First: The role of the Belt and Road Initiative in supporting the “responsible global leadership model of China” at the international level in the face of unilateralism and hegemony (post-Covid-19)
Second: The contributions of the “Health Silk Initiative” to help countries recover from (Covid-19), improve the global governance system, and the new leadership role of modern China
Third: Interlinking the role of the Belt and Road Initiative in the (modernization of the developing world and China’s leadership of the South-North dialogue) through multilateral international platforms and institutions
Fourth: The role of the Belt and Road Initiative in China’s modern renaissance, and the call to share “the experience of Chinese governance globally” for a common future for mankind
This year’s celebration of the 72nd anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China comes in a different way, as well as the year 2021 (the fiftieth anniversary) of China’s restoration of its permanent legal seat in the United Nations, and China is a founding member of the United Nations. On June 26, 1945, the Chinese delegation was the first to sign the “Constituent Charter Establishing the United Nations”, and the representative of the Communist Party of China at that time was “Dong Baiyou”, as one of the most prominent figures of this Chinese delegation to the United Nations.
As soon as the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, came to power in the country, he raised theslogan of “Chinese Dream”, and called everyone to stand around this dream, with a unique concept associated with it, namely, “the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation”. Here we find that the concept of (the dream The Chinese) presented by President “Xi” and the leaders of the Communist Party of China, has been practically interpreted by Comrade “Xi Jinping” in his current political speeches, by his assertion:
“The Chinese Dream is a long-term vision for China based on objective analysis, as well as a strategic idea and a long-term development plan around which all the Chinese people and their nationalities must rally to achieve the renaissance of modern China”
Based on this dream initiated by Comrade “Xi” to promote his country’s global renaissance, China has played an active role within the framework of the United Nations and relevant international institutions to reform the international system in accordance with the multipolarity of all the actors in it.
In the last speech of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, to the United Nations General Assembly in September 2021, President “Xi” made the voice of Chinese diplomacy loud around the world, through the United Nations platform, in calling for the rejection of unilateralism and respect for global openness, and not to return again to the Cold War mentality that prevailed during the period of the former Soviet Union before its disintegration. Since this was the first speech of President “Xi Jinping”, it was preceded by many speeches on all international occasions and meetings.
Since 2012, the first speech of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, came immediately after assuming the reins of power in China, and then it was followed by a number of important and influential speeches at the heart of the United Nations itself, and all other international platforms and multilateral mechanisms affiliated with it, and the work of Comrade “Xi”. With the leaders of the Communist Party of China in (presenting a series of new ideas, initiatives and proposals with Chinese characteristics), which were able to meet all international expectations and the values of justice by introducing effective development initiatives that contribute to the development of all humankind, especially the “Belt and Road Initiative”, taking into account that the Chinese diplomacy has succeeded in obtaining (an official recognition by the United Nations of its Belt and Road Initiative), and this has been codified in the laws and institutions of the United Nations to work under the initiative in partnership between the international community and China.
This Chinese international initiative for the Belt and Road is considered as (important strategic guidelines for promoting pluralism at the international level, ways to practice it and how to develop it in a way that suits the characteristics, values and cultures of each country separately), through the calls that emerged from it about the (global governance system and the call for a global government with civilized characteristics). And its demand to hold a (dialogue for rapprochement between all civilizations and cultures, with the definition of the most important Chinese and Asian cultural values), as well as many important international standards and guidelines, which China put forward globally.
