are implementing innovative policy solutions to capture the opportunities that come with digital finance, while trying to manage the constraints women often face. The policy guidebook provides a framework to examine the role of governments as market facilitators, market participants and market regulators. Through this framework, specific policy innovations drawn from examples across the region are identified which other governments can adapt and implement in their local markets.  

A good example of how strategies can be implemented at either the central government or local government levels can be found in Pakistan. While central government leadership is important, embedding tailored interventions into locally appropriate strategies plays a crucial role for implementation and effectiveness. The localisation of broader strategies needs to include women in their development and ongoing evaluation. In the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, 50,000 beneficiary committees comprising local women at the district level regularly provide feedback into the government’s G2P payment system. The feedback from these committees led to a biometric system linked to the national ID card that has enabled the government to identify women who weren’t receiving their payments, or if payments were fraudulently obtained by others.

In Cambodia and the Philippines, governments have implemented new and innovative solutions to support remittance payments through public-private-partnerships and policies that enable access to non-traditional banks. In Cambodia, Wing Money has specialised programs for women, who are overwhelmingly the beneficiaries of remittance payments. Creating an enabling environment for a business such as Wing Money to develop and thrive with these low-cost solutions is an example of a positive market intervention. In the Philippines, adjusting banking policies to enable access to non-traditional banking enables women, especially those with micro-enterprises in rural areas, to access digital products.

While facilitating participation in the market can yield benefits for women, so can regulating in a way that drives systemic change. For example, in Lao People’s Democratic Republic and India, different mechanisms for targets are used to improve access to digital financial products. In Lao People’s Democratic Republic, the central government through its national strategy, introduced a target of a 9 per cent increase in women’s access to financial services by 2025. In India, their targets are set within the bureaucracy to incentivise policy makers to implement the Digital India strategy and promotions and job security are rewarded based on performance.

These examples of innovative policy solutions are only foundational. The options for governments and policy makers at the nexus of market facilitation, participation and regulation demands creativity and agility. Underpinning this is the need for a baseline of country and regional level diagnostics to capture the diverse needs of women – those who are set to benefit the most of from harnessing the future of digital financial inclusion.

*Tengfei Wang, Economic Affairs Officer

This article is the second of a two-part series based on the findings of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Policy Guidebook: Harnessing Digital Technology for Financial Inclusion in Asia and the Pacific, and is jointly prepared by ESCAP and the Griffith Asia Institute.source: UNESCAP

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