The implementation of Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan and the EU Mission on Cancer will go far beyond research and innovation to develop new solutions and improve the lives of Europeans, says Joanna Drake, Deputy Director-General, DG Research and Innovation (RTD).
More Europeans are surviving cancer than ever before, and those affected by the disease have a better quality of life. Despite the substantial improvements in reducing the cancer burden, the incidence of cancer is expected to rise due to ageing populations, unhealthy lifestyles, unfavourable health factors, and environmental and working conditions.
The Covid-19 pandemic has worsened the situation by halting or delaying regular check-up screening programmes, treatments and clinical trials. It has also exposed inequalities in access to healthcare due to uneven geographical availability of services and other problems in health systems. These developments will have long-lasting effects on prevention and cancer control.
To fight cancer, it’s crucial to detect and treat as early and precisely as possible. Technology is changing the cancer care landscape, presenting new opportunities – from digital health records to real-world patient data for research purposes.
There is good news on the horizon. The EU’s Mission on Cancer launched in September 2021, together with Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan adopted in February 2021, aims at improving the lives of more than 3 million people by 2030 through prevention and cure, and helping those affected by cancer, including their families, to live longer and better.
Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan is a key pillar of the European Health Union, presented by European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen in November 2020, calling for a more secure, resilient and better-prepared European Union. It reflects the EU’s political commitment to steward the strategy, taking action against cancer and leaving no stone unturned.
In an exclusive interview with Horizon magazine, Joanna Drake, Mission Manager for the EU Mission on Cancer and Deputy Director-General at Directorate-General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD), outlines the European Commission’s commitment to defeating this disease.
Excerpts of the interview follow.
How will the EU Mission on Cancer improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer for Europe’s citizens and remove the disparity within and among the Member States?
If we look at what’s happening within the Member States, we can see there is currently no real equality in accessing knowledge on cancer or its prevention, diagnosis and treatment, or quality of life for cancer patients and their caregivers. So, what we want is a levelling up through the Cancer Mission actions.
We propose that by 2023, there will be a blueprint for a federated digital platform supported by and for patients and cancer survivors to exchange real-world health data. Once fully operational, they could access hands-on information on guidelines, clinical trials, possible side effects, and personalised care. It will also provide information on cross-border healthcare, psychosocial and legal support, guidance on returning to work, financial issues, and legal rights as a cancer survivor. In addition, scientists will be able to access this aggregated real-world patient data for research purposes.
Secondly, we have started with establishing a blueprint for a database known as the UNCAN.eu platform. This is also a question of putting data together which has not hitherto been combined, but it also includes data on sources outside the health domain. Examples include geographical observation data, climate and environmental exposure, and information concerning the social sciences. By making this data available on a platform, researchers can access it and inform decision-makers about any proposed policy action that needs to be taken.
Our third priority involves working towards a Network of Comprehensive Cancer Infrastructures by 2025. It’s an objective that would level up – at least to a certain minimum level – information provision and efficiency for national cancer infrastructures to make sure that all European regions in the Member States are covered.
We propose that by 2023 there will be a blueprint for a federated digital platform, supported by and for patients and cancer survivors to exchange real-world health data
Joanna Drake, Deputy Director-General, DG Research and Innovation (RTD)
In terms of overcoming this disparity, what will be the role of the Network of Comprehensive Cancer Infrastructures and the European Reference Networks on cancer?
They will enable scientists to benefit from a state-of-the-art research infrastructure and participate in international clinical studies. Most importantly, creating this network will benefit cancer patients because they will ultimately have better access to prevention, screening, diagnostics and treatments, and improved care pathways.
The European Reference Networks will also be involved in designing clinical studies and care pathways, which we believe will ultimately lead to a levelling up on a European scale for cancer infrastructures, care, prevention, diagnostics, analysis, and quality of life. This obviously demands close cooperation between the Horizon Europe Cancer Mission, Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan, Member States, as well as regions and local communities, and likewise joining up different levels of governance.
How would you describe this to a patient or a doctor?
What we envision is something that produces high quality care and good research results that inform policy and leads to an improvement in access to care. The relevant ministries and governance structures, which are already in place, will manage a comprehensive network of cancer infrastructures across the Member States that share data among themselves.
The network will provide access to researchers, who will gain insights into the policy, care, prevention measures and tools necessary for any Member State or even patients to seek better information about their condition, or where best practices have been established.
But at the end of the day, you need a truly joined up structure that works together much closer than is the case now. There are already a lot of exchanges and conferences taking place, and operational collaboration too, but this will be more visible and organised to enable a patient to be more informed at a European level (for example cross-border healthcare) rather than just at the local, regional or national level.
