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Ramification of Food Insecurity in Pakistan: Policy Recommendations and Way Forward

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Abstract: Pakistan is experiencing one of the most challenging periods in its history. During the last two decades, Pakistan’s food security has been under persistent danger. The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of food insecurity and to look into the pillars of food security in Pakistan. This study asserts that Pakistan needs to concentrate on alternate food security solutions. This paper includes a thorough overview of the current situation in Pakistan, including the accumulation of these policies and coping strategies. This article concludes with the idea that Pakistan should consider other options to improve its skills and deal with the problem.COVID-19, a recent epidemic, has posed significant problems to Pakistan’s food security. The necessity of ensuring food security and livelihoods has also increased. Because logistical difficulties may pose a threat to the food supply, it’s critical to take steps to improve crop yields, which will help to mitigate COVID-19’s socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this paper is to inject some new ideas into the discourse about food security problems. It highlights the limits of previous policy responses and proposes a new path to improve the current bleak situation.

Introduction

Food insecurity is one of the most significant global issues of the twenty-first century. Food insecurity occurs when people do not have consistent physical or economic access to enough safe, nutritious, and beneficial food to maintain their health. Food insecurity is a multifaceted issue that includes economic, political, demographic,social,cultural, and technical factors. Food insecurity is much more than just a lack of food on the market. It also denotes a lack of sufficient funds to purchase food.[1]  The global predicament of the COVID-19 epidemic has put enormous strain on the world’s food and health systems. The situation of Lockdowns and restrictions on movement create a significant impact on local, national, and international markets, resulting in a reduction in global economic activity. The issue is considerably worse in developing nations and countries with poor socioeconomic growth, aggravating already vulnerable agri-food systems and, as a result, people’s livelihoods. The worldwide epidemic has wreaked havoc on the economy, and the estimated number of individuals facing acute food insecurity has risen dramatically.

The COVID-19 pandemic reached Pakistan at a time when people of this country had been grappling with various other crises such as the war on terror, military operations in the residential areas, prolonged drought, devastating floods, and earthquakes that destroyed infrastructure and crops, spiraling economic losses, persistently widespread poverty, and most recently the Covid19 pandemic.[2] Pakistan’s economy is being hit hard by the twin shocks of Covid-19.

The Covid-19 pandemic is causing a major humanitarian crisis, owing to the population of Pakistan is facing the threat of malnutrition and food insecurity.Pakistan’s present food security situation is extremely concerning because the most imperative task at this time is to develop a comprehensive strategy for strengthening Pakistan’s economic, food, and health systems to prevent future epidemics from escalating into full-fledged social and economic catastrophes. As a result, the current study focuses on the food security problems that Pakistan and other developing and resource-poor nations confront in the COVID-19 pandemic period. Furthermore, the present situation gives a summary of the implemented and planned reaction plans targeted at food security and nutrition, and livelihood protection for demographic groups.

Determinants/Components of Food Insecurity

The COVID 19  pandemic is affecting all four pillars of food security.

  • Food Availability
  • Food Supply
  • Food Utilization
  • Food Stability

Food Availability

COVID-19 has the most immediate and significant influence on food availability, while other factors such as interruptions in supply, shifts in consumer demand toward less nutritious meals, and food price fluctuations all have an impact. Government attempts to control the virus that leads to decreasing food output have severely affected agri-food supply networks.[3]

Food Supply

The national lockdown in Pakistan has significantly disrupted many non-agricultural economic operations, ultimately jeopardizing food supply networks. Farmers, merchants, and purchasers are all affected by the supply chain, as are labor-intensive food manufacturers. Due to employees who tested positive for COVID-19, the manufacturing process at several facilities was reduced, stopped, or partially interrupted.

Food Consumption/Utilization

COVID-19 hurts market demand and puts unforeseen pressure on the food chain. the demand for food by raising unemployment rates and lowering average consumer spending power. Daily wage employees are particularly vulnerable to job loss owing to government limitations, whilst farmers eventually lose their major sources of income due to the drop in demand, particularly in Pakistan.

Food Stability

Food stability can only be accomplished when individuals have consistent and permanent access to adequate food to meet their nutritional needs, without risk of losing access due to economic changes, natural calamities, or cyclical swings. The demand for and supply of food is inextricably connected to achieving food stability or security. Because every location has various cultural, socioeconomic, and demographic features, the element that affects this may vary from place to place.

