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Highlights of Xi Jinping Thought in the communiqué of the Sixth Plenary Session of the CPC

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The Final Communiqué of the (Sixth Plenary Session of the 19th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China), which concluded its work on Thursday, November 11, 2021, affirmed of the (position of Comrade “Xi Jinping” at the heart of the CPC Central Committee and at the heart of the entire Party, by identifying the most prominent guiding roles of “Xi Jinping” Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics as the Soul of the New Era for the Rejuvenation of the Chinese Nation and the Realization of Comrade “Xi’s slogan” of achieving the Chinese Dream). We can identify of Comrade Xi’s most prominent directive lies in the idea of ​​unification, union and solidarity of all the Chinese people and their various ethnic and national minorities with the Chinese (People’s Liberation Army, the Party and the Chinese state). The most prominent comment on the final communiqué of the Central Committee, has led by “Jiang Jinchuan”, as “Chief of Policy Research Office of the CPC Central Committee”, emphasizing that: “This is the call of the times, the choice of history, and the common aspiration of the Chinese people”

    Despite the full understanding of the leaders of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of all the challenges that China is now facing, it was fully agreed to (place Chinese President Comrade “Xi Jinping” at the heart of the Communist Party, and to adopt the guiding and ideological role of “Xi Jinping Thought” as a guarantee for the Communist Party and the mainland China, its Armed Forces,  and the various sons, sects, national and ethnic minorities of the Chinese people to defend China in this changing global environment and the profound challenges that China is now facing at home and abroad).  Hence, we can analyze the content of the closing statement of the Sixth Plenary Session of the CPC Central Committee as follows:

The Communiqué of the Plenum of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China has stressed out on the (cohesion of the Communist Party, people and government), with the China’s insistence on the “territorial integrity” of mainland China and its dependent regions of (Hong Kong, Macao or Taiwan).  And China is determined to push forward the path of peaceful development and common prosperity for mankind.

This is in addition to the statement’s confirmation of China’s achievements, which astonished the world, through China’s development initiatives around the world, especially after Chinese President Comrade “Xi Jinping” launched the “Belt and Road Initiative” in 2013, and China’s assistance to the world during the pandemic (Covid-19). China’s provision of all medical aid to the world to combat the epidemic, and the promotion of the “Healthy Silk Road” in accordance with the principle of a common future for humanity launched by Chinese President Comrade “Xi Jinping”.

The statement of the plenary session of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a document of great importance for China and the world, in that it coincides with the “seventy-second anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China”, and in the same year as the “anniversary of the celebration of the centenary of the founding of the Communist Party” in its first centenary.

The session conducted an in-depth summary and appraisal of the decisive achievements made by China in (building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way), and confirmed the breakthroughs and great progress made by the country during the period of the (Fourteenth of the Five-Year Plan) in comprehensively deepening reforms and laws on strengthening rule-based governance.

The closing statement session of the plenum has confirmed the words of Comrade (Xi Jinping), in his capacity as the General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee, and his constant affirmation that:

“The Chinese nation will continue to press ahead in breaking through strong winds and strong waves, after working hard and overcoming difficulties since the “18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China”, the country is closer to realizing the goal of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation than at any time in history”

The most important achievements of the Communist Party of China come in the ability of its leaders to achieve rapid economic developments and long-term social stability in the past seventy years, and its ability to (build modern China).

Emphasis on the statement that according to practice, (the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and the system of governance of China), which are two systems with strong vitality and enormous strength, and that these (two systems are capable of supporting the continuous progress of the country), which has a population of about one billion four hundred million people. With ensuring the achievements of the two centenary goals of the (great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation) with a civilization spanning five thousand years.

A careful reading of the statement of the plenary session of the CPC Central Committee reveals the most important observations that the issued statement affirms (the continuity of thought, leadership, and orientations of the ruling party in China). It calls for consolidating and improving the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and pushing forward the “modernization of China’s governance system” and capacity under the guidance of  from (Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory), as they are “Three Important Represents Ideas”, with the “Scientific Development Concept”, that has been developed by the Chinese Comrade President “Xi Jinping’s Thoughts on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era”.