In time, I believe this can also evolve into a better collaboration over health policy, which is something Covid-19 caused to happen between Member States with a lot of success. Look at the vaccination programme! It wouldn’t have happened so quickly if the health authorities and research communities had not collaborated very closely at European level.
How will the EU Mission on Cancer and Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan enhance EU research efforts and inform future policies?
You can’t inform only with policies. You also need to mobilise support and financial resources. We need greater mixing of existing legal instruments and funding programmes to create better outcomes for cancer patients and those who are at risk or living beyond cancer. So now, we are creating the building blocks with the Mission and Europe’s Beating Cancer Plan, which are designed to complement each other.
This also involves the use of financial incentives and inducements through different legal instruments across the EU institutions to help Member States conduct their own programmes. This is on top of funding from the European budget, and will help mobilise even more financial support for what can be deemed to be a European initiative to deliver European added value.
You can do this both with public money and attracting private investment for innovation and start-ups with ready-for-market solutions and through implementation research. This could be research on primary prevention programmes, which can then attract further investment for other research and innovation programmes that can contribute to diagnosis, care and quality of life. For example, a risk-based screening programme, using cheaper and faster screening technology that could be targeting regions with limited resources, or at the other end of the spectrum, new and tailored palliative end-of-life care solutions for advanced cancer patients.
We need to incentivise even closer, joined-up cooperation between the research ministries, health ministries and stakeholders, researchers, innovators and policymakers. If we can do this, Europe will look like the region where it makes sense to invest money, including private money, to ensure these innovative solutions and in some cases already available technology can be made available and cheaper to those regions with limited resources.
…a risk-based screening programme, using cheaper and faster screening technology that could be targeting regions with limited resources, or at the other end of the spectrum, new and tailored palliative end-of-life care solutions for advanced cancer patients
Joanna Drake, Deputy Director-General, DG Research and Innovation (RTD)
The Covid-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on cancer control activities, how will the Cancer Mission make up the lost ground?
I agree, Covid-19 has had a negative effect on cancer control in all Member States, whether it is prevention, screening, detection, treatment or care, but it has also exacerbated health inequalities. In fact, cancer diagnoses dropped by 40% in 2020, with far over 1 million undiagnosed cases. Scientists predict that there will be an increase in diagnoses of late-stage tumours, reducing the chances of survival, affecting quality of life, and increasing costs to the healthcare system for the years to come.
So how will the Cancer Mission help? Firstly, it’s now on the map as a truly European objective, and we know President von der Leyen is giving it her personal attention. Secondly, this high profile will ramp up communication and awareness of the risk factors and symptoms of cancer, encouraging people to attend cancer prevention programmes.
The Mission supports home screening solutions like self-testing for cervical cancer and colorectal cancer. It also supports clinical trial designs that require patients to travel less, plus medication and follow-up from home, and different care pathways.
The research in this article was funded by the EU. This article was originally published in Horizon, the EU Research and Innovation Magazine.
Investments in Digital Can Accelerate Improvements in Health Care
Digital technology can strengthen health systems, improve health financing and public health, and increase reach to underserved populations, according to a new World Bank report launched today. The report also finds that digital technology and data are especially helpful to prevent and manage chronic diseases, care for both young and aging populations, and prepare for future health emergencies and health risks triggered by climate change.
The report, Digital-in-Health: Unlocking the Value for Everyone, was launched today during the G20 Health Ministers Meeting in Gandhinagar, India. It presents a new way of thinking from simple digitization of health data to fully integrating digital technology in health systems: Digital-in-health. This means, for example, infusing digital technologies in health financing, service delivery, diagnostics, medical education, pandemic preparedness, climate and health efforts, nutrition, and aging.
The report also underscores that the successful use of digital technologies must be inclusive of all population groups, and ensure access to digital infrastructure, modern technologies, and skills, especially for vulnerable people.
“Designed with people at the center, digital technology can make health services more personal, prevent healthcare costs from increasing, reduce differences in care, and make the job easier for those who provide health services,” said Mamta Murthi, Vice President for Human Development, World Bank. “We hope that this report will give governments confidence and practical guidance, regardless of the country’s stage of digital maturity or fiscal challenges.”
Improving health is getting harder, not easier. Health systems face serious and growing challenges and policy decisions are too often not based on reliable data. It is estimated that some countries use less than 5% of health data to improve health which means that decisions are not based on data or data is not used effectively to make improvements. Within challenging fiscal environments, people-centered and evidence-based digital investments can help governments save up to 15% of health costs. The report presents pragmatic, low-cost actions to improve digital-in-health, no matter the maturity of a country’s systems or digital infrastructure. For example, better health data governance and standards to ensure systems can readily connect and exchange information are not costly but will be game changing in reducing siloed digital solutions and fragmentation.
