With its beautiful Buddhist temples, vibrant culture and world-famous street food, Bangkok, Thailand is a tourist mecca. However, while the city attracts millions of visitors each year, it also faces a food waste problem. Uneaten food makes up 46 per cent of the nearly 10,000 tonnes of solid waste the city collects every day.
Traditionally, most of the food waste ends up in landfills. Local authorities have invested in innovative solutions, such as central compost facilities and waste-to-energy plants. Now, young entrepreneurs are also helping to tackle the food waste challenge by leveraging green technology and other innovations.
“We, [the younger generation], know that the burden of an unsustainable world will fall on our shoulders,” says actor Alex Rendell, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Goodwill Ambassador for Thailand.
“Some of us take action through our voices, helping to raise awareness,” Rendell adds. “Others are combining their interest in innovation and technology with the drive for a healthier world.”
The recently concluded UN Food Systems Summit highlighted innovation as key to transforming the way humanity produces and disposes of food.
UNEP is working with partners in Bangkok, including young entrepreneurs, to support that process. With the International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste around the corner, here’s a look at five startups leading the charge against food waste.
Doing good with surplus food
A large part of surplus food is perfectly edible and high quality – think of the food leftover from hotel buffets. Scholars of Sustenance (SOS), a food rescue foundation, donates surplus food to low-income communities across the city. Between January and April 2021, SOS collected 404 tonnes of surplus food – equivalent to 1.7 million meals – and saved more than $19,000 in disposal costs.
Extending the shelf life of food products
Eden Agritech is a Bangkok-based startup that aims to extend the shelf life of fruits and vegetables with its patented “Naturen” technology. Produce covered in this invisible, chemical-free edible coating lasts up to five times longer than normal while maintaining its nutritional quality.
Using data to track and reduce kitchen waste
In restaurants, waste occurs even before food is served to customers. Bones, shells, peels and roots all often end up in the trash. Also, chefs sometimes buy more food than they can use.
LightBlue Environmental Consulting has built an app that lets restaurants track kitchen waste. The programme, Food Intel Tech, produces in-depth reports analyzing where eateries are wasting food, helping them to be more efficient. With food waste representing 6 to 14 per cent of food revenue, this is beneficial for both the environment and business.
Promoting circular business models
Wastegetable, a Bangkok-based social enterprise, turns food waste into compost used for growing fruits and vegetables. The produce is grown on the rooftops of office buildings across the city, an endeavour managed by sister company Bangkok Rooftop Farming. This closed-loop business model both promotes urban farming – which greatly shortens the food supply chain and limits associated carbon emissions – and tackles food waste.
UncleRee Farm specializes in composting with a twist. The company uses earthworms, black soldier flies and other native insects to help compost food, a process known as vermiculture. Worm compost has more nutrients than traditional compost, helping to accelerate plant growth. UncleRee works with local communities to turn food waste into useful products, including what’s known as bio-fermented water, a multipurpose liquid that can be used to treat wastewater and repel insects. UncleReee also trains city residents on how to practice vermiculture in their own homes.
The way forward
Most of these startups are still nascent or operating in niche markets. To scale up their impact, experts say, an enabling policy environment is needed. It should include economic incentives and regulations that ensure green businesses are rewarded for innovation. Policy instruments, such as tax rebates, waste collection fees and subsidies, could be used to incentivize changes in business practice and consumer behavior.
Secondly, better data on the cost of food waste and on the economic, environmental, and social benefits of limiting food waste could help sway investors and consumers.
“Previous global estimates of food waste have significantly underestimated its scale,” said Dechen Tsering, Regional Director of UNEP in Asia and the Pacific. “This is due to the current level of data availability being low and measurement approaches being highly variable,” she explains, referring to the key findings of the UNEP Food Waste Index Report 2021.
Finally, more efforts are needed to raise consumer awareness and engage with stakeholders to drive demand for green tech solutions.
