Pakistan-China Relations: Improvement in Security Domain within the 21st Century
China–Pakistan relations started in 1950 when Pakistan was among the primary nations to conclusion official political relations with the Republic of China (or Taiwan) and recognize the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government on Terrain China. Since at that point, both nations have set significant significance on the support of a greatly near and steady extraordinary relationship and the two nations have routinely traded high-level visits coming about in an assortment of understandings. The PRC has given financial, military, and specialized help to Pakistan, and each nation considers the other a near key partner.
Two-sided relations have advanced from a starting Chinese approach of nonpartisanship to an organization with a littler but militarily capable Pakistan. Conciliatory relations were built up in 1950, boundary issues settled in 1963, military help started in 1966, a vital union was shaped in 1972, and financial co-operation started in 1979. China has ended up Pakistan’s biggest provider of arms and its third-largest exchanging accomplice. China has given Pakistan an advance of US$60 million which was afterward made a give after East Pakistan broke absent. As of late, both countries have chosen to coordinate in making strides Pakistan’s respectful atomic control division.
Keeping up near relations with China could be a central portion of Pakistan’s remote arrangement. In 1986, President Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq gone by China to move forward conciliatory relations, and Pakistan was one of as it were two nations, nearby Cuba, to offer significant back to the PRC after the Tiananmen Square dissents of 1989. China and Pakistan too share near military relations, with China providing a run of advanced deadly implements to the Pakistani resistance powers. China underpins Pakistan’s position on Kashmir, whereas Pakistan underpins China on the issues of Xinjiang, Tibet, and Taiwan. Military participation has developed, with joint ventures creating deadly implements extending from warrior planes to guided rocket frigates.
International Relation researchers have watched that in spite of the PRC and Pakistan being “exceedingly unique social orders and polities with clashing sees on central worldwide issues”, the two states have all things considered manufactured a energetic relationship over a few decades – something which underpins the thought that realpolitik propels outside approaches within the universal framework. Amin composes that relations between China and Pakistan “speaks to a striking and paradigmatic case of how state control contemplations, instead of culture, philosophy, financial intrigued or composition of administering elites, can decide remote approach behavior – as conceptualized by the neo-realist school of Universal Relations (IR) theory(Pakistan China Military Relations Wikipedia, n.d.).
Historical Perspective of Strategic Relations between Pakistan and China
Strategic Relations is a zone of information based on political science, law, economy, human science, logic, and other social sciences. Customarily, it not as it were treats the relations between country states, but moreover, Worldwide Organizations and non-state performing artists within the worldwide field, like non-governmental organizations, and multinational corporations.
Considering the tremendous range of the subject, Key Relations can ended up fantastically complex. The subject is additionally in some cases known as “foreign relations”. Pros in this field staff political organizations overseas, give interview to businesses which are considering to set up branches abroad, and help charitable non-governmental organizations with their missions.
China-Pakistan: A Journey of Friendship (1950-2020)
Pakistan and China set up discretionary relations on May 21, 1951. The primary high-level official assignment gone by China fair after three months of freedom, on January 4, 1950. But the bonds of fellowship have gone back to centuries-old exchange relations, when Chinese dealers travel through Pakistan on their commerce trips to the Middle-East, Europe, and the rest of the world through old Silk Course. Over 2,000 a long time back celebrated figures such as the friars Fa Xian and Xuan Zang traveled through regions which are nowadays known as Pakistan. This relationship was built on the quality of progressive accomplishments and gets to be imposing with each passing day and year. The authority of both nations is committed to taking this relationship forward.
To understand the depth of this unique relationship, here is a glimpse of the milestones reached over the years(Pak China Friendship, n.d.):
• 1950 – Pakistan becomes the third non-communist country, and the first Muslim one, to recognize the People’s Republic of China and dispatched a high level delegation to China on January 4, 1950
• 1951 The two countries established formal diplomatic relations on May 21, 1951.
• 1955 Visit of Vice President Madam Song Ching Ling to Pakistan marked the first high level visit from Chinese side.
• 1956 Visit of Prime Minister H.S. Suhrawardy to China, was the first high level visit from Pakistan.
• 1963 Historic Visit of Foreign Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto to China. In 1963 Pakistan and China conclude boundary agreement through peaceful negotiations. Pakistan is the only and most friendly country in the neighborhood who has never had any difference of opinion or border dispute with China.