On the occasion of (the anniversary of the celebration of the founding of the People’s Republic of China), and according to my vision as an expert in Chinese political affairs, I believe that creating a space to talk about the importance of (the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative, as the face of modern China to change the world), through its call for solidarity, justice and pluralism, according to a multilateral system, and here we find that the most important outlines added by the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative for mankind are:
First: The role of the Belt and Road Initiative in supporting the “responsible global leadership model of China” at the international level in the face of unilateralism and hegemony (post-Covid-19)
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, and until the advent of Chinese President Comrade “Xi Jinping” in 2012, over the past 72 years, China has succeeded in playing a comprehensive role in the multilateral affairs of the United Nations, and indeed all relevant international forums, as China demonstrated Its responsibility as a major country on the world stage, especially after the Corona pandemic, and China’s behavior as a “responsible leader” on the world stage and its commitment to continue cooperation and solidarity with all countries of the world through its Belt and Road Initiative, through:
The Chinese call, through the “Chinese Belt and Road Initiative”, to support the values of consultation and joint construction between China and various countries of the whole world, within the framework of “multipolarity” that Chinese President “Xi Jinping” has always raised in his current political speeches. As major powers that reject international pluralism, such as the United States of America, because of their deliberate isolation from other countries, especially during the era of former President “Trump”, are not conducive to the rapid recovery and healthy development of the global economy after the outbreak of (Covid-19).
Here, some major powers are trying to maintain hegemony, or use international rules to oppress other countries, or seek (unite allies to reshape a non-neutral system of governance, resorting to what is known as “selective pluralism”). All of these actions constitute obstacles to the global economic governance advocated by China and the leaders of the Communist Party of China, and they are not conducive to the recovery of the global economy after the Corona pandemic.
One of the results of the spread of (Covid-19) was (accelerating the transformation of the economy to digitization). The digital transformation of the economy continues to play an important role in combating the epidemic, maintaining economic activities during the epidemic and economic recovery after the epidemic.
China’s international role must be commended within the framework of Chinese President “Xi Jinping’s call” and plan to work within the framework of consultation, joint construction and international cooperation between China and the countries of the world. The (digital economy with the help of new technologies) is an important reference that countries around the world can benefit from to face global changes by learning from the pioneering Chinese experience in this framework.
It has become clear at the present time, that companies from all over the world urgently need to adapt to new business forms, new rules and the new competitive environment after the Corona pandemic, and here we must learn from China’s experience in this direction, by opening its markets to the world, and making sure to make facilities To attract investors, establish international partnerships and exhibits of international weight, and assist developing countries in this context.
With the maturity of digital technology and the increasing prosperity of the digital economy, the advantages of new economic forms are constantly emerging, which will form a new image of the global economy after (Covid-19) within a framework of joint construction among all.
On the other hand, the urgent need for China’s call for cooperation and joint construction within a framework of international pluralism appears, through the increasing need in the current period for (protecting the environment and water from global climate changes, and low-carbon, green and sustainable growth). With China’s keenness to share with the whole world its experience to protect man and nature as a common community that requires constructive and continuous cooperation and coordination, and dealing with the issue of climate change is a preoccupation for the international humanitarian community within the framework of (the common destiny of mankind), which are the premises on which the joint construction of Chinese cooperation with the world is based. China’s Belt and Road Initiative, given that the previous economic development model failed to meet the urgent needs of the international community in the face of the threat of climate change in the future.
Here, we find China’s call on the international community to work together within the framework of coordination and joint construction for (modifying the economic development model and paying attention to the governance of climate change).
It also calls on China, through its Belt and Road Initiative, to jointly (build, explore and develop new productive forces), and to search for a new impetus for low-carbon, green and sustainable growth.
The Belt and Road Initiative is a modern promise, a path to joint victory, and a Chinese pledge to the whole world to build and joint coordination between the international community and China within the framework of (the common future of mankind), which is the invitation of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, in all his political speeches.
Hence, the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative is an important launch for countries along the Chinese Belt Road to create new opportunities in the world after (Covid-19).
Here comes the role of China in (building closer healthy partnerships, closer interdependence and closer partnerships for green development, closer partnerships for openness and inclusion, and making positive contributions to the common prosperity of mankind), and maintaining international pluralism away from unilateralism and world domination.
Hence, we understand that China has been able to lead the world responsibly, especially after the outbreak of “Covid-19”, and it has carried out its duties entrusted to it, and we find the speech of President “Xi Jinping”, which came, entitled:
“Let the torch of pluralism light humanity’s way forward”
In his delivered discourse at the “World Economic Forum” in Davos, Comrade “Xi’s call” was explicit in the direction of (the promotion and development of international pluralism) on a just basis satisfactory to all.
