This world cup should be set in stone as a reminder of failure of our collective conscience where some lives were deemed more important than others.
The FIFA World Cup, scheduled to be hosted in Qatar in December, will undoubtedly be one of the defining events of 2022. This is the only the second World Cup to be held in Asia (the previous one was hosted jointly by South Korea and Japan in 2002). It is also the first world cup to be held in the winter, owing to sweltering summer of Qatar.
FIFA recently announced that within the first twenty days of the sales period, fans had already applied for 17 million World Cup tickets. All in all, the World Cup is expected to draw an estimated 1.5 million foreign visitors to the country, giving Qatar an economic boost close to $20 billion. However, this comes amidst controversies surrounding the world cup, from allegations of Qatar buying votes from voting members of FIFA to be declared hosts in 2010, to the rampant human rights abuse of migrant workers involved in World Cup related projects.
Human Rights situation in Qatar
It is reported that more than 6,500 migrant workers from Nepal, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh have died in Qatar since 2010. The actual fatalities are expected to be higher after taking into account the deaths of workers from other countries such as the Philippines, Nigeria and Kenya. These numbers average around deaths of 12 migrant workers per week for the past 12 years and can be imputed to construction of stadiums, roads, railways, airport and an entirely new city.
This blatant disregard for human rights of migrant workers can be sourced to the kafala system. The kafala is a system of governance of labour that is native to the Middle East. This system grants disproportionate power to the employer (the kafeel) over employment terms by making it mandatory to sponsor any worker before granting them entry into the country. While, technically, all foreign workers require such sponsorship, inequalities exist in the case of ‘migrant workers’ who do not enjoy negotiation powers over their employment contracts (as opposed to high income earning ‘expats’). Additionally, this system obligates workers to obtain permission from their employers if they wish to leave or change their employment or even exit the country (with some employers also requiring their workers to deposit their passports). If the employers report any of the workers for absconding, the workers face may arrest, imprisonment or deportation.
In a place where such an exploitative system is deeply entrenched, abuse of the workers is bound to be commonplace. To this extent, Qatar has emerged as one of the ‘global hotspots’ of modern-day slavery. Workers toil for up to 20 long hours without adequate water in extreme heat.
Workers are often promised high wages prior to their recruitment, however, such contracts are discarded or modified upon arrival in Qatar, and wages are withheld. Their living conditions, in accommodations provided by the employers, are unsanitary and without proper ventilation.
Human rights activists refer to the untimely deaths of many young, able-bodied employees as “unnatural deaths” as a result of a lack of adequate nourishment combined with harsh physical labour in extreme circumstances. Apart from deaths, as a result of working incredibly long hours in extreme heat, thousands of migrant workers who have returned home from Qatar, are diagnosed with chronic kidney ailments with many of them requiring regular dialysis.
As more people and activist groups have voiced their protests against the treatment of migrant workers in Qatar, the government and their spokespersons have played down most of the allegations. The World Cup organizing committee of Qatar has reported mere 38 deaths till date, with a claim that 35 of these deaths were non-work related.
Qatar introduced labour reforms in August 2020, which includes the implementation of a revised minimum wage of 1000 Qatari Riyals (approx. $275) per month. Moreover, this reform abolished the requirement of employers’ approval for workers quitting or changing their jobs, in an aim to cripple the kafala system. The Ministry of Administrative Development, Labour and Social Affairs (MADLSA) stated that reforms would be implemented completely in the six months of introducing them. While human rights groups have welcomed these efforts, the implementation has not been as promised. Workers claim that there have been no significant changes in their working conditions and changing jobs or quitting still remains a Herculean task for the migrant workers.
Is Qatar in violation of international law?
In 2018, with pressure from the international community ahead of hosting the World Cup, Qatar finally agreed to ratify two multilateral treaties- the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), two focal instruments in present day international human rights law. Ratification of these treaties imply that Qatar is now legally obligated to guarantee and protect the fundamental human rights for all residing within the country, including that of the migrant workers.
In addition, Qatar is a member of the International Labour Organization and has ratified some key conventions such as the ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930, and the Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957. The ICESCR guarantees rights to safe working conditions, fair wages, and reasonable working hours, none of which are implemented. Freedom to movement is one of the pivotal guarantees made by the ICCPR, and if implemented in line with the intent of the instrument, no migrant worker can be prevented from returning home, contrary to what has been happening routinely. In light of aforementioned conventions and multilateral treaties, practices that are rampant in Qatar are in gross violation of safeguards that these instruments guarantee.