The session comprehensively analyzed the international and domestic opportunities and challenges facing China at present, formulated (the guiding ideology and the main principles to be followed for economic and social development in mainland China), and the achievements of the Party’s recent “Five-Year Plan”, and set the main objectives of development to emphasize the most important achievements of the Communist Party of China and the state under the leadership of Comrade “Xi Jinping”, by (reviewing all the results achieved during his era), such as: the economic development sector, new steps in reform and openness, the most prominent new improvements in social stability, making new progress in building environmental civilization, and raising  People’s standard of living and welfare to new levels, and the stress on the “new upgrades in the efficiency of the China’s national governance”.

Also, according to the statement of the Communist Party, it has pledged to improve systems in all fields, to advance fundamentally modernize China’s system and capacity for governance, and to fully realize it as “New China celebrates its centenary in 2049”.

The session’s closing statement emphasized the need to (deepen reforms comprehensively as a fundamental strategic issue related to the general situation of the party and the state). It is the same as what Comrade “Xi Jinping” has repeatedly, by his emphasis on:  

 “It is necessary to carry out comprehensive research and planning, cooperate in promoting reform, development and stability work, plan first and then act, first gather the accumulated strength and then release it gradually, so that we can gain the initiative to achieve  our business better”

The most prominent task of the full issued communiqué was to emphasize (the continuation of the Communist Party’s path), regardless of the complexity of the international environment, or how difficult and difficult the tasks of reform and local development are, but it is necessary to maintain strategic planning, and insist on (deepening reforms in a comprehensive way), with a well management of the internal affairs.  Only in this way can the leaders of the Party and the Chinese state be able to seize opportunities wisely and deal with challenges.

The statement stressed that (adhering to and improving the institutional system of the party leadership), in order to raise the party’s levels of exercising power in a scientific, democratic and in accordance with the law, as one of the most important tasks and measures that ensure the achievement of the desired goals of the Communist Party of China.

Adhering to and improving the (institutional system of the people being masters of the state, to develop socialist democratic politics), which should be fully in the both sides at the internal and external levels, by raising the “Party’s ability to rule the state and exercise power in accordance with the law”, ensure and improve the Chinese people’s livelihood in urban and rural areas, to meet the people’s growing need to a better life, adhere to the guarantee of the Communist Party of the “People’s Liberation Army” to carry out its mission in the new era to defend the security of mainland China internally and externally. As well as fully affirming adherence to and improvement of the institutional system of “one country, two systems”, and the peaceful reunification of the motherland, while adhering to and improving the independent peaceful foreign policy, advancing the building of the community with a common future for mankind, upholding and improving the supervision system of the Communist Party and the Chinese state, to strengthen the “restriction and supervision of the exercise of power”.

The spirit of the statement kept pace with the spirit of the times, by emphasizing (integrating modern technology and the global innovation network and insisting on scientific and technological innovation by self-reliance). Innovation comes at the top of the party’s new development concept, and occupies an essential place in the general situation of “building up the Modernization”. Which is the first driving force to the social development since the beginning of China’s reform and opening up, China has always adhered to the concept that “technology is the primary productive force in guiding social development”. The “technological progress” that the Communist Party aims at in the final analysis is targeting the (technological innovation).

The statement emphasized the achievements of the Chinese state by emphasizing China’s commitment to self-reliance, for example (China is committed to self-reliance in technological innovation), because this (in line with the historical trend of active integration in the world, openness and mutual benefit).  Hence, China can continue its journey to build a modern socialist force by encouraging innovation, and deepen high-level reform and opening up with the integration of innovation, so as to achieve high-quality economic development and provide a high-quality life for its people.

The statement affirmed the achievements of comrade (Xi Jinping), and his constant emphasis on reform and Chinese openness, which we emphasize during one of his speeches by making a deep presentation on the implementation of reform, as he said:

 “The key to reform is implementation, and the difficulty of reform also lies in implementation, at present, there are more favorable conditions for implementing and consolidating reform, the basic elements of ideology, practice, system and popular support for carrying out reforms have become more solid.There is a need to invest more efforts in implementation, strengthen leadership, develop comprehensive scientific plans, and pay close attention to implementation and focus reform on solving problems.  the operation”

Here, we find that the statement of the plenum stressed that upholding and improving the system of socialism with Chinese characteristics and moving forward in (modernizing China’s system and capacity for governance is a very important strategic task for the Party), and stressed that all the goals and tasks set by the session should be fully accomplished under the leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.

