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China Contributes to International Peace and Stability: Evidence from the Russo-Ukrainian War

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Some members of the U.S. Congress, particularly Republicans, are advocating for the United States to take a more severe stance in the Ukraine conflict. A Republican Party official is asking for President Putin’s head, while others are demanding for American jets to be flown into Ukraine, a no-fly zone imposed, and an escalation of Russia’s formidable embargo. In Western hegemony, Ukraine is nothing more than a bait to draw Russia into the abyss. Those in the United States and those outside the United States are well aware of the destructive nature of hegemonic methods.

In his time in office, President Donald Trump, who was part of the governing elite’s most militant wing, has fallen short of the aim in his trade war with China. Failed attempts to provoke and exacerbate China’s conflict were mostly due to the tense relationship between the United States and most of its allies at the time, as well as President Putin’s posture, which discouraged the United States from continuing its provocative efforts.

When it came to US foreign policy-making, it was evident that this group of big arms firms (as well as pressure groups that gain directly or indirectly from policies aimed at increasing tensions in international relations) was at the top of the list. After its attempts to inflame tensions with China failed, it resorted during the presidency of Joe Biden to focusing on Russia as the centre of its rivalry.

After all these years, the ultimate goal remains the same: to thwart China’s ascent towards global prominence and to keep Russia from reclaiming its former position as the world’s preeminent power following the collapse of the Soviet Union and its subsequent dissolution. A simple shift in the order of power, starting with China or Prussia, is all that has occurred. To express his goal to restore Russia’s global clout, President Putin didn’t just wake up one day and declare it his mission to do so.

When we look back at the Atlantic Alliance expansions in Central and Eastern Europe, we can see how far he has come since taking power. Before Russia’s influence reached Equatorial Africa, he reclaimed his country’s practice of growth. He was aware of the recent developments in Ukraine. The Ukraine is not just another European country, but an integral part of the Russian cultural, imperial, religious, and security organism no matter what colour its rule is or how large its regional and international duties are.

Russia’s political elite, including the intelligence community, have long held the belief that when the United States intended to pluck Putin’s Russia’s feathers; it will begin in Ukraine rather than Georgia and Chechnya. During the Trump administration, however, as well as, although with much less concentration, during the Biden era, it became evident that China tried and succeeded in evading many American traps. America’s battle with Russia has made President Joe Biden unavailable for use in the country’s dispute with China. That is not to say that China’s academics didn’t anticipate America to launch its hot or cold fights with its Russian and Chinese adversaries as soon as the American infrastructure had been ravaged and damaged.

As it turns out, the Russians anticipated Washington to view them as a less serious danger than the Chinese, but this wouldn’t have started with Russia until the Atlantic alliance came together and rallied behind the United States. The Communist Party of China (CPC) is still keen not to be dragged into serious international crises, whether with neighbour or non-Asians, despite the many changes to Chinese foreign policy that have been made.

There’s no doubt, that Deng Xiaoping’s wisdom still rules and binds the CPC under President Xi Jinping. According to China’s policymakers, the United States is aiming to “stop China’s rise” at all costs, in both its declared strategy and the rules of its undeclared policies. If China’s “ambitions and its rising influence on all continents” are not reined in by “armed force,” the United States should try to re-establish “absolute unipolarity” following the Soviet breakup, by any means, including armed force.

To put it another way, the Ukraine crisis is for Russia a long-overdue lesson, while it serves as an early and indirect one for China. This means that Beijing was correct in not aligning with Moscow as a full and integrated partner in this battle. If the pillars of American power had been brought together, the trap laid in Ukraine might have spread to Russia and China at the same time. Moreover, China did not blunder in her future moves, such as investing in worldwide reactions, to accurately evaluate the circumstances of her next steps.

It’s well-known among historians that China enjoys repurposing the sayings, opinions, and experiences of famous people throughout the course of its long history. When China was just beginning to grow, for example, they had a hand in starting the positive neutrality movement and later serving as its head. As a result of the Ukraine crisis, phrases ascribed to Zhou Enlai, the prime minister of the Chinese revolution in mid-century, have returned to the forefront of the Chinese stance today; such as “peaceful coexistence” and “non-interference in other nations’ internal affairs” have been circulated.