• 1964 Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) started its flights to Beijing, becoming the first non-communist country airline to fly from Beijing, entering into a new era of linkages between the two countries. Pakistan was the window for China to interact with the rest of world.
• 1965 Agreement on Cultural Cooperation signed, promoting understanding and harmony.
• 1970 Pakistan facilitates first visit by US President Nixon to China, paving way for the first-ever US-China official contact, leading toward the normalization of Sino-American relations.
• 1976 Agreement on Scientific and Cultural Cooperation signed, opening huge opportunities for Pakistani scientists and students.
• 1978 The Karakoram Highway, a construction miracle, linking mountainous Northern Pakistan with Western China officially opened, linking China to the Arabian Ocean.
• 1983 Pakistan and China sign MoU on Educational Exchanges, which led 32,000 Pakistani student studying in China today.
• 1989 The two countries sign an agreement on Reciprocal Encouragement and Protection of Investments. China is the largest investor in Pakistan.
• 1995 Agreement for Traffic in Transit is signed between the Governments of Pakistan, China, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, opening avenues of transit trade with other central Asian states and whole of Eurasia.
• 1995 Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto visits China as a special guest to attend the 4th Women’s Conference in Beijing, bring the women of the two friendly nations close to each other.
• 1999 The contract to jointly develop and produce the JF-17 was signed, a landmark event for Pakistan’s defense Industry.
• 2001 Premier Zhu Rongji visits Pakistan on the occasion of 50 years of the establishment of Diplomatic Relations.
• 2001 China and Pakistan sign agreement on Tourism Cooperation, opening unlimited opportunities in the development of the tourism industry.
• 2003 Preferential Trade Agreement is signed between the two countries, providing market access to Pakistani exports.
• 2005 Bilateral MoU on Cooperation in Information Technology is concluded, with China leading and providing Pakistan with a huge opportunity to learn from Chinese achievements.
• 2005 Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits Pakistan. In 2005 “Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Good Neighborly Relations” is signed between the two countries, further cementing ties of friendship.
• 2006 Chinese President Hu Jintao pays an official visit to Pakistan. In 2006 China and Pakistan sign Free Trade Agreement, leading toward enhanced exports to China.
• 2008 Pakistan welcomes the Chinese Olympic Torch in Islamabad
• 2010 Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits Pakistan. In 2010 JF-17 inducted in Pakistan Air Force as backbone of our Air Force and already exporting to other countries.
• 2013 Premier Li Keqiang visits Pakistan in May and both sides issue a Joint Statement on
Deepening Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation, which became the basis of CPEC. In 2013 Pakistan and China sign the landmark Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation for the Long-term Plan on China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, a flagship project of Chinese mega initiative in the BRI. In 2013 Pakistan awards a contract fo the construction and operation of the Gwadar Port to China. Gwadar will become the economic hub of world trade and economic activities after its completion in 2030. Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz Sharif visits China in 2013 and both sides agree to the Common Vision for Deepening China-Pakistan Strategic Cooperative Partnership in the New Era. Both countries sign Memorandum of Understanding in 2013 on the Cooperation of Developing China-Pakistan Economic Corridor Long-term Plan and Actions, opening the flow of Chinese FDI and investment into Pakistan.
• 2014 the governments of Pakistan and China agree on the construction of the 27 km Orange Line metro train project in Punjab.
• 2015 The two countries celebrate 2015 as the Year of Friendly Exchanges 2015 – Trade between the two countries reaches US $16 billion. In 2015 Chinese President Xi Jinping undertakes a landmark visit to Pakistan, both countries signed over 50 documents including the agreement on CPEC outlining projects worth USD 46 billion. The pledged investment already raised USD 62 billion.
• 2016 The two countries celebrate the 65th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations. China-Pakistan unveils the Long-term Plan of China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) in 2016, paving the ways for further cooperation and collaboration.
• 2017 Prime Minister Muhammad Nawaz Sharif attends the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation in Beijing.
• 2018 Prime Minister Imran Khan pays a historic visit to China and both sides agree to further strengthen the All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership and jointly build Closer China-Pakistan Community of a Shared Future in the New Era.
