Remittances to low- and middle-income countries are projected to have grown a strong 7.3 percent to reach $589 billion in 2021. This return to growth is more robust than earlier estimates and follows the resilience of flows in 2020 when remittances declined by only 1.7 percent despite a severe global recession due to COVID-19, according to estimates from the World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief released today.
For a second consecutive year, remittance flows to low- and middle-income countries (excluding China) are expected to surpass the sum of foreign direct investment (FDI) and overseas development assistance (ODA). This underscores the importance of remittances in providing a critical lifeline by supporting household spending on essential items such as food, health, and education during periods of economic hardship in migrants’ countries of origin.
“Remittance flows from migrants have greatly complemented government cash transfer programs to support families suffering economic hardships during the COVID-19 crisis. Facilitating the flow of remittances to provide relief to strained household budgets should be a key component of government policies to support a global recovery from the pandemic,” said Michal Rutkowski, World Bank Global Director for Social Protection and Jobs.
Factors contributing to the strong growth in remittance are migrants’ determination to support their families in times of need, aided by economic recovery in Europe and the United States which in turn was supported by the fiscal stimulus and employment support programs. In the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Russia, the recovery of outward remittances was also facilitated by stronger oil prices and the resulting pickup in economic activity.
Remittances registered strong growth in most regions. Flows increased by 21.6 percent in Latin America and the Caribbean, 9.7 percent in Middle East and North Africa, 8 percent in South Asia, 6.2 percent in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 5.3 percent in Europe and Central Asia. In East Asia and the Pacific, remittances fell by 4 percent – though excluding China, remittances registered a gain of 1.4 percent in the region. In Latin America and the Caribbean, growth was exceptionally strong due to economic recovery in the United States and additional factors, including migrants’ responses to natural disasters in their countries of origin and remittances sent from home countries to migrants in transit.
The cost of sending $200 across international borders continued to be too high, averaging 6.4 percent of the amount transferred in the first quarter of 2021, according to the World Bank’s Remittance Prices Worldwide Database. This is more than double the Sustainable Development Goal target of 3 percent by 2030. It is most expensive to send money to Sub-Saharan Africa (8 percent) and lowest in South Asia (4.6 percent). Data reveal that costs tend to be higher when remittances are sent through banks than through digital channels or through money transmitters offering cash-to-cash services.
“The immediate impact of the crisis on remittance flows was very deep. The surprising pace of recovery is welcome news. To keep remittances flowing, especially through digital channels, providing access to bank accounts for migrants and remittance service providers remains a key requirement. Policy responses also must continue to be inclusive of migrants especially in the areas of access to vaccines and protection from underpayment,” said Dilip Ratha, lead author of the Brief and head of KNOMAD.
Remittances are projected to continue to grow by 2.6 percent in 2022 in line with global macroeconomic forecasts. A resurgence of COVID-19 cases and reimposition of mobility restrictions poses the biggest downside risk to the outlook for global growth, employment and remittance flows to developing countries. The rollback of fiscal stimulus and employment-support programs, as economies recover, may also dampen remittance flows.
Regional Remittance Trends
Officially recorded remittance flows to the East Asia and Pacific region are projected to have fallen by 4 percent in 2021 to $131 billion. Excluding China, remittances to the region grew by 1.4 percent in 2021 and is projected to grow by 3.3 percent in 2022. As a share of gross domestic product (GDP), top recipients in the region are smaller economies such as Tonga (43.9 percent), Samoa (21.1 percent), and the Marshall Islands (12.8 percent). Remittance costs: The average cost of sending $200 to the region fell to 6.7 percent in the first quarter of 2021 compared to 7.1 percent a year earlier. The five lowest-cost corridors for the region averaged 2.7 percent for transfers primarily to the Philippines; while the five highest-cost corridors, excluding South Africa to China, which is an outlier, averaged 15 percent.