The liability of FIFA, its sponsors and other stakeholders
The FIFA, a non-profit body, is the highest international governing body of football around the world with 209 member countries. Article 3 of its statute provides that “FIFA is committed to respecting all internationally recognised human rights and shall strive to promote the protection of these rights.”
Back in 1961, FIFA was the first international sporting body that imposed sanctions on South Africa during its apartheid regime, which culminated in South Africa’s global sporting and political isolation.
However, one could argue that FIFA has not maintained the same sanctity of the game given the numerous allegations of corruption made against the body. In 2020, United States Department of Justice claimed that FIFA officials had accepted bribes from Russia and Qatar in exchange for awarding the countries with hosting rights of the World Cup for 2018 and 2022 respectively. The US Department of Justice indicted three senior FIFA officials on counts of bribery. While the decision as to which nation is selected as the host is based on the voting of FIFA member countries, Qatar’s successful bid raised many eyebrows across the globe, mainly due to the fact that the country, at that time, did not have adequate infrastructure to host the world cup.
In July 2019, FIFA admitted to the abuse of human rights committed against the workers in Qatar through a press release and stated that they would undertake an investigation in the matter. In that press release, FIFA alleged a sub-contractor but did not imply any liability on the host state. Activists called upon the sponsors of the World Cup to act on the human rights abuse of the workers in Qatar.
Coca-Cola and Visa, two of the major sponsors of the world cup, each released their statements claiming that they have expressed their concerns to FIFA. Another issue that was raised was that of Qatar’s stance on homosexuality, as it is a criminal offence in the country and can be punishable by death. As a response to these concerns, the World Cup Committee of Qatar announced that it would comply with FIFA rules of promoting tolerance and rainbow flags will be allowed in stadiums at the world cup. However, there has been no change in law of the nation and the stance of the country on homosexuality largely remains the same.
A large number of stakeholders including activists, human right groups and footballers have called for the boycott of the Qatar World Cup with some countries such as Netherlands, Germany and Norway expressing their dissent on the conditions of the workers in Qatar by wearing human rights t-shirts at their games. However, some ten months ahead of the world cup, a boycott seems very unlikely. If no action is taken against Qatar for the rampant disregard for human rights over the past decade, it could set a very dangerous precedent for the future of human rights and football.
The way forward
The 2018 Football World Cup clocked more than 3.5 billion viewers across the world. Given the massive following of the sport, FIFA must demonstrate a high level of accountability to prioritize human rights and other fundamental values over corporate gains. It is imperative that the values of FIFA and the fundamental human rights must be protected throughout the process of hosting the sporting event.
In order to avoid such violations of human rights in the future, workers must be allowed to form trade unions as a matter of right so that they can engage in collective bargaining in a more effective manner. The decision to award the World Cup should not be set in stone and should be made reversible. An independent body must be constituted in which certain seats must be reserved for human rights groups, for effective monitoring and implementation of the applicable international law as well as FIFA values. The said body must be vested with the rights to impose sanctions so that breach of laws can be addressed, with immediate effect.
With around ten months left before the start of the world cup, it is widely expected that the world cup will go ahead as planned. However, the world cup 2022 in Qatar should be remembered as a tainted lesson in history where corporate greed was prioritised over values of humanity and equality. This world cup should be set in stone as a reminder of failure of our collective conscience where some lives were deemed more important than others. Let this world cup be remembered as a moment when the beautiful game did not seem as beautiful anymore.
‘Protracted political impasse’ further polarizing Libya
Despite UN efforts, political, economic and security deadlock continues in Libya, the UN political affairs chief told the Security Council on Thursday, adding that human rights there have also deteriorated.
“We are concerned that the protracted political impasse is having an increasingly negative impact on security,” said Under-Secretary-General for Political and Peacebuilding Affairs, Rosemary DiCarlo.
“A coordinated and constructive effort is required to prevent further polarization and end the political stalemate.”
Last week, UN Special Advisor Stephanie Williams convened a second round of consultations of the Joint Committee of the House of Representatives and High State Council, in the Egyptian capital, Cairo, reviewing a reformed constitution for a democratic way forward for the country, the 2017 Constitutional Draft.
The delegations reached agreement in several areas, including basic rights and freedoms; the structure and powers of a two-tier new parliament; and the prerogatives of the President and Prime Minister.
Under UN auspices, members will reconvene on 11 June for a final round to reach consensus on finalizing constitutional arrangements to hold key national elections – delayed from last December – as soon as possible.