• 2018 CPEC enters in its Second Phase, focused on social-economic development of Pakistan on a faster pace. Phase-II of the China-Pakistan Free Trade Agreement was signed in 2018, facilitating Pakistani exports. Prime Minister Imran Khan attends the First China International Import Expo (CIIE) in Shanghai. A leading initiative of China for opening its markets to Pakistani products. In 2018 Groundbreaking of Rashakai Special Economic Zone was done, Pakistan launches Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (PRSS-
1) from China’s Jiuquan Satellite Centre in 2018, enabling Pakistan to the membership of prestigious Space Club.
• 2019 Groundbreaking of Allama Iqbal Industrial City (M3), Faisalabad Special Economic Zone. Prime Minister Imran Khan visits China in 2019 to attend the Second Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation. JWG (Joint Working Group on International Coordination and Cooperation launched in 2019. Visit of Chinese Vice President to Pakistan in May, 2019.The two sides celebrate 2019 as the year of sister-city/ province, China-Pakistan shares several MoUs signed as sister cities or provinces. Pakistan hosts the Third China-Afghanistan-Pakistan Trilateral Foreign Ministers Dialogue 2019 in Islamabad, a breakthrough in diplomacy toward resolving the Afghan crisis. Prime Minister Imran Khan to China in October, 2019. CPEC Authority has been set-up to coordinate and monitor progress on CPEC Projects in 2019. A CPEC Cell was also established in the Prime Minister’s Office in 2019. 9th JCC took place in Islamabad in November, 2019
• 2020 CPFTA-II became operational from 1st January, whereas Pakistan may enjoy better access to the Chinese market. Extensive bilateral coordination in the wake of the Coronavirus pandemic; China is the major contributor who extended the largest amount of assistance to Pakistan in fighting the outbreak in 2020. Visit of the President Alvi to China in March 2020. MOUs signed including MOU to establish JWGs on Science & Technology and Agricultural Cooperation.
Pakistan and China have enjoyed close and friendly relations since the establishment of diplomatic relations on May 21, 1951. Over the years, the relationship has blossomed into an “All-Weather Strategic Cooperative Partnership”, with the CPEC at its core. Pakistan considers China as one of its closest friends and partners and China considers Pakistan as its “Iron Brother”.
Pakistan’s Priority Ranking of SDGs
Sustainable development goals are also known as Global or Universal goals that are meant to guide developing and underdeveloped nation-states to a sustainable and peaceful future. Development is a combination of innovation and improvement over a consistent time. It requires the collaboration of several social, cultural, economic, legal, and political sectors. All such sectors are interdependent and function sustainably when allied towards the same goal.
What are SDGs?
Developmental goals outline the priorities of a state in terms of its international progress. They are meant to track and counter non-traditional security threats. Such threats are somewhat intangible and have a deeper, more impactful presence. If not countered through structured programs, infrastructure, and policymaking; they will only become a visible reality once the issue is nearly impossible to resolve.
Origin and purpose
These were born from the United Nations Conference that was hosted in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil in 2012. Global issues of all sorts were raised which revolved around aspects such as the environment, clean energy, sanitation, education, health, and security.
Goals and Commitments
The year 2015 decided that within the upcoming 15 years, there will be an active and hopefully successful attempt at ushering in a future of dignity and peace also known as the 2030 Agenda.
For each nation, there is a different ranking of the goals following their level of need and priority. Following is the ranking for Pakistan.
Goal 2 Zero Hunger
The second goal defines eradicating global hunger and reaching food security for all. This involves the production, processing, and distribution of food and sustainable agriculture. This goal is at the top of Pakistan’s priority list due to its status as an Agrarian State. Due to the recent inflation in the state, the food crisis has become a reality for a sizable portion of the Pakistani population.
Goal 3 Good Health and Well Being
Places focus on the overall health of all people. The focus is on preventative strategies for all ages. This goal covers the improvement of life expectancy in all developing and underdeveloped nations. It also includes immunization coverage, epidemics such as malaria and dengue, the Covid-19 pandemic, and emergency aid going out to all in times of global distress and disaster.
Goal 4 Quality Education
Good quality education that is inclusive and available to all is a cornerstone of a prosperous and peaceful society. This includes not only various education sustainability initiatives but also caters to accessible and high-caliber school and university infrastructure. This goal works for a bright future for not only the global youth but for the global economy as well.
Goal 6 Clean Water and Sanitation
Universal access to clean water and a hygienic living environment makes up Goal 6. This will help counter water pollution and reduce the spread of diseases like cholera, malaria, dysentery, typhoid, and Hepatitis A. Clean water and sanitation will ultimately lead to water efficiency and its use as a renewable energy source.