After falling 8.6 percent in 2020, remittance flows to Europe and Central Asia are projected to have grown 5.3 percent to $67 billion in 2021 due to stronger economic activity in the European Union and surging energy prices. Remittances are projected to grow by 3.8 percent in 2022. Remittances are currently the largest source of external financing in the region. Inflows have been higher or equal to the sum of FDI, portfolio investment, and ODA in 2020 and 2021. As a share of GDP, remittances in the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan stand above 25 percent. Remittance costs: The average cost of sending $200 to the region rose slightly to 6.6 percent in the first quarter of 2021 from 6.5 percent a year earlier, largely reflecting a sharp increase in costs in the Turkey-Bulgaria corridor. Russia is one of the lowest-cost senders globally with costs falling from 1.8 percent to 1 percent.
Remittance flows into Latin America and the Caribbean will likely reach a new high of $126 billion in 2021, registering a solid advance of 21.6 percent compared to 2020. Mexico, the region’s largest remittance recipient, received 42 percent ($52.7 billion) of the regional total. The value of remittances as a share of GDP exceeds 20 percent for several smaller economies: El Salvador (26.2 percent), Honduras (26.6 percent), Jamaica, (23.6 percent), and Guatemala (18 percent).The adverse effects of COVID-19 and Hurricanes Grace and Ida contributed to higher remittance flows to Mexico and Central America. Other main drivers include recovery in employment levels and fiscal and social assistance programs in hosting countries, particularly the United States. An increase in the number of transit migrants in Mexico and other countries, and the remittances they received from overseas to support their living and travel costs, appears to be a significant factor behind the strong increase. In 2022, remittances are expected to grow at 4.4 percent, mainly due to a weaker growth outlook for the United States. Remittance costs: Sending $200 to the region cost 5.5 percent on average in the first quarter of 2021, down from 6 percent a year earlier. Mexico remained the least expensive recipient country in the G20 group, with costs averaging 3.7 percent. But remittance costs are exorbitant in smaller corridors.
Remittances to the developing countries of the Middle East and North Africa region are projected to have grown by an estimated 9.7 percent in 2021 to $62 billion, supported by a return to growth of host countries in the European Union (notably France and Spain) and the upsurge in global oil prices which positively affected the GCC countries. The increase was driven by strong gains in inflows to Egypt (12.6 percent to $33 billion) and to Morocco (25 percent to $9.3 billion), return migration and transit migration respectively, playing important roles in the favorable outturns. Remittance receipts for the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) surged by 15.2 percent, driven by growth in Euro Area. Flows to several countries fell in 2021, including Jordan (6.9 percent decline), Djibouti (14.8 percent decline), and Lebanon (0.3 percent decline). For the developing MENA region, remittances have long constituted the largest source of external resource flows among ODA, FDI, and portfolio equity and debt flows. The outlook for remittances in 2022 is one of slower growth of 3.6 percent due to risks stemming from COVID-19. Remittance costs: The cost of sending $200 to MENA fell to 6.3 percent in the first quarter of 2021 from 7 percent a year ago.
Remittances to South Asia likely grew around 8 percent to $159 billion in 2021. Higher oil prices aided economic recovery and drove the spike in remittances from the GCC countries which employ over half of South Asia’s migrants. Economic recovery and stimulus programs in the United States also contributed to the growth. In India, remittances advanced by an estimated 4.6 percent in 2021 to reach $87 billion. Pakistan had another year of record remittances with growth at 26 percent and levels reaching $33 billion in 2021. In addition to the common drivers, the government’s Pakistan Remittance Initiative to support transmission through formal channels attracted large inflows. In addition, Afghanistan’s fragile situation emerged as an unexpected cause of remittances in 2021 intended for Afghan refugees in Pakistan as well as for families in Afghanistan. Remittances is the dominant source of foreign exchange for the region, with receipts more than twice as large as FDI in 2021. Remittance costs: South Asia has the lowest average costs of any world region at 4.6 percent. But sending money to South Asia through official channels is expensive compared with informal channels which remain popular. Cost-reducing policies would create a win-win situation welcomed by migrants and South Asian governments alike.
Remittance inflows to Sub-Saharan Africa returned to growth in 2021, increasing by 6.2 percent to $45 billion. Nigeria, the region’s largest recipient, is experiencing a moderate rebound in remittance flows, in part due to the increasing influence of policies intended to channel inflows through the banking system. Countries where the value of remittance inflows as a share of GDP is significant include the Gambia (33.8 percent), Lesotho (23.5 percent), Cabo Verde (15.6 percent) and Comoros (12.3 percent). In 2022, remittance inflows are projected to grow by 5.5 percent due to continued economic recovery in Europe and the United States. Remittance costs: Costs averaged 8 percent in the first quarter of 2021, down from 8.9 percent a year ago. Although intra-regional migration makes up more than 70 percent of cross-border migration, costs are high due to small quantities of formal flows and utilization of black-market exchange rates.