COVID- 19 Pandemic and Pakistan

COVID-19 has spread throughout Pakistan, as it has in many other nations throughout the world. The situation with the COVID-19 epidemic is deteriorating in Pakistan, as it is in other nations, and the pandemic has struck at a time when the country is undergoing poor economic development and rising inflation. According to Pakistan’s Planning Commission’s “Vision 2030, “About half of the country’s population suffers from serious to moderate malnutrition, with children, women, and the senior, who are among the poorest, is perhaps the most susceptible.Because of the ephemeral nature of the present epidemic, Pakistan’s community is already food insecure, and the number of food-insecure individuals will surge in 2021.[4]

 If the COVID-19 emergency is stretched beyond a certain point in Pakistan, food security would become the second most critical matter after health. The consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak on subsistence, food security, the agricultural supply chain, food commodity pricing, market circumstances, and management methods, as well as appropriate measures for reducing the pandemic’s impacts on food insecure populations. According to the data, over 36.43 million people are incredibly susceptible to food insecurity as a result of both natural and anthropogenic disasters, including the current pandemic.[5] Consequently, lockdowns are expected, and the situation is expected to worsen if the epidemic remains untreated.

Relying on these coordinated estimations, urgent action strategy for the population with severe livelihood requirements is advised, including the provision of lifesaving food, and non-food production support in a highly targeted way, therefore preventing a full-scale humanitarian emergency. The aforementioned geographical locations significantly hit by the COVID- 19 shocks are present in the majority of these extremely vulnerable populations.

Policy Recommendations

  • Short Term Measures
  • Govermnet should minimizethe  institutional overlaps in the COVID-19 National Action Plan by clearly identifying the responsibilities and duties of federal, provincial, and local governments.
  • Food insecurity is more common in struggling families; therefore the government and other stakeholders should give greater financial support to poor families and  make it possible to provide food accessibility at a lower cost to empower people.
  • To Encourage public credibility in the COVID-19 response by engaging with local authorities, learn from their expertise, and assisting them in strengthening public participation.
  • Provide reliable, responsible, and responsive platforms/mechanisms for public to share their opinions and concerns in order to empower them and assure their involvement.
  • Medium & Long Term Measures
  • Pakistan’s food situation in the country is fragile, and the government should take many legislative initiatives and analytical work to reduce food insecurity.
  • It is the duty of government to guarantee the security of affected citizens by strengthen local networks (e.g., local administrations, CSOs, media platforms, etc.).
  • Smart lockdown should be used to safeguard people’s income-generating activities by guaranteeing a continuous economic flow (smart lockdown means if the area has higher confirmed cases of the COVID-19 pandemic disease, that area should be under lockdown, but the areas with a low positivity rate would not be imposed with a lockdown).
  • There is a need to expand food assistance programs as well as provide resources to overcome obstacles to food available today and in the future throughout outbreak
  • Ensure that local authorities have the capability and capabilities to employ digital technology to gather, produce, preserve, and utilise data on residents.

Conclusion

The COVID-19 epidemic has had a major detrimental effect on the people enduring food insecurity. The pandemic’s effects are mostly due to government-imposed lockdowns and movement limitations, as well as the repercussions of lost wages and diminished asset value on food security. Food insecurity was particularly prevalent in the household with several members of the family, those who stayed in quarantine, and low-income families. Food insecurity is shown to be less among households that received monetary assistance or aid from the governments or charity organizations than that of other counterparts. During the COVID-19 epidemic, financial assistance and aid assisted people to improve their food security. Condition.

Way Forward

The COVID-19 outbreak is a coercive wake-up call that uncovered the fleeting nature of our procession on food security and nutrition. However, it has given us the chance to rethink how we address the primary causes of food insecurity and redirect our attempts to ensure progress. Pakistan needs comprehensive healthcare, humanitarian, and socioeconomic approach to COVID19 in an attempt to uphold lives. The nexus of international humanitarian activities has never been more important, and the need for cooperation and integration has never been greater. UN agencies, international financial institutions, non-governmental organisations (NGOs), civil society organisations (CSOs), the corporate sector, academia, and the media all have a role to play in boosting response activities and safeguarding people’s livelihoods.