The statement continues the approach of the (Nineteenth National Congress of the Party), of emphasizing the leadership of the Communist Party of the country, by emphasizing that:

  “Party committees, governments and senior officials at all levels should sincerely enhance their awareness of the system and take the lead in protecting the authority of the system.  He set an example in implementing the system for the whole party and society as a whole”

The statement also emphasized (the principle of national unity of the Chinese people), emphasizing the need for the entire Communist Party of China and the Chinese people of all nationalities to rally closely around the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, with Comrade “Xi Jinping” at the core.

This statement came as an opportunity to emphasize the “CPC’s ideological prejudice against China by US policies towards it”, which China strongly opposes.

The statement emphasized (unifying and planting the seeds of solidarity between the Chinese people and the Chinese Communist Party and not paying attention to attempts to drive a wedge between them).  Considering that the Communist Party always expresses and preserves the interests of the people, and has won their deep trust and sincere support.  This was confirmed by Comrade “Xi Jinping”:

 “Attempts to drive a wedge between the people and the Communist Party are a provocation directed against the entire Chinese people and will fail”

   Based on our understanding of the communiqué of the Sixth Plenary Central Committee session of the Communist Party of China, we conclude that we can understand and analyze the most important points of agreement among all, as a result of the extremely sensitive timing of this meeting, due to the interaction between many variables and the repercussions, resulting from the unprecedented challenges with the Corona Virus pandemic “Covid-19”, that is why the calls of China and the leaders of the Communist Party and its General Secretary, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, came in determination to lead China’s international development initiatives around the world, barrelling with the (China’s refusal to follow the old colonial path to control others).  This is in line with China’s launch of the “Belt and Road initiative” in 2013, as a major platform for the international cooperation with its popular and global humanity benefit.

   Therefore, from my point of view, the Chinese insistence on the opening of the “Belt and Road – The Great Wall of China International Festival of Folk Culture and Arts” for three days, which began on September 15, 2021, in the cities of (Langfang, Qinhuangdao) with the participation of more than 600 international figures from UNESCO representatives, Diplomats and all national folk cultural institutions related to the “Belt and Road”, and this confirms China’s keenness to exchange benefits with everyone around the world through its international initiative of the Belt and Road, with full commitment to the path of peaceful development expressly stipulated in the Chinese Constitution, by following (a new path  for Chinese development). These are the same points that were agreed upon during the meeting of the Sixth Plenary Session of the Communist Party Central Committee, by emphasizing the (China’s role internally and externally in supporting the development path), especially in light of those global challenges after the Corona Virus pandemic, and in light of as well those American pressures to interfere in China’s internal affairs.

Associate Professor of Political Science, Faculty of Politics and Economics / Beni Suef University- Egypt. An Expert in Chinese Politics, Sino-Israeli relationships, and Asian affairs- Visiting Senior Researcher at the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)/ Lund University, Sweden- Director of the South and East Asia Studies Unit

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East Asia

U.S.- China Strategic Competition in The East Asia

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East Asia has been the most dynamic region where development has been internationally recognized. The regional politics of the region has developed a paradox that has flamed up the economic environment of the region. The trends have shown the increased intensifying security issues along with the strategic completion that has spread the security and economic tensions across the East Asian Region. In a global circle, China is known as the revisionist state. The historical manners suggest the reclaim of East Asia by the Chinese. This claim has intensified the relations between the US and China in East Asian Region.  The main challenge for China is to shift the US intervention from the East Asian region for the balanced equation at the strategic level. This might provoke the US and its allies in East Asia such as Japan that will help the US to jeopardize the Chinese rule from the region. The challenge for the US and its allies in the East Asian Region is more complicated because of the economic stability of China at the International Level. This might be a proxy war for both the superpowers in the East Asian region where the conflict may rise compromising the strategic stability of the region. The strategic location of the US lies in the actual form of ability and project power over great sustainable intervals. The strategic behavior increases the policies and shapes the allies.