The Special Adviser also met Presidency Council members, who expressed their intention to continue working on a national reconciliation process with UN and African Union support.
While the 2020 ceasefire continues to hold, Ms. DiCarlo stated that the security situation “remains fragile”.
She drew attention to clashes in the capital on 17 May, following the recent political crisis which began in March, which saw the eastern parliament select a new government. The incumbent UN and internationally-backed Prime Minister however, refused to stand aside.
The parliamentary choice for the top job, Fathi Bashagha, entered Tripoli backed by armed groups, leading to skirmishes with supporters of incumbent Abdulhamid al-Dbeibah.
One militant died, a policeman was injured and several buildings were damaged.
Following mediation by local actors and outreach by military representatives, from the 5+5 Libyan Joint Military Commission (JMC), Mr. Bashagha was escorted out of Tripoli.
“While fighting has ceased, the situation remains tense. Tripoli-based armed groups supporting either Mr. Dbeibah or Mr. Bashagha remain in a state of high alert,” the political chief said.
She reported that the JMC’s eastern and western delegations met on Monday and Tuesday in Spain for the first time since the end of February.
After discussions with the 5+5 Commission, the Special Adviser said that the members expressed their readiness to resume negotiations over the Ceasefire Agreement implementation.
Meanwhile, the reluctance of the Government of National Unity (GNU) to pay the Libyan National Army’s (LNA) salaries for the first quarter of this year – the military wing of the rival eastern administration – triggered the closure of several oil fields and ports, “cutting the country’s daily oil output in half,” Ms DiCarlo told ambassadors.
However, following Special Adviser Williams’ intercession with the GNU, the outstanding salaries were paid. Mr. Dbeibah confirmed that he would authorize regular monthly payments.
“Oil production, however, has yet to return to normal,” she added.
The human rights situation in Libya remains a source of great concern, Ms. DiCarlo told the Council, elaborating on a new wave of youth arrests for alleged crimes against “Libyan culture and values”.
And restrictions persist on the work of civil society organisations, including women’s rights groups accused of violating “the principles and values of Libyan society.”
Special Adviser Williams visited mass graves in Tarhouna and met with families of victims who disappeared between 2012 and 2020.
“The perpetrators of these horrific crimes have yet to be brought to justice,” said Ms. DiCarlo, shining a light on the “highly precarious” situation of internally displaced people.
Equally worrying are the continued campaigns of mass arrests and detention – in inhumane conditions – of undocumented foreign nationals and migrants in the western region.
“It is imperative that the ceasefire in Libya be maintained, calm preserved and any steps that could result in renewed violence be avoided,” the political chief underscored.
She stressed the need for all parties to uphold their commitment to “the peaceful resolution of political differences” and for political and security actors to “look beyond their personal interests and continue to engage constructively” in upcoming talks supporting the electoral/constitutional track.
“This is the only way to fulfil the aspirations of the Libyan people to select their representatives through the ballot box,” Ms. DiCarlo said, maintaining that the UN would “spare no effort” to support Libyans in building “a stable and peaceful country.”
The Under-Secretary-General flagged the importance of the Council’s support, which she described as “invaluable in keeping a political process alive”.
Meanwhile, a coordinated and constructive effort is required to prevent further polarization and end the political stalemate.
During a time of “aggravated global turmoil,” she upheld that unity in the Council and the international unity on peace in Libya is “especially important”.
“It is what Libyans deserve. It is what the world needs,” concluded Ms. DiCarlo.
Israel admits involvement in the killing of an Iranian army officer
Col. Sayad Khodayee, 50, was fatally shot outside his home in Tehran on Sunday when two gunmen on motorcycles approached his car and fired five bullets into it, according to state media. Iran has blamed Israel for the killing, which bore the hallmarks of other Israeli targeted killings of Iranians in a shadow war that has been playing out for years on land, sea, air, and cyberspace.
Although a spokeswoman for the Israeli prime minister declined to comment on the killing. But according to an intelligence official briefed on the communications, Israel has informed American officials that it was behind the killing.
At the funeral in Tehran for a colonel in Iran’s Revolutionary Guards Corps, thousands of mourners packed the streets around the cemetery chanting “Death to Israel” and calling for revenge for his killing.
“We will make the enemy regret this and none of the enemy’s evil actions will go unanswered,” Gen. Hossein Salami, the commander in chief of the Revolutionary Guards, said in a speech on Monday. A member of Iran’s National Security Council, Majid Mirahmadi, said the killing was “definitely the work of Israel,” and warned that harsh revenge would follow, according to Iranian media.