In light of the current Ukraine issue, it’s crucial to point out that developing nations have re-established these ideals to explain their governments’ and peoples’ outrage at the hegemonic conflicts being perpetrated by the American and Russian poles. When the two adults and their little victims get into arguments, chaos ensues. If the developing nations repeat these inflammatory slogans or old-fashioned beliefs, China will recognize that they have an important part to play.

All of the developing world’s perspectives on the Ukraine issue have been made public, and they denounce both sides. There were two major parties: one led by America, which overran its own armies, invading sovereign countries and not seeking permission from the Security Council to do so, and one led by Russia, which also intervened with armies to invade sovereign countries and not seeking permission from the Security Council. Thousands of people have been forced to flee their homes as a result of the occupation of neighbouring Ukraine.

It’s true that China, as an ascendant rebellious pole, is expected to take the lead in a movement initiated by independent and non-aligned countries to eliminate hegemony and colonialism. World peace can’t be established or stabilized unless Russia and the U.S. reject bigotry in insisting that international summits remain the exclusive realm of white people, as China has demonstrated. The crisis in Ukraine has been and continues to be eye-opening. In the first place, it exposed Europe’s deception about human rights to the peoples of the developing world by separating the blue-eyed white IDP from the brown-and-yellow IDP.

First and foremost: It made clear that, as in Europe’s first big crises, China and her narrow-eyed yellow people are unfathomable as the leader of a globe still ruled by forces that practice racism. There were striking similarities between the United States’ management of the Ukraine issue, as well as Russia and its European neighbours, and its handling of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. The Ukraine conflict might take a number of different directions. The fate that awaits the globe if the United States and other European countries continue on pushing Russia into danger or down a more severe route is the most serious and hazardous of them. This is where we hope that China, depending on support from the developing world, would intervene to save the West from itself, avert the murder of Ukraine, set Russia on a new route that it has never followed before, and restore hope to the developing world in a future without hegemony or tyranny.

Mohamad Zreik is an independent researcher, doctor of international relations. His areas of research interests are related to the Foreign Policy of China, Belt and Road Initiative, Middle Eastern Studies, China-Arab relations, East Asian Affairs, Geopolitics of Eurasia, and Political Economy. Mohamad has many studies and articles published in high ranked journals and well-known international newspapers. His writings have been translated into many languages, including French, Arabic, Spanish, German, Albanian, Russian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, etc.

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Assad’s visit to China: Breaking diplomatic isolation and rebuilding Syria

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Chinese President Xi Jinping meets with Syrian President Bashar al-Assad in Hangzhou, capital city of east China's Zhejiang Province, Sept. 22, 2023. (Xinhua/Yao Dawei)

The visit of Syrian President Bashar Al-Assad to China to participate in the opening of the Asian Games came as a serious step to try to break the diplomatic isolation from Syria.  Syrian President “Bashar Al-Assad” was keen to meet his counterpart Xi Jinping in the city of Hangzhou in eastern China, where the Asian Games are being held, as this was the Syrian president’s first visit to China since 2004.  According to the Syrian regime’s Al-Watan newspaper, Al-Assad will attend the launch ceremony of the (nineteenth edition) of the Asian Games, which will open on September 23, in the Chinese city of Hangzhou.  This visit to Bashar al-Assad reflects the great coordination between Moscow and Beijing, as it is likely that the Russians pushed for this visit at this precise time.  Perhaps, through his visit to China, Bashar al-Assad is trying to deliver a specific message about the start of “international legitimization” of his regime.  Syria’s accession to the Belt and Road Initiative in January 2022 is an indication of the possibility of implementing vital Chinese projects, especially since it is located between Iraq and Turkey, making it a vital corridor for land routes towards Europe.