“In India, we have shown that digital innovations such as tele-consultations have reached more than 140 million people and provided accessible, affordable and efficient healthcare for everyone,” said Mansukh L Mandaviya, Minister for Health and Family Welfare, India. “We believe a digital-in-health approach can unlock the value of digital technologies and data and has the potential to prevent disease and lower healthcare costs while helping patients monitor and manage chronic conditions.”
To help countries embrace a digital-in-health approach, the report proposes three essential areas to guide investments:
- Prioritize evidence-based digital investments that tackle the biggest problems and focus on the needs of patients and providers.
- Connect the regulatory, governance, information, and infrastructure dots so that patients know that data is safe and health workers can use digital solutions transparently.
- Scale digital health for the long run based on trust with sustainable financing, and improved capacity and skills for digital solutions.
It will take global, regional, and country leadership to make digital-in-health a reality. The report recommends strong country leadership involving all relevant sectors and stakeholders, including civil society. Digital technology and data improvements will involve investments beyond the health sector and new partnerships with the private sector. A digital-in-health mindset needs to be a routine aspect of annual health system planning, budgeting, and implementation.
The World Bank is committed to helping low-and middle-income countries to make digital-in-health a reality to improve health for everyone. Over the past decade, the World Bank has invested almost $4 billion in digital health including in health information systems, digital governance, identification systems, and infrastructure.
Long Covid: the pandemic’s testing aftermath
By tracking Covid-19 patients, doctors in Europe are in search of treatments for a lingering sickness that is both debilitating and puzzling.
By ANTHONY KING
Evelina Tacconelli, an Italian infectious diseases specialist, is seeking cures for a coronavirus-induced illness that’s playing havoc with the lives of millions of people in Europe and elsewhere.
Though Covid-19 itself is no longer deemed a global emergency by the World Health Organization, many infections have been followed by a malady called “long Covid”. This disorder is taking a particularly hard toll on otherwise healthy women.
‘There is no proven treatment for long Covid,’ said Tacconelli, a professor of infectious diseases at the University of Verona in Italy.
One study estimated that almost half of all people who caught the coronavirus had unresolved symptoms after about four months, with one in 10 suffering from long Covid. That leaves at least 65 million people with what can be a life-changing illness.
Long Covid has a lengthy list of symptoms and scientists struggle to understand why some people suffer ill health well after they’ve overcome the coronavirus. Nonetheless, various elements are becoming clearer as doctors look at large groups of patients.
‘There is no one long Covid,’ said Tacconelli. ‘It includes several diseases.’
She coordinates a project that received EU funding to compile the medical information of tens of thousands of people from across Europe. These include participants both with and without Covid-19 to allow for comparisons.
The research initiative, called ORCHESTRA, is due to wrap up in November 2023 after three years. It has received almost €30 million in funding, most of which – nearly €28 million – has been from the EU.
There are at least four types of long Covid, all with different symptoms, according to Tacconelli.
One is a respiratory form that can make it hard for people to exercise or run and sometimes even to walk or sleep properly.
A second form involves muscle pains that people didn’t have before Covid-19.
A third type resembles chronic fatigue characterised by severe tiredness and an inability to return to activities done before the infection.
The fourth version is predominantly neurological, with the major symptoms being headaches and forgetfulness.
The ORCHESTRA researchers have sought to answer two key questions: whether there were long-term health effects after the viral infection and what the results were of vaccination and early treatment over time.
A surprise in the project so far relates to women.
‘What was very much unexpected was that women with no other disease were at higher risk of post Covid-19 syndrome,’ said Tacconelli.
One reason this result was unforeseen is that elderly men were most at risk of dying from the infection itself.
Often the afflicted women are between 40 and 50 years old and have chronic fatigue symptoms followed by the neurological form of long Covid.
Women are long known to suffer more from autoimmune conditions – for reasons still debated by experts – and this could partly explain the prevalence of long Covid in female patients.
In any case, the initial coronavirus infection seemingly influences the form of long Covid. For example, people who complained mostly of headaches or stomach symptoms when ill with Covid-19 are at greater risk of the neurological form.
The ORCHESTRA team has tapped into the medical information of 70 000 healthcare workers who have had their condition checked every few months since 2020. Such workers were chosen because they were at high risk of Covid-19 transmission and are routinely screened for transmissible diseases.
The project scope also includes “patient cohorts” – groupings of individuals with common traits – in, for example, France and Germany.