The United States has designated the Revolutionary Guards as a terrorist group unilaterally — a decision that has been a sticking point in the negotiations with Iran to revive the 2015 nuclear deal. Iran has demanded that the designation be removed as a condition for restoring the deal, but the United States has refused, leaving the negotiations frozen. The Nuclear deal was terminated by President Trump, but President Joe Bidden wanted to resume the deal and is in communication with Iran for restoration. Definitely, Iran had bitter experiences and concerns about the sincerity of Washington. It wanted safeguards and certain guarantees. Iran is willing to such a nuclear deal, which protects the interest of both sides, any unilateral deal may not be accepted by Tehran.
Israel is openly opposed to the nuclear deal. In fact, President Trump, after meeting with the Israeli Prime Minister, took the unpopular decision of terminating the deal unilaterally. Some Iranian analysts close to the government said the attack was aimed at derailing the nuclear talks at a delicate point and undermining any possibility that Iran and the United States might reach a consensus over the issue of the Guards.
However, the Israelis told the Americans the killing was meant as a warning to Iran to halt the operations of a covert group within the Quds Force known as Unit 840, according to the intelligence official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss classified information. Whereas, Iran has portrayed the colonel as a martyred hero who joined the Revolutionary Guards as a teenager, volunteered as a soldier in the Iran-Iraq war, and went on to play a prominent role in the Quds force fighting the Islamic State terrorist group in Syria. The people of Iran are proud of his contributions.
What so ever is the justification presented by Israel, is a clear violation of international laws and practices. It has violated the UN charter and all norms of the civilized world. It might bear consequences, and Iran’s warning to retaliate is legitimate as a victim has not been provided justice yet. The aggressor needs to be taught a bitter lesson to avoid any future misadventure.
It has created new tension in the region and many speculations are roaming in the middle-east. Iran is a sovereign state and has the legitimate right to protect its safety, security, and vital interests. Iran has the capability to react, but, the visionary leadership in Tehran, might be waiting for an appropriate time, and opportunity. Iran does not want to escalate further and trying to minimize the existing tension, while committed to safeguarding its sovereignty and interests.
As matter of fact, Israel is the root cause of all problems in the Middle East and since its inception is over-engaged creating problems one after another. It is a defaulter of the UN and denied the implementation of several resolutions passed by the UNSC. It strongly urged that the UN and the International community must keep eye on Israeli activities and atrocities that are spoiling the peace and security of the whole region.
Playing games in NATO, Turkey eyes its role in a new world order
NATO’s spat over Turkish opposition to Swedish and Finnish membership is about more than expanding the North Atlantic military alliance. It’s as much about Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s immediate political goals as Turkey’s positioning itself in a new 21st-century world order.
On its surface, the spat is about Turkish efforts to hinder support for Kurdish ethnic, cultural, and national aspirations in Turkey, Syria, and Iraq and a crackdown on alleged supporters of a preacher who lives in exile in the United States. Turkey accuses the preacher, Fethullah Gulen, of instigating a failed military coup in 2016.
The spat may also be a play by NATO’s second-largest standing military to regain access to US arms sales, particularly upgrades for Turkey’s aging fleet of F-16 fighter jets as well as more advanced newer models of the F-16 and the top-of-the-line F-35.
Finally, playing the Kurdish card benefits Mr. Erdogan domestically, potentially at a time that the Turkish economy is in the doldrums with a 70 per cent inflation rate.
“Erdogan always benefits politically when he takes on the Kurdistan Workers Party (the PKK) and groups linked to it, like the YPG in Syria… In fact, attacking the PKK and the YPG is a two-for-one. Erdogan is seen to take on genuine terrorists and separatists, and at the same time, he gets to take a swipe at the United States, which taps into the vast reservoir of anti-Americanism in Turkey,” said Middle East scholar Steven A. Cook.
While important issues in and of themselves, they are also likely to influence where Turkey will rank as the world moves towards a bi-polar or multi-polar power structure.
The battle over perceived Scandinavian, and mainly, Swedish support for Kurdish aspirations involves the degree to which the United States and Europe will continue to kick the can down on the road of what constitutes yet another Middle Eastern powder keg.
Mr. Erdogan announced this week that Turkey would soon launch a new military incursion against US-backed Kurdish fighters in northeast Syria. Mr. Erdogan said the operation would extend the Turkish armed forces’ areas of control in Syria to a 30-kilometer swath of land along the two countries’ shared border.