France challenges UK for title of Europe’s Greatest Equities Market
Paris is challenging London’s leadership as home to Europe’s largest stock market, undermining post-Brexit Britain’s standing as the continent’s most important financial center, – recognizes “The Financial Times”.
The market capitalization of all companies listed in the French capital rose from $1.8 trillion at the start of 2016 to $2.83 trillion, closing the value of London shares at $2.89 trillion, according to Refinitiv.
“It is a result of the poor performance of British equities, the poor pipeline and performance of new issues in the UK, and the terrible performance of the pound. It is clearly not good news for London – and Brexit is a big factor in all three.”
To re-establish its traditional leadership, the UK government aims in the coming months to finalize proposals to reform the City of London.
However, competition from Paris is set to intensify as France is rated the preferred European stock market by fund managers. 17 percent of fund managers said they planned to “overweight” French equities over the next 12 months, according to a Bank of America survey of 161 investment managers with combined assets of $313 billion.
Paris is difficult London’s lead as the house to Europe’s greatest inventory market, consuming away at Britain’s place after Brexit because the continent’s most essential monetary centre.
“This gap between London and Paris in the domestic market is a lot smaller than it used to be or should be,” stated William Wright, founding father of New Financial, a UK think-tank, – writes “Business Land”.
…Thus the strange politics of London in recent years – from Brexit to a kaleidoscope of people in the prime minister’s chair, has led to the fact that Britain may say ‘goodbye’ even to such a privilege as being the financial center of the World and Europe.
4 Best Tips How To Write A Literary Analysis Essay
Writing a literature essay or analysis is not an easy task. It is necessary to plunge deeply into the text and understand why the author used various techniques. You will also have to comment on the plot, events, and characters. Creating an excellent literary analysis requires patience, skills and theoretical knowledge. If you are missing the last item, read this article to the end.
First of all, you need to understand what analysis means in literature, and your best friend in doing so is practice. Writing essays may be challenging, especially when the words are buzzing around your head but refuse to appear. If you can’t concentrate and come up with something, try to read a literary analysis essay written by a professional, just for a start. It will give a basic understanding of how to write a literature essay, and you will feel sure. Sometimes a proper example is the best teacher, and it is better to see an excellent work once to learn from it.
So, what’s coming next after getting a sample? The following step in writing a literary analysis essay is thoroughly studying the text and formulating a thesis statement. Take into account the general format of an academic essay while you write:
- An opening paragraph that conveys your essay’s key argument.
- The body of your paper is broken up into sections, where you present your thesis and back it up with textual proof.
- A summary of the core argument you’ve made throughout your analysis.
Study the source(s) and make some preliminary notes. Highlight the aspects you find catchy, unexpected, or baffling; these are the areas you should focus on in your paper.
One of the primary purposes of literary analysis is to go deeper into a piece of literature. First and foremost, a student should be on the lookout for literary devices, which are linguistic tools authors use to emphasize certain points in the text or evoke specific emotions in the reader.
The best tip for writing all essays is to have a proper outline. Here is one you might use. For additional inspiration, you might also use Phdessay or other services with an impressive essay collection. It’s always beneficial to look at other authors’ interpretations and consider what you can borrow from them. And, of course, nobody canceled the structure, the bibliography, and the citations. Don’t miss anything important!
The first step in writing a literary analysis introduction for a literary analysis essay is to provide the work’s title and author. You need one or two phrases at the most to express yourself. The focus should be on the central theme for these phrases to be more compelling.
Give a quick summary of the book and discuss its significance in the literary canon. Why do we need to analyze this? Where does the author draw a line between right and wrong?
Get started on your paper by formulating a thesis. Justify your argument’s central thesis and its most critical supporting arguments.