Goal 7 Affordable and Clean Energy
Clean Energy is the key to having a future landscape that this generation can pass on to the next. This goal works for the distribution of electricity across the globe, in poverty-stricken and hard-to-access areas. Renewable energy sources (windmills, hydro-electricity, solar power) are being focused on so that there can be a time when weaning off of non-renewable and quickly depleting fuels such as coal, gas, and oil is not harmful to both society and the economy.
Goal 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth
Economic growth is a necessary factor to keep states progressing and afloat. Goal 8 emphasizes the importance of productive and decent employment. It promotes a greener economy, sustainable tourism, and social protection for all.
Goal 16 Peace, Justice, and Security
Accountable and Just national institutions and law enforcement is the path to peace, justice, and security. There is an active need for local participation at the grassroots level. Peace can only ever be delivered from the bottom up. Pakistan has always had a conflict simmering at some level. Be it a population overflow at the borders or a politico-religious conflict. Effectively working on prevention and counter operations can foster peace and security for all.
Goal 1 No Poverty
The first goal is to end poverty globally. The poverty line has been decided over various factors and definitions in the past few years. Once it was declared that any person who consumed less than 2400 kcal over twenty-four hours was under the poverty line. Currently, it is set for members of society who live under Rs. 3000 monthly, in Pakistan.
Goal 5 Gender Equality
It is common knowledge that we live in a majorly patriarchal society that is disadvantageous to women and girls all over the world. Goal 5 aims to fix that by focusing on the elimination of gender-based violence and empowering more women to step into professional and operational roles by reducing in-house gender discrimination. There is also special care taken to recognize and reduce the unpaid labor and double standards which women face daily.
Goal 9 Industry. Innovation, and Infrastructure
A resilient and good quality infrastructure is a must to keep a state of more than 220 million people functioning properly. The innovation of the tech industry is the spearhead for Pakistan’s entry into a competitive future. There is still a need for better infrastructure including highways and high-rise buildings with proper sewage piping as well. Inclusive industrialization will bring about better credit, a more stable economy, and reduced unemployment.
Goal 10 Reduced Inequalities
The focus lies on reducing international inequalities and reducing the massive chasm existing between different classes of society. Income equality is directly tied to gendered equity, improved industrialization, and economic growth. Apart from reducing financial disparity, this also focuses on socio-political, cultural, and religious inclusion. Pakistan is a multicultural and diverse state with citizens belonging to various religious sects, castes, and ethnicities. However, this has often led to intersectional conflicts. This goal aims to counter that through various representative policies and global cooperation.
Goal 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities
These are such areas that practice, promote, and support sustainability in every aspect – energy, water, economy, infrastructure, and environment. This goal aims to ensure that due to the massive population migrations from rural to urban, there is no concentration of poverty due to the economic shift. Cities are to be safe havens for their constituents with public transport, parks, recreational spaces, and economic opportunities.
Goal 17 Partnerships for Goals
No system of such a scale can work in isolation therefore, to bring sustainability to Pakistan, there needs to be a joint effort by international powers and national institutions. Global platforms such as the UN, WTO, SAARC, ASEAN, and IMF are all contributing their part be it through funding, medical aid, or economic policing. Pakistan also partakes in multiple confidence-building measures and FTAs to live up to this goal.
Goal 12 Responsible consumption and Production
Focuses on management and usage of natural resources to not run out before other renewable sources are in place. This goal actively works to reduce the negative impact of state consumption on the environment – be it through chemical dumping, food waste, or wasteful consumption.
Goal 13 Climate Action
The recent floods in Pakistan and the searing temperatures in June and July point to the absolute necessity of taking climate action. Extreme temperatures, droughts, and flooding are all contributing to the deterioration of human and environmental health. Being a primarily agrarian exporter, Pakistan needs to be vigilant regarding any threat to its agricultural economy and counter it through planning, policies, and preventive strategies.
Goal 14 Life below Water and Goal 15 Life on Land
The sustainable Development goals have provided guidelines to ensure a hospitable future. This includes protection and conservation of the living habitat aka Oceans and Land. Due to the rapid rate of globalization, modernism, and human development, ecosystems both above and below have suffered. Many species have gone extinct as well, due to unregulated hunting and fishing throughout the year. Ocean acidification and pollution are major concerns due to it being a major food source for the global population. Similarly, deforestation, desertification, and poaching need to be eliminated on land. Pakistan has participated in such initiatives to conserve and protect forests through artificial reforestation – the Changa Manga Forest.