“The main target of these operations will be areas which are centers of attacks to our country and safe zones,” the Turkish president said.
Turkey asserts that the US-backed People’s Protection Units (YPG), a Syrian militia that helped defeat the Islamic State, is an extension of the PKK. The PKK has waged a decades-long insurgency against Turkey, home to some 16 million Kurds. Turkey, the United States, and the European Union have designated the PKK as a terrorist organisation.
Mr. Erdogan charges that Sweden and Finland give the PKK sanctuary and is demanding that the two countries extradite the group’s operatives. Turkey has not officially released the names of 33 people it wants to see extradited, but some were reported in Turkish media close to the government.
Swedish media reported that a physician allegedly on the list had died seven years ago and was not known to have had links to the PKK. Another person named was not resident in Sweden, while at least one other is a Swedish national.
Swedish and Finnish officials were in Ankara this week to discuss Turkey’s objections. Swedish Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson insisted as the officials headed for the Turkish capital that “we do not send money or weapons to terrorist organizations.”
Conveniently, pro-government media reported the day the officials arrived that Turkish forces found Swedish anti-tank weapons in a cave in northern Iraq used by the PKK. Turkey recently launched Operation Claw Lock against PKK positions in the region.
Mr. Erdogan’s military plans complicate Swedish and Finnish accession to NATO. The two Nordic states slapped an arms embargo on Ankara after its initial incursion into Syria in 2019. The Turkish leader has demanded the lifting of the embargo as part of any deal on Swedish and Finnish NATO membership.
A renewed incursion that would cement Turkey’s three-year-old military presence in Syria could also throw a monkey wrench into improving relations with the United States due to Turkish support for Ukraine and efforts to mediate an end to the crisis sparked by the Russian invasion.
Turkey slowed its initial incursion into Syria after then US President Donald J. Trump threatened to “destroy and obliterate” Turkey’s economy.
The State Department warned this week that a renewed incursion would “undermine regional stability.”
Revived US arms sales would go a long way to cement improved relations and downplay the significance of Turkey’s acquisition of Russia’s S-400 anti-missile system, even if Turkey’s opposition to Scandinavian membership will have a lingering effect on trust. The United States expelled Turkey from its F-35 program in response to the acquisition.
This week, Mr. Erdogan appeared to widen the dispute in NATO after Greek Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis lobbied the US Congress against military sales to Turkey. “Mitsotakis no longer exists for me. I will never agree to meet him,” Mr. Erdogan said. He said that Mr. Mitostakis’ lobbying violated an agreement between the two men “not to involve third countries in our bilateral issues.”
The US arms sales would also impact Turkish Russian relations, even if Turkey, in contrast to most NATO members, will continue seeking to balance its relationships and avoid an open rift with Moscow or Washington.
“Russia’s geopolitical revisionism is set to drive Turkey and the West relatively closer together in matters geopolitical and strategic, provided that Turkey’s current blockage of Sweden and Finland’s NATO membership bid is resolved in the not too distant future,” said Turkey scholar Galip Dalay.
Turkey’s NATO gamble is a game of high-stakes poker, given that Russia is as much a partner of Turkey as it is a threat.
NATO is Turkey’s ultimate shield against Russian civilizationalist expansionism. Russian support in 2008 for irredentist regions of Georgia and annexation of Crimea in 2014 created a buffer between Turkey and Ukraine and complicated arrangements between Turkey and Russia in the Black Sea.
Nevertheless, Mr. Erdogan risks fueling a debate about Turkey’s membership in NATO, much like Prime Minister Victor Orban’s opposition to a European embargo of Russian energy has raised questions about Hungary’s place in the EU.
“Does Erdogan’s Turkey Belong in NATO?” asked former US vice-presidential nominee Joe Lieberman and Mark D. Wallace, a former senator, in an oped in The Wall Street Journal. Unlike Finland and Sweden, the two men noted that Turkey would not meet NATO’s democracy requirements if it were applying for membership today.
“Turkey is a member of NATO, but under Mr. Erdogan, it no longer subscribes to the values that underpin this great alliance. Article 13 of the NATO charter provides a mechanism for members to withdraw. Perhaps it is time to amend Article 13 to establish a procedure for the expulsion of a member nation,” Messrs. Lieberman and Wallace wrote.
The two men implicitly argued that turning the tables on Turkey would force the complicated NATO member back into line.
Adding to that, prominent Turkish journalist and analyst Cengiz Candar cautioned that “giving into Ankara’s demands amounts to letting an autocrat design the security architecture of Europe and shape the future of the Western system.”
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