The first step is the COVID-19 socioeconomic structure and its directives must be included in Pakistan’s response policies and tactics, including the COVID-19 National Action Plan, province emergency preparedness, and provincial and federal allocations for FY 2020-21. This necessitates national and subnational lobbying and policy involvement to guarantee that the new framework guidelines are approved and executed.

Second, technical, legal, and operational assistance will be required to assess the changing circumstances, fine-tune reaction strategies, and enhance their deployment. To get this help, the state should form COVID Response Committees with funders and development agencies to guarantee a well-coordinated, coherent response.

Third, given the lack of good, disaggregated socioeconomic data, certain recommendations may be hard to complete. It may be difficult to pinpoint and reach specific recipients as a result of this. As a result, community-based organisations, local governments, and civil society organisations (CSOs) should be mobilized to discover, map, and register beneficiaries, particularly the most vulnerable, so that recovery and rescue programs may reach immediately.

Finally, a thorough examination of COVID-19’s medium and long-term effects is required. The government should work with public sector policy and research institutions, as well as think tanks, academicians, and research centers, to conduct extensive analysis on the pandemic’s consequences on vulnerable areas, groups, families, and individuals.

This study should be utilized to help government response plans and initiatives become more focused. It is critical to note that millions of citizens were already food insecure before the epidemic hit. We might experience a worldwide food catastrophe if immediate thinking is not done, impacting people in all walks of life. Such a major food upheaval, both in terms of intensity and composition, could have unexpected repercussions that we are not prepared to deal with it.


[1]  Tandon PN. COVID-19: Impact on health of people & wealth of nations. Indian J Med Res. 2020 Feb & Mar;151(2 & 3):121-123. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_664_20. PMID: 32202260; PMCID: PMC7357406.

[2] Wazir, M. A. (2020). Immediate socio-economic response to COVID-19 in Pakistan. United Nations Population Fund (Pakistan). Technical Report, May 2020. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.22523.13602

[3]  Waris, A., Atta, U. K., Ali, M., Asmat, A., & Baset, A. (2020). COVID-19 outbreak: Current scenario of Pakistan. New Microbes and New Infections, 35, 100681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nmni.2020.100681

[4] Akhtar, N. (2020). COVID-19 in Pakistan: Current scenario and future perspective. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Investigations, 11(4), em00753. https://doi.org/10.29333/jcei/8354

[5] Mamun, M. A., & Ullah, I. (2020). COVID-19 suicides in Pakistan, dying off not COVID-19 fear but poverty? The forthcoming economic challenges for a developing country. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 87, 163– 166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.028

MS International Relations COMSATS University Islamabad, currently working at Eurasian Century Institute Islamabad as a research intern.

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A long way of solidarity: a voice for the voiceless Kashmiris

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Friday prayers in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. © John Isaac

Every year on February 5 Pakistan observes Kashmir Solidarity Day. It aims to demonstrate Pakistan’s support and solidarity with the people of Indian-occupied Kashmir, and their continuing liberation struggle, and to honor Kashmiri martyrs who sacrificed their lives fighting for Kashmir’s independence.

Every year, on Kashmir Solidarity Day, Pakistan expresses its political, moral, and diplomatic support for the righteous fight of our Kashmiri brothers and becomes its voice in the international forums.

Kashmir’s discord carries historical as well as contemporary events that hinder its political future.

Historical account of the humiliation of Kashmir’s people

The history of conflict dates back to 1947. In the June 3 plan, the princely state offered a choice between India and Pakistan. Maharaja Hari Singh deceived Pakistan and ceded Kashmir to India through a standstill agreement, which sparked an uprising of Pashtun tribesmen and the Hindu nationalists and RSS to organize a program against Muslims, killing between 20,000 and 100,000 Muslims. On October 27, 1947, Indian troops landed in Kashmir to fight against the Pashtuns and the local armies; this led to the first India-Pakistan war. During the war, India’s prime minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, promised a referendum: “The fate of Jammu and Kashmir is ultimately decided by the people; the pledge we have given is not only to the people of Kashmir but also to the world.” “We will not and cannot back out of it.”

India referred the dispute to the United Nations a little more than two months later. A resolution passed on August 13, 1948, asking both nations to withdraw their forces; once that happened, a referendum was to be held, allowing the people of Kashmir to decide their political future. But the Indian troops were never withdrawn, and the referendum never happened. On January 1, 1949, the ceasefire was agreed upon, and Kashmir became a disputed territory. Over the next 70 years, India and Pakistan fought three wars over Kashmir.