And it includes thousands of vulnerable patients watched closely by hospital doctors.
‘All these medical records reveal that vaccinated people and vulnerable hospital patients who received antiviral drugs or antibody therapy soon after being infected have less risk of long Covid,’ said Tacconelli.
In March 2023, European Health Commissioner Stella Kyriakides said that 17 million people in the EU had been affected by long Covid and the number was rising. Kyriakides has promised more research into its causes, consequences and treatments.
Long Covid is a growing challenge for health systems in Europe and elsewhere. In December 2022, an online conference brought together 800 health experts and patient groups from the EU and US to tackle the matter, including through greater cooperation.
A European health-system weakness that the coronavirus pandemic exposed was difficulty in rapidly accessing real-world data needed to assess the effect on patients and to find effective treatments.
Had clinical information on patients in different hospitals been compared quickly, the ineffectiveness of an antibiotic called azithromycin and the very early effect of cortisone on survival would have been noticed, according to Tacconelli.
To address this, the ORCHESTRA researchers have established Europe-wide information on patient cohorts. This collection of data is based on existing and new large-scale cohorts in the EU and in non-European countries.
The project integrated epidemiological, clinical, microbiological and genotypic information on patient groups with common environmental and socioeconomic traits.
Major support for ORCHESTRA came from another EU-funded research project: unCoVer, which ended in May 2023 after two and a half years including a six-month extension.
This initiative sprang into action when Dr José Luis Peñalvo at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in the Belgian city of Antwerp foresaw the benefits of collating information on patients from different hospitals.
‘At the beginning of the pandemic, it was not clear what type of treatment should be used and it was not clear whether we should discontinue treatments for chronic patients once they got admitted to the hospital,’ said Peñalvo, an epidemiologist who worked in his native Spain and in the US before moving to Belgium in 2018.
He sought to gather information quickly.
Peñalvo began by recruiting Antwerp University Hospital into the network before contacting former colleagues at medical centres in Madrid.
His interest is in patients with type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Such people suffered more from Covid-19.
‘I had an interest in taking better care of these patients, but also in collecting data on patients and on how to analyse this data,’ said Peñalvo.
Dozens of hospitals – including in Croatia, Ireland, Italy, Norway and Portugal and as well as non-European countries such as Brazil and Colombia – joined the network.
The hope is that hospitals will be better prepared to handle a future pandemic or to answer medical questions using patient information from a number of health centres, all while preserving privacy by ensuring the anonymity of the people whose data gets used.
Meanwhile, Tacconelli of ORCHESTRA says possible cures for long Covid are being developed.
‘New treatments are in the pipeline,’ she said. ‘Maybe one year from now, if we are very lucky, we will have some answers from the studies now underway.’
Research in this article was funded by the EU. This article was originally published in Horizon, the EU Research and Innovation Magazine.
The Truth about Oil Diffusers: Do They Really Improve Air Quality?
Oil diffusers have increasingly become a staple in many homes due to the host of benefits they offer. These little devices utilize essential oils, releasing their properties into the air in a fine mist. They often serve as tools for relaxation, promoting an overall sense of tranquillity. But do they actually improve indoor air quality? This is a question that has stirred much debate. In this blog post, we’ll delve into the truth about air diffusers, unpacking the evidence, understanding the mechanisms at play, and ultimately revealing the role these devices can play in our quest for optimal indoor air quality.
At its core, an oil diffuser’s primary function is to disperse essential oils into the air, filling your indoor space with the soothing natural fragrances of your chosen oils. It uses a combination of heat, vibration, and airflow to break down the essential oil into tiny particles. These particles are then dispersed in a fine mist, ready to be absorbed into your body through the air you breathe. Some diffusers utilize water as a medium to carry oils into the air, while others use cold air or heat.
When it comes to the types available, the market offers an impressive array. For instance, ultrasonic diffusers use ultrasonic waves to break the oil into a fine mist, while nebulizing diffusers use the power of air and vacuum to maintain the oils’ utmost purity and strength.
Not only do these devices add a lovely aroma to your space, but essential oils also come with a myriad of potential health benefits. It can be selected based on your needs, mood, or even the time of day. Some oils are known to alleviate stress, promote sleep, enhance focus, or manage pain. When used carefully, this diffuser could serve as a holistic approach to maintaining your well-being.
Contrary to popular belief, air diffusers do more than infuse the air with a pleasant aroma. Take tea tree oil or eucalyptus oil, for example. These oils possess superb antimicrobial properties. When released into the air through a diffuser, these oils can actively combat airborne germs and significantly reduce indoor air pollutants. Lemon oil, renowned for its mood-enhancing and immune-boosting properties, is another heavyweight in the arena of air purification.