Write a separate paragraph to elaborate on each of the claims made in the thesis. For example, a 600-word essay needs no more than three paragraphs. Use a clear subject phrase at the beginning of each one. Then, it would be best if you elaborated on your key argument. Every claim must be backed up with examples from the literature piece.
A literary analysis essay conclusion is the last paragraph you write to wrap up your assignment. Provide a brief overview of the work, your thoughts and emotions, and other relevant details here. Don’t start talking about anything else.
Emphasize the reasons your position is sound and the evidence you’ve provided in the paper’s middle part.
After the essay’s main points have been refined, they should be checked for typos and other errors. Sometimes it helps to read the whole text aloud slowly and clearly. Someone else should do it for you if feasible.
Multiple copies of the document should be produced and proofread before a final copy is made. It’s important to keep an eye out for sentence fragments, comma splices, and other frequent grammatical mistakes.
This academic task aims to analyze and assess some facets of a piece of literature. A literary analysis essay is defined as one that investigates the language, viewpoint, imagery, and structure. These methods are dissected to get to the author’s true intentions. After all, any analysis aims to shed light on the material by revealing hidden meanings. Your interpretations of the source material should be described in an analytical style that goes beyond a simple synopsis.
Boosting Equitable Development as Kenya Strives to Become an Upper Middle-Income Country
The World Bank Group (WBG) Board of Executive Directors today voiced its support for the WBG’s latest six-year strategy to support Kenya in its ongoing efforts towards green, resilient, and inclusive development.
The Kenya Country Partnership Framework (CPF) is a joint strategy between the World Bank, the International Finance Cooperation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the government to promote shared prosperity and reduce poverty for the people of Kenya. Informed by extensive stakeholder consultations, the CPF seeks to drive faster and more equitable labor productivity and income growth, greater equity in development outcomes across the country, and help sustain Kenya’s natural capital for greater climate resilience.
“The people of Kenya are in a position to reap even greater dividends from the country’s robust economic growth in terms of more durable poverty reduction,” said Keith Hansen, World Bank Country Director for Kenya. “Tackling the drivers of inequality now will help to ensure that Kenya can achieve and maintain more equitable development in the long run.”
Over the past decade, Kenya’s economy has outperformed its Low- and Middle-Income Country (LMIC) peers with the growing number of better-educated and healthier Kenyans in the labor force contributing more than any other factor to rising gross domestic product (GDP). More recently, however, the pace of poverty reduction, and then the COVID-19 pandemic, revealed how vulnerable many households are when faced with shocks. Though Kenya’s economy is rebounding from the pandemic and projected to grow by an average 5.4% during 2022-24, the ongoing drought and global inflation are causing poverty to rise. The CPF finds that Kenya is still well positioned to secure more inclusive growth and the WBG is ready to provide support that targets lagging areas and communities with better services and infrastructure that build household and community resilience. In doing so, it aims to help Kenya avoid the inequality and productivity traps experienced by other Middle-Income Countries (MICs).
“Kenya’s private sector is poised to drive faster job creation and to seize new opportunities from global and regional integration,” noted Jumoke Jagun-Dokunmu, IFC Regional Director for Kenya. “This will require a more level playing field for competition and innovation for large and small firms and between public and private enterprises.”
The CPF also aims to help raise the productivity of small firms, small producers, and women entrepreneurs, improve the investment climate across the country, and stimulate more private participation in public service delivery. To support Kenya’s response to climate change, the CPF has programmed investments to reduce water insecurity, and to mobilize more climate finance for both public and private investments.
“MIGA aims to unlock more private sector investment in climate responsive projects in Kenya through innovative financial solutions,” said Merli Baroudi, MIGA Director for Economics and Sustainability. “Kenya’s impressive progress in mobilizing private capital for renewable energy augurs well for other sectors.”
The CPF draws on Kenya’s Vision 2030, the new government’s development agenda, a Systematic Country Diagnostic, a Country Private Sector Diagnostic, a Completion and Learning Review of the previous Country Partnership Strategy, and over 34 stakeholder consultations, including with Kenya’s diaspora. The World Bank Group is Kenya’s largest development financier. IFC’s portfolio of private sector investments in Kenya is its fourth largest and fastest growing in Sub-Saharan Africa and MIGA’s financial operations in Kenya are its third largest program in Africa.
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