 Bashar Al-Assad’s visit to China also comes in an attempt to attract it to reconstruction projects in the affected areas in Syria, as China has the ability to complete reconstruction infrastructure in residential and civilian areas with exceptional speed. This is the same as what the Chinese ambassador to Syria “Shi Hongwei” announced in August 2023, that “Chinese companies are actively involved in reconstruction projects in Syria”. The war in Syria led to massive destruction of infrastructure and the destruction of many vital sectors of the Syrian economy, including oil, while the Syrian government is subject to harsh international sanctions.  We find that the Chinese side has shown great interest in the reconstruction projects in Surba, such as the presence of more than a thousand Chinese companies to participate in (the first trade exhibition on Syrian reconstruction projects in Beijing), while they pledged investments estimated at two billion dollars.

  China played an active role through diplomatic movements in Syria, as it participated in the “Astana” process, and obstructed Security Council resolutions related to Syria, to confirm its position in support of Damascus, using its veto power more than once in the Security Council, against resolutions considered to be a blow to Assad’s “legitimacy”.  In September 2017, the Syrian regime classified China, along with Russia and Iran, as “friendly governments” that would give priority to reconstruction projects. Therefore, Al-Assad affirmed during his meeting with Chinese President “Xi Jinping” that: “this visit is important in terms of its timing and circumstances, as a multipolar world is being formed today that will restore balance and stability to the world, and it is the duty of all of us to seize this moment for the sake of a bright and promising future”.

  According to my analysis, China follows the policy of “breaking diplomatic isolation on presidents and countries against which America is angry”, so the visit of “Bashar al-Assad” comes within a series of visits that China witnessed during the current year in 2023, to presidents who are isolated internationally by the United States of America, such as: Venezuelan President “Nicolas  Maduro”, the Iranian President ”Ibrahim Raisi”, and the Belarusian “Alexander Lukashenko”.

  China is also keen to conduct interviews in its newspapers and official websites affiliated with the ruling Communist Party with many presidents and officials of countries isolated internationally and diplomatically by the United States of America and the West, such as the Chinese keenness to conduct and publish an interview with Syrian Foreign Minister “Faisal Mekdad” on September 21, 2023, and the Chinese reviewed his statements, saying that “the United States of America has plundered oil, natural gas, and other resources from Syria, causing losses worth $115 billion”. The Chinese newspaper “Global Times”, which is close to the ruling Communist Party, also focused on the United States’ greater role in the deterioration of “Syria from stability to chaos” . The Chinese newspaper compared this to China’s policy, which constantly calls for peaceful dialogue and opposes “foreign interference” .

   Through his visit to China, Syrian President “Bashar Al-Assad” is trying to lay the foundations for joint cooperation between China and Syria within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative, with full Chinese support for Syria’s accession to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization as a dialogue partner. China has always affirmed its firm support for Syria’s efforts against foreign interference, with the Chinese rejection of the stationing of illegal forces on Syrian territory. China is also making great efforts with many countries to lift sanctions and the illegal economic blockade on the Syrian people, in addition to Chinese support for building Syrian capabilities in the field of combating terrorism. Knowing that despite its alliance with President “Bashar Al-Assad”, China did not participate in supporting him militarily, but it used the right of criticism to obstruct the passage of resolutions against him in the Security Council.

   We can reach an important conclusion that Bashar Al-Assad’s visit to China has a greater political track, and that Beijing is trying to play a greater role in the issue of resolving conflicts or to have a greater actual role in negotiations related to sensitive issues in the region. The implications of Assad’s visit to China are also politically significant, as China is trying to play a greater political role in the region, as China has been trying since the start of the Russian-Ukrainian war and the emergence of a vacuum in the Middle East as a result of the decline of Russian influence due to its preoccupation with the war, so Beijing is trying to expand in the Middle East and Africa. 

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China’s Inclusive Diplomacy for Global Cooperation

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President Xi Jinping’s address at the recently held 2023 CIFTIS resonates as a powerful call for inclusive development and cooperation in the services trade sector. China’s commitment to expanding market access, increasing connectivity, and aligning policies with global standards demonstrates its commitment to ensuring a level playing field for all nations.