Beyond just health benefits, certain scents have profound impacts on our emotional well-being too. The soothing aroma of Lavender, for instance, is known to aid sleep and relaxation. Similarly, bright citrus or peppermint scents can be energizing and stimulating. Lastly, it’s worth mentioning the more subtle, therapeutic benefits of essential oils. Oils like Bergamot and Ylang Ylang are known to possess antidepressant and anxiolytic effects. When diffused, these oils can drastically ease feelings of stress and anxiety.
Additionally, the increased humidity from the device can be great for alleviating respiratory issues, especially during the dryer months or in air-conditioned rooms. However, the air diffuser needs to be sized correctly for the room it will be in, and proper ventilation is considered to avoid excessive humidity.
A study published in Atmospheric Environment examined “The effects of evaporating essential oils on indoor air quality“. This study was conducted in a controlled environment where oils were diffused in an office space. The varying compositions were taken into account as it found key compounds of oils like limonene, alpha-pinene, and eucalyptol substantially soared after the diffusion. Interestingly, it also revealed that diffusing certain oils could even affect the level of ozone in the room, varying with different environmental parameters.
While the study found positives in the use of diffusers, it discovered that increased concentrations of these chemical compounds could potentially react with indoor air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide leading to the formation of secondary pollutants. Notably, in the absence of proper ventilation, or when diffused for an extended period, secondary pollutants like formaldehyde could be produced. Therefore, the researchers suggested caution and moderation when using diffusers, especially in small, inadequately ventilated spaces.
The use of diffusers can, in some cases, provoke allergic reactions. These reactions can manifest as skin irritations, headaches, or even respiratory issues in some individuals. This could especially be noted when diffusers are used in excess or in a poorly ventilated space.
Proper dilution of oils is another essential requirement when using these devices. Essential oils in their pure form are incredibly potent, and using them undiluted could lead to various health concerns. For instance, if used excessively, lemon oil – treasured for its uplifting effects – can be irritating and lead to headaches or dizziness. Therefore, these oils should be diluted according to the manufacturer’s instructions before being added to the diffuser.
Lastly, consider your family – including children and pets. Some oils can be harmful to little ones, if not outright toxic. Certain oils like eucalyptus, peppermint, and some citrus-based oils can be harmful to children under a certain age. Additionally, household pets can be particularly sensitive to specific essential oils. It is important to research and ensure the safety of the selected one within your household.
Here, we will explore a few practical steps and guidelines to help you boost your air quality with an oil diffuser, without compromising the safety and well-being of your family.
- Selecting a safe oil: Not all oils are the same, and your choice should correlate with the effects you are seeking and the needs of your household. Research your options and make sure the chosen oils are safe for all occupants of your home. For instance, oils like chamomile, frankincense, and lavender are typically safe and offer calming effects suitable for many households;
- Proper operation: Start by filling the diffuser to the correct water level — not doing so can damage the unit or hamper the diffusion. Next, add the required quantity of your chosen essential oil (usually a few drops) to the water. Once done, close it, plug it in, and switch it on. Do remember that using excessive oil might result in an overpowering scent and could potentially decrease its lifespan;
- Maintaining a clean: Unattended residue can lead to a buildup of mold, bacteria, or yeasts within the device, which can then circulate when the air diffuser is running. Make it a routine to clean it after every use or between changing oils, following the cleaning instructions provided by the manufacturer.
While the debate rages on, it’s fair to conclude that diffusers can contribute positively to indoor air quality, especially when used thoughtfully with the right essential oils. They dispense a beautiful aroma, contribute to reducing stress, and can mildly improve air quality, making them an excellent addition to your home. However, for anyone dealing with severe allergies or respiratory issues, a dedicated air purifier may prove more effective in maintaining a healthier living environment.
Defense4 days ago
Three Sahelian Interim Military Leaders Sign Security Pact
Eastern Europe3 days ago
The agreement was reached to stop the Azerbaijan’s Anti-TerrorOperation in Karabakh: quo vadis?
World News4 days ago
Biden’s Hanoi trip was overshadowed by revelations of Vietnam’s secret Russian arms deal
Finance4 days ago
World Trade Report 2023: “re-globalization” amid early signs of fragmentation
World News4 days ago
Sharp deterioration of the situation in Nagorno-Karabakh
Arts & Culture4 days ago
UNESCO supports removal of Ugandan tombs from endangered list
World News4 days ago
Shoigu: Moscow and Tehran are reaching a new level of interaction
Africa3 days ago
A New Wave of Leaders in West Africa: A departure from instability to stability