Pakistan is constantly making progress in seeing the SDGs through. Consistency is key to success and in this case, sustainability.
Breaking Diplomatic Norms: Indian Response to OIC & Turkish Support for Kashmir Issue
Recently, the Indian government has been facing backlash for its highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support to the Kashmir issue at the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). The Indian government has also criticized the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) for its statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in Indian Occupied Jammu and Kashmir (IIOJK).
India’s long-standing hostility towards Pakistan has been a subject of much criticism in international diplomatic circles. While the two countries have a history of conflicts and disputes, India’s approach towards Pakistan has often been seen as unconstructive and counterproductive. The Indian government’s hardline stance on Pakistan has resulted in a deepening of the mistrust between the two countries, which has had serious implications for regional stability and security.
India’s rhetoric towards Pakistan has often been marked by derogatory and aggressive remarks, particularly in the context of the Kashmir issue. In recent years, India has sought to internationalize the issue of Kashmir and has baselessly accused Pakistan of supporting terrorism in the region. This has resulted in a hardening of positions on both sides and has made any meaningful dialogue between the two countries almost impossible.
India’s recent criticism of Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC and its condemnation of the OIC’s statement on Indian human rights abuses in IIOJK is another example of its obsession with Pakistan. The Indian government’s response to these developments has been highly un-democratic and derogatory, with Indian officials using aggressive language and personal attacks to discredit Turkey and the OIC.
India’s preoccupation with Pakistan has also had implications for its relationship with other countries in the region. India’s increasingly assertive foreign policy and its strategic partnership with the US have raised concerns among its neighbors, who fear that India’s pursuit of its own interests could undermine regional stability and security. India’s aggressive stance towards China and its border disputes have also added to regional tensions and have led to a deterioration in its relationship with Beijing.Bottom of Form
It is important to note that Turkey has always been a strong supporter of the Kashmir issue, and has been vocal about the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in the region. In September 2021, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan raised the issue of Kashmir during his speech at the UN General Assembly, stating that the “Kashmir conflict, which is also key to the stability and peace of South Asia, is still a burning issue.”
In response to Turkey’s support of the Kashmir issue, India’s Ministry of External Affairs issued a statement condemning Turkey’s stance, claiming that it was “completely unacceptable” and that Turkey had no right to interfere in India’s internal affairs. India’s statement also accused Turkey of using the Kashmir issue as a “distraction” from its own internal problems.
This reaction from the Indian government is highly undemocratic and uncalled for. It is the right of any nation to express its views on global issues, and India’s attempt to suppress Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a clear violation of this right. The Kashmir issue has been a longstanding dispute between India and Pakistan, and the international community has a responsibility to support a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue is a step in the right direction towards achieving this goal.
Furthermore, the Indian government’s criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK is also highly inappropriate. The OIC, a group of 57 Muslim-majority countries, has expressed concern over the human rights abuses committed by Indian forces in IIOJK, including extrajudicial killings, torture, and enforced disappearances. The OIC’s statement is a reflection of the international community’s concerns over the situation in IIOJK, and it is the right of the OIC to express its views on this matter.
India’s response to the OIC’s statement has been highly critical, with the Indian government accusing the OIC of interfering in India’s internal affairs. This response is yet another attempt by the Indian government to suppress international criticism of its human rights abuses in IIOJK. The Indian government’s stance on this issue is highly hypocritical, as it has repeatedly called for international support in its own disputes with other nations, including Pakistan.
Indian government’s highly undemocratic and derogatory remarks on Turkey’s support for the Kashmir issue at the UNHRC, as well as its criticism of the OIC’s statement on Indian Human Rights Abuses in IIOJK, are reflective of its lack of respect for international law and global human rights standards. The Kashmir issue is a longstanding dispute that requires a peaceful and just resolution, and the international community has a responsibility to support this goal. The Indian government must recognize this and work towards a peaceful resolution of the conflict, rather than resorting to undemocratic and inflammatory rhetoric.
The Taliban’s Loss of Popular Support in Afghanistan
Afghanistan is currently facing an unprecedented crisis due to the Taliban’s takeover of the country in August 2021. Despite initially claiming to have widespread support from the Afghan population, reports from within the country now suggest that the Taliban’s grip on power is increasingly fragile. The Taliban’s regime has been marked by egregious human rights violations, economic hardship, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and brutal tactics during the war, all of which have contributed to their diminishing popularity. The people of Afghanistan continue to suffer under the oppressive rule of the Taliban, and urgent action is needed to address the humanitarian crisis and restore stability to the region.