In Indian-administrated Kashmir, India maintains around 600,000 troops in Kashmir, who have committed human rights violations like rape, torture, and enforced disappearances that continue today. The number of people killed in Kashmir is estimated to be between 50,000 and 100,000, which shows the ruthlessness of the so-called largest democracy in the world.

Situation after the abolishment of articles 370 and 35A

On August 5, 2019, the Indian government abrogated Article 370 and Article 35A of the Indian Constitution, which granted Jammu and Kashmir a special status and autonomy. The Indian government enforced a curfew, disrupted communication connections, arrested political leaders, and deployed extra soldiers in the area, generating widespread resentment and demonstrations.

Since the abolition of Articles 370 and 35A, human rights abuses and violations in Kashmir have increased significantly, with claims of widespread mass arrests, torture, and extrajudicial executions by Indian security personnel. The Indian government has also restricted freedom of speech, assembly, and the press, making it impossible for citizens to openly express their thoughts and report on the state of the area.

In addition, the Indian government has been accused of fostering demographic changes in the area through the settlement of Hindu migrants, which has resulted in a fall in the percentage of the Muslim population and degradation of the Kashmiri people’s distinctive cultural and religious identity.

International human rights groups have shown concern about the situation in Kashmir and demanded an independent investigation into the reported human rights breaches and abuses. About 87 civilians have been killed by the Indian forces since the abrogation of Article 370. The international community has also advocated for a peaceful settlement to the issue that takes the Kashmiri people’s rights and interests into consideration.

The situation in Kashmir remains severe, and the continuous violence and human rights violations continue to provide the international community with a formidable task. The region’s political future is still unknown, and a sustainable resolution to the war has not yet been found.

Pakistan’s Advocacy for Kashmir

Pakistan has made several attempts to resolve the ongoing conflict in Kashmir and has sought international backing for its stance on the matter. Pakistan has repeatedly discussed the Kashmir issue at the United Nations and other international forums, stressing the need for a peaceful settlement of the conflict based on the self-determination principle and the right of the Kashmiri people to choose their destiny. Pakistan has also made diplomatic attempts to garner international support for its viewpoint, notably via the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.

Pakistan has also endeavored to provide political, diplomatic, and moral assistance for the Kashmiri resistance movement. India has accused Pakistan of financing terrorism in the area based on information that Pakistan supports separatist organizations in the region. Pakistan has denied these allegations and advocated for a peaceful settlement according to UN Resolution 47 (1948), which calls for a ceasefire, and UN Resolution 51 (1948), which calls for a plebiscite to be held in the region to determine the will of the Kashmiri people.

Despite these attempts, the situation in Kashmir remains unresolved, and a permanent resolution to the conflict has not yet been reached. The issue remains a significant source of conflict between India and Pakistan and a problem for the international community.

Conclusion:

Kashmir’s political future remains uncertain and is the subject of ongoing discussion and negotiation between India and Pakistan, as well as international engagement.

Currently, the territory is split between India and Pakistan, with India administering the greater part and Pakistan the smaller. The Line of Control (LoC), which divides the two managed territories, has often been the scene of tension and bloodshed.

There have been appeals for a peaceful conclusion that takes the rights and interests of the Kashmiri people into consideration. Some have suggested the concept of “self-determination,” in which the people of Kashmir would have the right to choose their destiny through a referendum or a negotiated solution between India and Pakistan.

Kashmir’s political future is unpredictable and vulnerable to the continuous dynamics of the war as well as the shifting political and strategic objectives of the major regional countries. The international community still has a big part to play in finding a solution, and India, Pakistan, and the other countries in the area are likely to have to be involved and support any lasting solution.

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Sri Lankans deserve a clean break from the past

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The decision of former president Maithripala Sirisena to run for president pits two unpopular, establishment candidates against one another. With both Sirisena and Ranil Wickremesinghe involved in past political turmoil and the current economic crisis, Sri Lankans deserve a clean break.

While a presidential election cannot be held until 2024, the Sri Lankan Electoral Commission recently announced local elections for February. With no popular mandate and as the only member of his party, President Wickremesinghe is expected to face an embarrassing defeat in the poll, but it is unlikely to bring down the government.