One prevalent belief in the United States about China’s long-term policy goals in Asia is that Beijing aspires to be the regional hegemon and wants to restore a Sino-centric order in the region.

First, Beijing favors unipolar ties at both the global and regional levels and believes that with ongoing economic growth, this trend will continue intra-regional political consultation in Asia, influence on regional affairs is going to be more diversified and more evenly distributed. Secondly, although China expects some relative increase in its influence in Asia, it understands that thanks to the boundaries of its hard power and particularly its soft power, China can never achieve a grip cherish its role within the ancient past or to the U.S. role within the region at the present.

Beijing’s perspective:

From Beijing’s perspective, the US is an East Asia power, although not an Asian power, and its political, economic, and security interests within the region are deep-rooted, as are its commitments to regional stability and prosperity. Beijing has always welcomed a constructive U.S. role in regional affairs. At the identical time, however, Beijing also feels uneasy with certain aspects of U.S. policy. As a superpower, The US has been too dominant and intrusive in managing regional affairs. It fails to pay due regard to the voices of other regional players and sometimes gets too involved within the internal affairs of other states, lacking an understanding of their culture, history, and values.

The US and European aspects towards the South China Sea and East Asia should involve long-term perspectives of engaging ASEAN states. Such impacts will create room for the US to tackle China in the East Asian region. The development of any comprehensive strategic security policy is the need of the hour that assures one’s interest in the region. Both the states perceive a threat from each other and try to further advance their capabilities for the sake of safety and security. The US is not in a position to deal with the other power far away from its homeland, sustaining its military and protecting allies. Aggressive behavior in strategic competition can lead to unwanted results. The US would have to accept the strategic realities of China to normalize the relations. China on the other hand should rethink its policies in East Asia and Indo Pacific. However, as yet, deterrence has played its part by keeping states from a large-scale action. States running in the race of acquiring arms conventionally due to uprising strategic competitions are worsening any likely condition of conflict.

Key points for US:

In terms of identifying specific actions for a U.S. strategy for competing strategically with China in East Asia, a key element would be to possess a transparent understanding of which actions are intended to support which U.S. goals, and to take care of an alignment of actions with policy goals. Cost-imposing actions are actions intended to impose political/reputational, institutional, economic, or other costs on China for conducting certain activities within the East Asian Region, with the aim of persuading China to prevent or reverse those activities. Such cost-imposing actions need not be limited to the East Asian Region only. 

Conclusion:

The development of any comprehensive strategic security policy is the need of the hour that should involve joint military maritime exercises. The US and China have set their limits in coordinating military to military joint cooperation due to their desired interests and competition. Both the states perceive a threat from each other and try to further advance their capabilities for the sake of safety and security.  

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East Asia

Summit for Democracy Attempts to Turn Multicolor Modern World into Black and White Divisions

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One of the most important takeaways from the recent sixth plenary session of 19th CPC Central Committee is that Beijing flatly rejects Westernization as the path to modernize the Chinese society and the national economy. Instead, as it was underscored in the plenary Communiqué, the country will continue to stick to “socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era.” The leadership will preserve and further develop the system that served the people so well over last more than 70 years.

This statement did not come as a surprise to numerous China watchers all over the world. In fact, the critical choice between socialism and Western-type liberalism was not made in November of 2021, but decades ago.

One can argue that the outcomes of the sixth plenary session are yet another manifestation of a more general global trend: The world has been and will continue to be very diverse in terms of political systems, social models and economic patterns of individual nation states. Moreover, the odds are that this diversity will increase further literally in front of our eyes. Instead of the “end of history,” we will observe more intense multifaceted competition between different types of social development.

One way to react to this emerging reality is to accept it as a positive trend that enhances the overall stability of the global social system. The more diverse and complex the system is, the more resistant it is to various shocks and disturbances. To make a rough analogy with biology, a natural forest, which is a very diverse and complex ecosystem, is much more resistant to whims of the weather and natural disasters than a man-cultivated monocultural field. Accepting the trend, we should focus on how to manage competition within the increasingly diverse and complex world so that this competition will ultimately benefit all of us.