Second: The contributions of the “Health Silk Initiative” to help countries in recovering from (Covid-19), improve the global governance system, and the new leadership role of modern China
Chinese President “Xi Jinping” raised a slogan in which he called on all the Chinese people to rally around him, and he called it the “Chinese Dream”. Hence, the leaders of the Communist Party of China, in cooperation with all the corresponding parties in other countries, began preparing and clarifying what this Chinese dream is in practice, with what it presented. China by putting forward its initiatives for (South-South cooperation and North-South cooperation), and the Corona pandemic came to establish the role of the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative in transforming the theoretical work mechanism of the Communist Party of China and its leaders into a real practical reality, through which it was able to put its own theories in a way An organization, to contribute to the service of humanity and solidarity with all countries around the world, including the provision of international health contributions to the United Nations, major and western countries, especially the United States of America itself, which was evident through:
China succeeded in providing assistance to all countries of the world after the outbreak of the pandemic, with its international contributions through the “Belt and Road Cooperation Initiative”, which enabled China to help many countries of the world within the framework of the (Healthy Silk Road), to cooperate in the production of vaccines and aid. China has played a major role in upholding the concept of a “community with a shared future for humanity” and the need for solidarity and support among various countries in facing crises.
China’s role has begun to deepen since the announcement of the new Corona pandemic and its repercussions, and China’s contribution with a large financial share and huge aid to the (World Health Organization), especially after the withdrawal of the United States of America from it as a result of American accusations without evidence of China’s responsibility for the Corona pandemic, and even China provided The “World Health Organization” (WHO) provides all information about the virus, embodying the idea of ”one world” and “a community with a shared future for humanity”, which are the slogans associated with the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative, which Chinese President Comrade “Xi Jinping” emphasizes in all his international meetings and speeches.
China worked within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative to confront the negative effects of the Coronavirus pandemic globally, through (the G-20 summit meetings and all the virtual summits in which China participated), the Chinese political leadership pledged to President “Xi Jinping” to help China to various countries of the whole world Especially the poor and developing countries, to face the repercussions of the impact of Coronavirus pandemic on the economies of the countries of the world at home and abroad.
China worked through the Belt and Road Initiative to (improve the global governance system and maintain the international system), for example, there was close cooperation between China and the Arab countries, led by Egypt, in exchanging knowledge and experiences in the face of (Covid-19), within the framework of the initiative The Belt and Road, and its role model, through the “Health Silk Road Initiative”.
China’s commitment to help and support all African countries to recover economically from the effects of the pandemic came, and here came the (Beijing Summit of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation) and (The Extraordinary China-Africa Summit), entitled: (Solidarity against the new Corona virus “Covid-19” in Beijing), emphasizing China’s role in always striving for the (common destiny of humanity) and life in one world in which we share security, stability and peace.
China continued to assist African countries by sending expert teams, and providing and facilitating the purchase of medical supplies from China. China has also begun to help African countries start (building the African Center for Disease Control and Prevention), and China has worked with African countries to (fully implement the health care initiative) for all African countries.
President “Xi Jinping”, in his speech to African leaders, also stressed the importance of giving greater priority to cooperation in (public health, reopening the economy, and improving the living conditions of African people), within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative.
The Coronavirus pandemic has been a major driver of global economic transformation, as it has also provided Beijing with an ideal opportunity to change (the parameters of the Belt and Road Initiative and reorientation towards more relevant efforts), such as: (digital and health services).
China has revived the so-called “Health Silk Road Initiative”, whose idea is based on China’s support for global public health efforts led by China, although the (Health Belt Initiative) is not new, as it was first introduced by China in 2017, When President “Xi Jinping” signed an agreement with the (World Health Organization), China made itself obligated to make health a major focus of the Belt and Road Initiative, especially after the spread of (Covid-19) around the world.
Chinese companies donated personal protective equipment to all parts of the world within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative, which globally supported China’s role.