The announcement that Sirisena would run as president comes at a pivotal time for Sri Lankans.

Wickremesinghe warned this week that the Sri Lankan economy could contract by up to 4% this year, after shrinking 11% last year.

Last year, the island nation descended into turmoil, with an economic collapse leading to its worst crisis in years. Foreign currency shortages, runaway inflation and a recession left the government unable to make debt repayments and left Sri Lankans desperately short of food and fuel.

This led to unprecedented unrest, particularly in the capital Colombo, resulting in the deaths of protesters and police, with hundreds more injured or detained. The protests culminated in the storming and occupation of the presidential palace, forcing Gotabaya Rajapaksa to flee the country, with Wickremesinghe replacing him as president.

Sirisena has a chequered history in Sri Lankan politics.

Sirisena was part of former President Mahinda Rajapaksa’s cabinet before defecting to the opposition and winning a surprise election victory against Rajapaksa in 2015.

As President, Sirisena formed a close partnership with Wickremsinghe, appointing him Prime Minister, before the two spectacularly fell out. This culminated in the sacking of Wickremesinghe in 2018, replacing him with Mahinda Rajapaksa. At the time, Wickremesinghe claimed that the move was “unconstitutional”.

This led to a constitutional crisis and power struggle between Wickremesinghe, Rajapaksa and Sirisena, with the former President dissolving parliament and calling snap elections. Sirisena then decided to not seek re-election, leaving office in early 2019. He was replaced as president by Mahinda’s brother, Gotabaya Rajapaksa.

Recently, the Sri Lankan supreme court ordered Sirisena and several other top government, police and intelligence officials to pay millions of rupees in compensation to the victims of the 2019 Easter bombings in Colombo. The court found that Sirisena, as former president, ignored multiple warnings about an imminent terrorist attack weeks before the deadly event took place.

But Wickremesinghe is also no saint.

Wickremesinghe, a six-time prime minister, won a parliamentary vote with the backing of the Rajapaksa’s Sri Lanka Podujana Peramuna party to replace Gotabaya Rajapaksa in July 2022. For this reason, he is accused of owing his position to the family.

Upon gaining the presidency, Wickremesinghe immediately cracked down on protesters, condemning the protests as “against the law” and calling protesters “fascists”. Under his watch, more than 140 protesters have been arrested and its leaders driven into hiding.

In August 2022, the United Nations condemned his government’s crackdown on protesters. The UN also criticised the repeated use of emergency measures, such as curfews, calling them a “misuse of emergency measures”.

The president has also been accused of delaying this poll, claiming the economically crippled country cannot afford to spend 10 billion rupees on a local election. However, the election commission decided to proceed despite the president’s request. Nonetheless, this raises doubts about Wickremesinghe’s respect for the democratic process.

What Sri Lankans desperately need is political stability and good economic management so the country can dig its way out of its worst crisis since independence.

Sirisena and Wickremesinghe offer neither. The former is struggling to finalise a bailout deal with the International Monetary Fund and both are notorious for poor political decision making and unpopular with a public desperate for change.

Therefore, Sri Lankans are faced with two establishment candidates who only offer more of the same.

The solution, at least for the time being, is for Wickremesinghe to call a presidential election so the next president has a clear mandate by the people. This will assist in forming a stable government and in bailout negotiations with the IMF.

Power also needs to be decentralised through ambitious political reforms that allow for wider participation and decision making in parliament. While, admittedly, this would be difficult under both Sirisena and Wickremesinghe, it is the first step in dealing with corruption and nepotism in Sri Lankan politics.

Presidential candidates serious about solving the countries problems also need to focus on key issues, such as rebuilding the economy, accountability for human rights and rebuilding political integrity and public trust.

Only once this is achieved, and Sri Lanka has shed itself of its dysfunctional political past, will it be able to recover.

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A Hybrid Political System for Pakistan: A Proposal

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The political system of Pakistan is an amalgamation of Islamic, British, and Indian influences, shaped by a multifaceted array of religious, ethnic, and regional factors, making it a culturally rich and ever-changing landscape. Pakistan is renowned for its powerful military establishment, which has traditionally wielded significant influence in determining its political direction. The nation’s political history is characterized by cycles of military rule, punctuated by several coups, followed by phases of democratic rule, though the military has continued to exert a significant degree of influence in the country’s politics. Furthermore, Pakistan has had to contend with the pernicious threat of extremism, with various militant groups operating within its borders and perpetrating terrorist attacks, which have destabilized the nation’s political, social, and economic stability.