To help cities tackle these challenges, UNEP initiated a project named Build Back Better: Using Green and Digital Technologies to Reduce Food Waste at the Consumer Level. Bangkok is one of five cities to join the project and piloted an integrated approach to connect data, policy, technology and consumer behavior for addressing food waste.
Climate change: For 25th year in a row, Greenland ice sheet shrinks
2021 marked the 25th year in a row in which the key Greenland ice sheet lost more mass during the melting season, than it gained during the winter, according to a new UN-endorsed report issued on Friday.
The data from the Danish Arctic monitoring service Polar Portal – which forms part of the UN weather agency WMO’s annual State of the Climate report – shows that early summer was cold and wet, with unusually heavy and late snowfall in June, which delayed the onset of the melting season.
After that, however, a heatwave at the end of July, led to a considerable loss of ice.
In terms of “total mass balance” (the sum of surface melting and loss of ice chunks from icebergs, in addition to the melting of glacier “tongues” in contact with seawater), the ice sheet lost around 166 billion tonnes during the 12-month period ending in August 2021.
These numbers mean the ice sheet ended the season with a net surface mass balance of approximately 396 billion tonnes, making it the 28th lowest level recorded, in the 41-year time series.
This could be considered an average year, but Polar Report notes how perspectives have changed, due to rapidly advancing climate change.
At the end of the 1990s, for example, these same figures would have been regarded as a year with a very low surface mass balance.
The report also notes that the cause of the early summer chill, could be due to conditions over southwest Canada and the northwest United States.
In these territories, an enormous “blocking” high pressure system was formed, shaped like the Greek capital letter Omega (Ω).
This flow pattern occurs regularly in the troposphere, and not just over North America, but it had never been observed with such strength before.
According to the report, an analysis by World Weather Attribution demonstrated that it could only be explained as a result of atmospheric warming caused by human activity.
According to the report, 2021 was notable for several reasons.
It was the year in which precipitation at Summit Station, which is located at the top of the ice sheet at an altitude of 3,200 metres above sea level, was registered in the form of rain.
The year also saw an acceleration of the loss of ice at the Sermeq Kujalleq glacier, where the rate of loss had otherwise been stagnant for several years.
Winter snowfall was also close to average for the period between 1981 and 2010, which was good news, because a combination of low winter snowfall and a warm summer can result in very large losses of ice, as was the case in 2019.
2022: Emergency mode for the environment
As the new year gets underway, the world continues to grapple with a number of familiar challenges – the continued COVID-19 pandemic, resurgent wildfires, enduring crises of climate change, biodiversity loss, and pollution and waste. Yet, 2022 could prove to be a seminal year for the environment, with high-level events and conferences scheduled, which are hoped to re-energize international cooperation and collective action.
The coming year will also mark two golden jubilees. In 1972, the world took up the environmental mantle at the historic UN Conference on the Human Environment in Stockholm. The meeting firmly placed the environment on the priority list of governments, civil society, businesses and policymakers, recognizing the inextricable links between the planet, human well-being and economic growth. Now, fifty years later, the Stockholm+50 meeting in June 2022 will commemorate the event, reflect upon half a century of global environmental action and look forward.
The Stockholm Conference also birthed the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the UN entity mandated to monitor the state of the environment, inform policymaking with science and galvanize action. For fifty years since, UNEP has used its convening power and rigorous scientific research to coordinate a global effort to tackle environmental challenges. A series of activities will mark UNEP’s 50th anniversary this year.
UNEP is going into 2022 with a new “Medium-Term Strategy” featuring seven interlinked subprogrammes for action: Climate Action, Chemicals and Pollutions Action, Nature Action, Science Policy, Environmental Governance, Finance and Economic Transformations and Digital Transformations. The strategy was agreed at 2021’s fifth session of the UN Environment Assembly; the resumed session, known as UNEA 5.2 will take place in February 2022. Under the overarching theme of ‘Strengthening Actions for Nature to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals’, discussions will highlight the pivotal role of nature in social, economic and environmental sustainable development.