One of the most pressing issues facing Afghanistan under the Taliban is the economic crisis that has emerged in the wake of their takeover. The country is facing inflation, food shortages, and job losses, all of which are having a significant impact on the lives of ordinary Afghans. The prices for basic goods such as flour and sugar have skyrocketed and many families are struggling to afford even one meal a day. In 2022, many reports emerged that people are selling their kidneys to feed their families.
The Taliban has struggled to revive the economy, and their policies have not been effective in addressing the economic crisis. According to the New York Times, “the Taliban’s financial plan relies heavily on the illicit drug trade, a strategy that may provide some short-term gains but will ultimately lead to greater instability and economic hardship for ordinary Afghans.”
Human Rights Violations
The Taliban’s history of human rights violations, particularly their treatment of women and girls, has also contributed to their loss of popular support in Afghanistan. The Taliban has a reputation for imposing strict restrictions on women’s rights, including banning girls from attending school and requiring women to wear burqas in public. Various media outlets report suggest that women and girls have been virtually invisible in public since the Taliban took over. The Taliban has also used violence against civilians, including women and children who raised voice for their rights. We see constant demonstrations against ban on girls’ education in Kabul and Taliban use to suppress them by using force. No one is allowed to held a protest against the Taliban repressive policies.
Lack of Inclusivity
The Taliban’s government has been criticized for its lack of inclusivity and representation of Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. The Taliban is dominated by Pashtuns, and there are concerns that other groups may be marginalized or excluded from political participation. No previous polit al leaders who are in politics for decades is a part of the new set up. Taliban have imposed a narrow interpretation of Islam that does not reflect the country’s diversity and tolerance as well as equal opportunities to men and women. The Taliban’s cabinet is made up entirely of men, and there are no non-Pashtuns or Shia Muslims in key positions.
The Taliban’s return to power has resulted in international isolation, with several countries imposing sanctions and restrictions on the Taliban regime. This has limited the Taliban’s ability to access international aid and resources, which has further exacerbated the economic crisis in Afghanistan. The Washington Post reports that “the Taliban’s international isolation is exacerbating an already dire humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan,” and that “the country desperately needs international aid to address its economic woes and provide basic services to its people.” Unless the Taliban bring a change to their repressive policies, they will remain isolated in the international community.
Taliban’s Tactics During the War
The Taliban’s tactics during the war against US-led NATO and ISAF forces, including their use of suicide bombings and targeting of civilians, have also contributed to their loss of popular support among Afghans who have been affected by the violence. The New York Times reported in September 2021 that “the Taliban’s brutal tactics during the war have left a legacy of fear and trauma among the Afghan people.” Many Afghans are deeply distrustful of the Taliban because of the group’s violent tactics during the war and the atrocities they committed against civilians. The Taliban’s reputation as a violent and extremist group has made it difficult for them to gain the trust and support of the Afghan population.
Addressing the Issues
The Taliban faces a significant challenge in regaining the trust and support of the Afghan people. They will need to address the economic crisis, provide basic services to the population, and create an inclusive government that represents Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic, political and religious groups. They will also need to address human rights concerns especially women rights and restore the rule of law. Also, they will need to make significant concessions if they hope to regain the trust of the Afghan people and the international community. They need to create a more stable and predictable environment for the Afghan people if they hope to build a functioning state. The Taliban has taken some steps to address these concerns, including pledging to respect women’s rights and promising to form an inclusive government. However, the effectiveness of these measures remains to be seen.
The Taliban’s loss of popular support in Afghanistan is a significant challenge for the group as they seek to govern the country. Economic hardship, human rights violations, women rights, lack of inclusivity, international isolation, and the Taliban’s tactics during the war have all contributed to their declining popularity. The Taliban will need to address these issues if they hope to regain the trust and support of the Afghan people and build a functioning state. The Taliban’s future depends on their ability to govern effectively and address the concerns of the Afghan people. If they fail to do so, they risk losing the support of the population and facing significant challenges in the years to come. It remains to be seen whether the Taliban can rise to this challenge and create a stable and prosperous Afghanistan for all its citizens.
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