The other way to deal with this reality would be to start fighting against social, political and economic diversity by trying to advance one single model over all others. This is exactly what the Joe Biden administration is committed to doing by launching an ideological crusade against China, Russia and other nations that dare to deviate from the fundamentals of the Western development model. To make its case, the White House has announced a virtual Summit for Democracy to be hosted by the US on December 9–10 with the goal “to renew democracy at home and confront autocracies abroad.”

This vision reduces the multi-color palette of the modern world to a minimalist black and white graphics of a global fight between “democracies” and “autocracies.” It divides the international system into “us” and “them,” into “good” and “bad,” into “legitimate” and “illegitimate.” Such a reductionist system, if constructed, cannot be stable and shock-resistant by definition: Any major international crisis or a regional conflict could spark high risks of implosion.

It goes without saying that the nations of the world should firmly oppose corruption, abuses of power by state authorities and gross violations of human rights. If the goal of the Summit for Democracy were to confront these evils on a global scale, there would be no need to make the event exclusive by inviting mostly US friends and allies. If the goal is to advertise the US political, social and economic model, Washington should probably delay the summit and put its house in order first. If the goal is to isolate Beijing and Moscow in the world of politics, this is not likely to work well for the US.

Nations of the world have a right and even a duty to experiment with their political and social development paths. This experimenting contributes to the overall social experience of the humankind. Only history is in a position to judge what models turn out to be efficient, productive and fair and what models will find their place at the dump of human delusions. And history has a lot of means at its disposal to punish leaders, who believe that they possess a “one size fits all” model, which could successfully replace the existing diversity with an imposed universalism.

From our partner RIAC

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The Chinese diplomatic force in the IAEA to confront Western leadership

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At the level of international relations, through China’s presence in all the relevant international organizations, and its membership in all of the United Nations organizations, specifically in the International Atomic Energy Agency “IAEA”, China aims to play the role of the (international balancer),  in light of its quest to maintain a certain level of competition with the United States of America politically and economically, this is in line with its desires to constantly play the role of the pole calling for (multipolarity and multilateral international pluralism through the Chinese political speeches of Chinese President “Xi Jinping”), in order to oppose American hegemony over the world and Washington’s policies to maintain its position as a single pole in the international community. China’s increase in its foreign investments, in order to enhance its economic hegemony over the world through its political and diplomatic tools with countries that have equal economic power with it in a number of (trade, scientific and technological issues, in addition to military and intelligence tools, as a reference for China’s new foreign political center).

  We note that the patterns of Chinese foreign policy is (the pattern of dependence, which is based on the high level of foreign participation in all current global issues), to restrict the attempts of the United States of America to pass its decisions internationally, and therefore China is trying to enter the membership of all international organizations so that China’s foreign policies remain more comprehensive, broader and more effective in the global change, and to change all directions of these issues and control them in the United States, and this is one of its new political tools that serve its global expansion through the (Chinese Belt and Road Initiative).

   In the same context, China focuses its external and competitive strength on its presence in effective international organizations, and rapprochement with the European Union, especially (France, Germany), despite not denying their relations with Washington, because of their strong influence in the global economy.  In addition to China’s reliance on the plan of foreign and foreign investments in countries that influence American influence through the Belt and Road projects, as well as China’s resort to the import policy of many resources necessary to develop its economic capabilities from certain European countries to open influential relations with them, leading to (the Chinese strategy to obtain  political support through the policies of alliances, consulates, representations, and its membership of international organizations), with the aim of influencing countries’ policies economically to pass important international decisions regarding the US challenge to China, such as: (the Iranian nuclear file, North Korea, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Syria, Venezuela, etc.), to increase with this  The level of external penetration of China economically and politically).

    China is mainly aiming to increase its membership in international organizations and the International Atomic Energy Agency, to (create a new balance of power and get rid of unipolarity restrictions through the medium powers and small states that the international system prevails with real pluralism, instead of the current state of American unipolarity).

   In my personal opinion, the countries of the Middle East may find in the rise of China and Russia, and perhaps other international powers to re-compete the United States,  as a (real opportunity to advance the effects of the pluralism of the international system at the regional level, and this would create more space for movement and opposition or bargaining and flexibility of movement for all to confront the policies of American hegemony, according to Chinese planning with Russia), and this also works to alleviate those restrictions and American dictates, and perhaps the sanctions and pressures it imposes on opponents of its approach internationally.