June will be a busy month on the environmental calendar. On the 5th, the world will come together to celebrate World Environment Day. Led by UNEP and held annually since 1974, the day has grown to be the largest global platform for environmental outreach, with millions of people engaging to protect the planet. This year’s event will be hosted by Sweden, under the campaign slogan “Only One Earth“, with a focus on living sustainably in harmony with nature.
While this timeline of environmental achievements is proof of what can be achieved through multilateral action, the science remains irrefutable. Unsustainable patterns of consumption and production are fuelling the triple planetary crisis of climate change, nature and biodiversity loss, and pollution and waste. UN Secretary-General António Guterres has warned that the triple crisis is humanity’s number one existential threat.
Several global events in 2022 aim to encourage dialogue and influence policy decisions to address the triple crisis. These include a post-2020 global biodiversity framework, which will be adopted in May at COP 15, and could stave off the extinction of over one million species, and the UN Ocean Conference in July, which seeks to protect one of our most vital ecosystems. A detailed list of related events is available on the UN web site.
Last year, the UN Secretary-General reminded the world that “We are at a crossroads, with consequential choices before us. It can go either way: breakdown or breakthrough.”
Experts hope that 2022 will be a year of breakthroughs for the environment.
With decent work and a sustainable model aquaculture could feed the world
Harnessing aquaculture’s potential to effectively contribute to feeding the world’s growing population in the decades to come will require concerted efforts to promote sustainable enterprises and decent work for its workforce.
These are among the main conclusions of the Technical meeting on the future of work in aquaculture in the context of the rural economy (13-17 December 2021) that brought together representatives from governments, employers and workers at the ILO to discuss the decent work challenges and opportunities in the aquaculture sector.
In recent decades aquaculture has made important contributions to reducing poverty and hunger in many impoverished rural communities. It remains an important source of livelihoods and food for many rural workers today. At least 20.5 million people work in primary aquaculture production. Many more are engaged along the aquaculture supply chain.
With a growing world population and environmental pressures, aquaculture is increasingly recognized as holding potential for sustainably addressing challenges of food and nutritional security. In a number of developing countries there is also growing appreciation of its role in enterprise development, job creation and livelihood diversification, especially for the rural poor. In order to promote the sustainability and growth of the aquaculture sector and harness its potential to advance sustainable development, inclusive growth and decent work, there needs to be a stronger focus on addressing employment and labour challenges facing the sector.
“If we are to ensure that the aquaculture industry will contribute to inclusive growth and decent work opportunities for more women and men we must create a level playing field and an enabling environment for sustainable production and for workers to enjoy their rights at work,” said Magnús Magnússon Norɖdahl, Chairperson of the meeting.
“Sustainable and inclusive growth in the aquaculture industry could further be beneficial in terms of increasing income and livelihoods for many rural communities, both coastal and inland, and in this process, also contribute to governments’ efforts in alleviating rural poverty,” added Fatih Acar, Government group Vice-Chairperson.
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic has been felt by both businesses and workers in the sector. Workers, especially in processing, have been at heightened risk of exposure to the virus, with the long working hours in close quarters and low temperatures. Businesses have struggled to remain viable, which has been reflected in reduced working hours or lay-offs, impacting the livelihood of workers and their families. The lessons learnt from the crisis should encourage reforms towards more sustainable and resilient aquaculture and food systems more generally.
“The current pandemic has exacerbated decent work deficits in the sector. But many of these deficits had existed long before its outbreak” said Krisjan Bragason, Workers’ group Vice-Chairperson. “Social dialogue, based on the respect of freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, is the key to finding solutions that work for all.”
“Coherent policy frameworks should be created that focus on sustainable enterprise development and productivity improvements, the promotion of inclusive labour markets, skills development and adequate social dialogue mechanisms which involve Employers’ federations. All these elements will drive and enable the future growth of the sector,” said Employers’ group Vice-Chair, Henrik Munthe.
The meeting adopted conclusions that will assist governments, workers and employers to take measures to tap the potential of the sector to support full and productive employment and decent work for all, so contributing to food and nutrition security and making sure that no one is left behind.
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