This commitment extends across different sectors, including telecommunications, tourism, law, vocational examinations, and the larger services sector. President Xi’s address emphasized China’s intention to expand broader, broaden market access, and support inclusive development in the services trade sector. His sentiments resonate with the global world as China seeks to create new prospects for openness, cooperation, and economic equality.

Over the last few decades, the services trade landscape has changed drastically, becoming an essential component of international business. However, this expansion has not been uniform, with developing countries frequently encountering difficulties such as limited market access, complex rules, and capacity limits that prevent them from fully participating in international services trade.

Notably, China is committed to promoting inclusive growth in the services trade sector. It assured of taking continuing steps to accelerate Chinese modernization through high-quality development, to open up new avenues for openness and collaboration for all countries.

Through openness, cooperation, innovation, and shared services, China emphasized the need for inclusive growth and connectivity. Recognizing that a rising tide in services trade should raise all boats, particularly those from nations with limited resources, China has launched a series of ground-breaking initiatives. Additionally, China is actively expanding its network of high-standard free trade areas, participating in negotiations on the negative list for trade in services and investment.

China is setting an example by aligning its policies with international standards. President Xi highlighted in his speech that national integrated demonstration zones for increased openness in the services sector, suitable pilot free trade zones, and free trade ports will be at the forefront of aligning policies with high-standard international economic and trade regulations. These zones demonstrate China’s commitment to fostering an atmosphere conducive to international cooperation and growth.

Real-world examples vividly demonstrate the practical impact of China’s assistance to developing countries in the services trade. China’s investments in transport infrastructure, such as the Standard Gauge Railway, have considerably facilitated the flow of goods and people in Kenya, boosting the services sector indirectly.

Pakistan’s experience with the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is similar, with improved physical connectivity catalyzing the expansion of digital services and e-commerce. Various infrastructure developments in Indonesia have resulted in spectacular advances, opening up new potential for services trade.

Ethiopia, too, has reaped the benefits of China’s commitment, with active participation in industrial parks reviving the services sector, which includes logistics, banking, and education. These real-life success stories highlight China’s critical role in facilitating the expansion and development of services trade in developing countries.

China’s commitment to capacity building and technical aid is critical in its support for developing countries in the services trade. China provides these countries with the knowledge and skills they need to participate effectively in the services trade by offering specialized programs. Furthermore, China’s significant investments in infrastructure projects such as ports, logistical hubs, and telecommunications networks play an important role in facilitating the smooth flow of services.

Furthermore, China’s commitment to reducing entry barriers and optimizing regulations indicates the country’s persistent commitment to creating an equitable environment. This approach not only promotes equitable possibilities but also simplifies market access, making it easier for developing countries to export their services to China’s enormous and dynamic market.

Furthermore, China gives significant financial support in the form of loans and grants for service trade-related initiatives, recognizing the financial problems that many developing countries confront. This financial assistance enables nations to overcome economic challenges and invest in the expansion and improvement of their service sectors, thereby encouraging economic equality and cooperation.

As the world continues to evolve, services trade will play an increasingly important role in global economic growth, and China’s leadership in this realm is helping to shape a future where opportunities are shared, disparities are reduced, and cooperation knows no bounds. It is a vision worthy of appreciation and support since it is consistent with the ideals of justice and equality, moving the globe closer to a more linked and wealthy global community.

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China’s Multilateral Engagement and Constructive Role in the G20



Image source: X @narendramodi

The recent G20 Summit in India has once again taken center stage, attracting global attention as it gathered together leaders and delegates from the world’s 20 most powerful economies. This high-profile event was significant in shaping international relations and addressing serious global concerns due to its broad presence and crucial talks. This high-stakes gathering occurs at a pivotal juncture, marked by escalating divisions among major powers on a multitude of pressing global issues, including the Russia-Ukraine conflict, global economic recovery, food security, and climate change.