  The strategy of competition between China and the United States has become China’s long-term strategy, which is based on (the necessity of a heavy Chinese presence in all international organizations and forums, which allows China to communicate with various global powers and balance its relations with them compared to Washington), as well as diversifying the People’s Republic of China for its relations and distribution of its power among the competing countries, which allows China to show wide options on all important issues, and the most dangerous is that this Chinese presence, which (allows Beijing to prejudice the foundations of its relationship with the United States of America and the other various powers around the world).

  China and Russia also aim to form an alliance into all international and regional organizations to change the current provocative approach of the American policies in their confrontation, especially those related to mobilization policies and American alliances against them around the world. The Chinese alliance with Russia was so clear with the (Russian Foreign Minister “Sergey Lavrov’s visit” to Saudi Arabia, the UAE and Qatar, while on the other hand, both Kuwait and Qatar have received a member of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee and Director of the Office of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the CPC Central Committee “Yang Jiechi”).

    On the other hand, China is among the Security Council countries that have the largest number of (Chinese peacekeeping forces around the world), and China is at the forefront of the (most contributing countries to the international peacekeeping budget, in addition to sending naval fleets to carry out maritime guard missions according to according to the UN Security Council resolutions), and therefore China may play an important role in establishing security in many countries in the world, and this is perhaps what China plans to ensure its use, in the event of a decline in American interest in the security of many regions in the world, within the framework of (the strategy of pressure of the American expenditures, retreat and withdrawal from many places around the world and devote its concern to the American interior issues and its worsening economic crises).

  The point is worthy to be considered here, is the report issued in July 2021 by the (International Atomic Energy Agency), entitled “Nuclear reactors around the world”, in which he analyzed China’s plan to (establish the dream of nuclear sovereignty around the world by starting to build and establish about 11 reactors). There are other Chinese nuclear reactors under construction, as well as the (new Chinese planning to build other 29 nuclear reactors), while the International Atomic Energy Agency’s work report on the other hand indicated that the known total number of reactors that are actually in service, other than those planned for construction, and other reactors under construction, is up to  About 50 Chinese nuclear reactors, a step that confirms that “China is clearly shifting towards nuclear energy in the production of electricity, and depends on it directly in its industrial renaissance during the coming period, especially as it is the number one country in the world that is expanding in the establishment of nuclear plants, followed by Russia, which plans to build other 20 new nuclear reactors, while it has 38 nuclear reactors in active service”. Some leaks indicate the presence of Chinese nuclear reactors, exercises and tests in the “Doklam Desert” region on the borders of “Xinjiang” province in northwest China.

   It also notes that, from the reality of the report issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency “IAEA”, its confirmation regarding (Chinese planning to become the first country in the world in the production of nuclear energy during the next ten years, in return for the decline in the share of the United States of America in nuclear reactors, which continues to the continuous decrease with the exit of new American numbers of reactors annually), as the future plan of the United States of America does not include the establishment of new reactors, which indicates that (the expansion of this type of energy tends towards China and Russia during the coming period, and these countries will have accumulated experiences, enabling them to dominate and control this new nuclear industry in various countries of the world, and this is what is actually common happening in the region).  Knowing that its uses will be mainly peaceful and to serve the interests of peoples and countries, so we may witness the coming period intensifying the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency in many files around the world to study them, inspect different regions and various other areas to ensure (their peaceful uses of nuclear energy in many development projects around the world).

   Hence, we almost understand (the importance of the Chinese presence and presence and its membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency in the first place), given that it actually owns 50 nuclear reactors in service, and its contribution to the production of electricity and providing energy to one and a half billion citizens, and China also has new nuclear reactors under construction, so (China seeks to be near the International Atomic Energy Agency, to embarrass, restrict and limit the American influence on the one hand against Beijing’s allies, led by Iran and then North Korea. Therefore, China has developed a strategic plan in the coming years, which is based on the intensity of the Chinese international presence and passing its foreign policies and decisions with the help of its Russian ally internationally).

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