This article aims to shed light on the challenges faced by the political system in Pakistan, specifically concerning the current political turmoil the country is experiencing. It also suggests a potential solution to stabilize the system and bring about a revolution in the way politics is conducted in Pakistan

The challenges faced by Pakistan’s democracy are compounded by the elite classes’ actions. The country is currently facing significant upheaval, which can be attributed to several factors. The lack of solid democratic institutions, frequent military takeovers, and the involvement of powerful military and civilian elites are among the underlying causes of the country’s political instability. Additionally, ethnic and regional conflicts, poverty, and economic growth issues further exacerbated political instability. The ongoing conflict in Afghanistan, as well as political unrest in neighboring countries, have also had an impact on the country. Furthermore, Pakistan’s history of military control, political corruption, and a lack of a deeply ingrained democratic culture have all contributed to the volatility in its political system.

The current political quagmire that plagues Pakistan is multifaceted, primarily stemming from a dearth of political acumen and a paucity of commitment on the part of leaders to prioritize the exigencies of the populace over their own personal and factional interests. This has led to a diminution of public confidence in the political system and government officials. Furthermore, the military’s prolonged political intervention and sway history has exacerbated a lack of democratic stability and accountability. Another critical conundrum that has impeded the country’s political evolution is the preponderance of corruption and nepotism in every government agency, rendering it difficult for citizens to repose trust in government officials. As a result, there is a burgeoning loss of faith in institutions of all varieties, with people losing trust in the government, corporations, and political leaders.

Furthermore, the failure of successive governments to address the issue of corruption has further undermined public trust in the political system. The permeation of corrupt practices in every government institution has made it difficult for citizens to have faith in government officials, leading to a general disillusionment with the political system. Additionally, the lack of transparency and accountability in government operations has enabled corrupt officials to operate with impunity, further eroding the public’s trust in the political system. The aforementioned issues have resulted in a political climate marked by a lack of stability and continuity, hindering the country’s economic and social development. It is imperative that the political class and other stakeholders work towards addressing these issues to ensure that the political system can effectively serve the people’s needs and promote the country’s long-term stability and prosperity.

Proposing A New Way to get stability in Political System?

A hybrid political system combines characteristics of many political systems, such as democracy and autocracy. Two examples are a semi-presidential system, which combines a prime minister and a president, and a federal system, which combines a central government with regional administrations. Hybrid systems can also include components of other kinds of democracy, such as a parliamentary system combined with a robust presidential system. These systems are frequently viewed as a compromise between competing political ideologies or as a means of balancing the strengths and shortcomings of various systems

If the official replaces the current political system with a hybrid one, it could be very beneficial. One of the main advantages of a hybrid system is that it allows for a balance of power between the legislative and executive branches of government. In a presidential system, the executive branch is separate from the legislative branch, with the president having a lot of power. In a parliamentary system, however, the executive branch is accountable to the legislative branch. In a hybrid system, the executive branch has some independence from the legislative branch but is still responsible for it. This helps to prevent too much power from being concentrated in one person or group and also helps to protect citizens’ rights and to avoid abuse of power.

An additional benefit of implementing a hybrid system is that it may facilitate more efficient decision-making by leveraging the strengths of both presidential and parliamentary systems. In a presidential system, the separation of powers can result in stalemates and prolonged indecision, while in a parliamentary system, the government can swiftly collapse if it loses the legislature’s support. A hybrid system, on the other hand, can offer a balance of stability and agility, allowing for more prompt decision-making while maintaining the accountability of the executive branch. Furthermore, considering Pakistan’s history of military involvement in politics, a hybrid system can provide a mechanism to hold the military accountable to the civilian administration and reduce the likelihood of military intervention.

It is imperative to acknowledge that a hybrid system may not be the ultimate remedy for all of Pakistan’s issues, and its successful operation would require meticulous planning and execution. Nevertheless, this system could potentially provide a glimpse of sustained stability in Pakistan’s political landscape, and it is incumbent upon the authorities to consider this system as a viable option to circumvent further obstacles.

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