The recent inclusion of the African Union (AU) as a permanent member within the G20 serves as a positive signal, signifying consensus among major economies. However, lurking concerns persist about the formidable challenges involved in achieving unity and issuing a joint declaration in the midst of these complex global dynamics.

Chinese Premier Li Qiang’s opening remarks at the 18th G20 Summit in New Delhi resonate as he underscores the paramount importance of unity and collaboration among G20 member nations. He emphasizes the critical need for effective coordination of macroeconomic policies to restore hope and generate momentum for long-term economic growth.

 Premier Li eloquently highlights the interconnectedness of humanity’s destiny and calls upon nations to demonstrate mutual respect, seek common ground while momentarily setting aside differences, and work tirelessly towards peaceful coexistence. In a world characterized by profound crises and shared hardships, he aptly observes that no nation can thrive in isolation. Therefore, the only plausible pathways for guiding humanity forward are those rooted in cooperation and harmony.

The G20, originally established to navigate global financial crises and forge collective strategies for addressing economic challenges while fostering global economic development, has, regrettably, experienced a decline in consensus and a rise in differences among major powers. This shift has been particularly evident since the onset of the Ukraine crisis and the United States’ strategy of containment against China. Consequently, the G20 is increasingly devolving into a forum marked by discord, rather than the once-productive and constructive multilateral mechanism it was intended to be.

Nevertheless, the G20 retains its significance as a pivotal forum for international collaboration in confronting global challenges. With the increasing contributions of developing nations like China, India, and African countries, the voices within the G20 have diversified, no longer solely dominated by Western perspectives. As a response, the United States seeks to regain control of the multilateral process to further its agenda of great power competition. However, this approach is unlikely to be warmly received by the broader international community.

China remains steadfast in its commitment to deepen reforms and open up further to foster high-quality development and its unique brand of modernization. China views itself as a catalyst for additional momentum in global economic recovery and sustainable development. China stands ready to collaborate with all stakeholders to contribute to the well-being of our shared Earth, our common home, and the future of humanity. Despite Western media’s attempts to sensationalize China’s stance and magnify perceived differences, China continues to play a constructive role within the G20, dedicated to its multilateral mission.

To ensure that the G20 remains a platform focused on global governance rather than being overshadowed by geopolitical conflicts, China remains determined to fulfill its constructive role within the group, regardless of attempts by Western powers to politicize the mechanism. China’s efforts have expanded the G20 to include the African Union, effectively transforming it into the “G21.” China was the first nation to endorse African Union membership in the G20 and advocates for the African Union to assume an even more significant role in international governance.

The growing divisions and disputes within the G20 have eroded its effectiveness as a platform for addressing global challenges. These divisions, primarily driven by American actions and policies, have spawned tensions with far-reaching global implications, from the Ukraine crisis to escalating tensions in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly in the Taiwan Straits and the South China Sea. These developments underscore the critical role the G20 plays in promoting cooperation and unity.

Amid the current geopolitical landscape characterized by major powers’ divisions, tensions have surged, resonating globally and causing ripple effects. From the Ukraine crisis to tensions in the Asia-Pacific region, particularly in the Taiwan Straits and the South China Sea, the significance of the G20’s role in fostering cooperation and unity cannot be overstated.

All G20 member nations must recognize the urgent imperative of cooperation in building a world that is safer, more prosperous, and increasingly peaceful. Given the global challenges that transcend narrow national interests, effective responses can only be crafted through international cooperation. The G20 stands as a pivotal arena for this cooperation, with China’s positive contribution being indispensable in promoting cohesion.

Despite Western media’s efforts to sensationalize China’s position and magnify perceived gaps, China remains a committed multilateral partner within the G20, dedicated to constructive engagement. The G20 continues to serve as a critical platform for addressing global concerns, fostering unity, and promoting international collaboration. As the world grapples with intricate issues, it remains imperative that nations adhere to the principles of multilateralism and collaborate relentlessly to secure a more prosperous, peaceful, and sustainable future for all.

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