Aspects of the healthy Silk Road include China’s provision of medical supplies and advice to countries, as well as (Chinese financial aid to the World Health Organization), so that it can help developing countries establish (more robust public health systems).
China has contributed globally to reviving the so-called “Digital Silk Road” and reviving China’s efforts globally to become the (world’s leading supplier of 5G network technology).
The most important thing here is that (Chinese technology companies) provide many medical services based on (fifth generation technology), and China has helped (building fifth generation networks at home and abroad to connect health care workers and patients with medical professionals).
After the first meeting of China’s two legislatures after the Coronavirus pandemic in May 2020, the (Chinese People’s Congress) approved a six-year spending plan with (5G networks) as a basis.
Huawei, the Chinese telecommunications giant, has laid a 6000 km (fiber-optic) line across the Atlantic Ocean, between (Brazil to Cameroon), while the spread of digital payment platforms, such as: (WeChat Pay and Alipay), which helped promote The spread of the yuan at the international level, and the transformation of the digital process of the Chinese yuan to facilitate digital financial transactions after (Covid-19).
The so-called “Green Silk Road” has also received attention from China, as the pandemic has paved the way for China to cancel some projects that are harmful to the environment and not viable, and to undo a number of unpopular projects, such as: (dams, coal plants that pollute the environment, and other non-environmentally friendly projects).
We find here that the end result is noticeable, as it is clear that the Belt and Road Initiative remains of great importance, and enjoys coherence and direction around the world after (Covid-19). Especially with the extreme flexibility of the “Chinese initiative for the Belt and Road” by developing (a coordinated and multifaceted plan to confront the changing form of the initiative and the road), meaning Chinese involvement in helping various developing countries of the world healthy and digitally, besides securing other alternatives to confront the negative repercussions of the Coronavirus pandemic.
Through the positive contributions made by China to the world, and health and development initiatives that led the international community, and through which it emerged as a responsible country in which it seeks reform and openness, and led the dialogue between countries (South-South, and North-South), through which China has succeeded in promoting The confidence of the people and the entire international community in the “successful Chinese model”, which led to the “strengthening of the power of the ruling Communist Party” in China through its contributions to the world under the Belt and Road Initiative.
Third: Interlinking the role of the Belt and Road Initiative in the (modernization of the developing world and China’s leadership of the South-North dialogue) through multilateral international platforms and institutions
Through its Belt and Road Initiative, China succeeded in laying the foundations for a new world order led by China in development, and establishing partnership and cooperation relations between China and the developing world in particular.
The reason for the success of the Communist Party of China in leading the world, especially developing countries, is “its ability to develop many theories for reform and openness to the world”.
In all his recent political speeches, Comrade Chinese President “Xi Jinping” stressed that the secret of China’s success lies in:
“The ability of the ruling Communist Party to continuously outdo its previous successes, because it is able to use new theories, ideas and strategies as powerful ideological weapons to strengthen the union and trust around it from the world, and its ability to lead the Chinese people of various nationalities, while paying its pledges to everyone at home and abroad and moving forward with their projects actively”
Hence, China has succeeded in advancing internationally through its Belt and Road initiative by calling for financial cooperation, and establishing (international institutions with new standards through which mechanisms for cooperation between the countries of the South with the North were proposed), taking into account mainly the needs of developing countries and countries of the South, through an extended Chinese strategy, rrepresents in:
In terms of financial cooperation, China has worked with its partners to interconnect the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative with all (major global financial institutions) to ensure a diversified and robust flow of financing for key projects related to the initiative.
After the establishment of (the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank), as one of the major multilateral platforms for building the Belt and Road, it has gained increasing trust and appreciation at the global level, and the number of its members and infrastructure projects has increased, and it has agreed to give billions of dollars in loans and contribute to several projects International in many countries of the world in Africa, Arab countries, and Asia, including: (Indonesia, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Oman, Turkey, and Egypt).
Through the Belt and Road Initiative, China is trying to help lay a new path towards more prosperous global trade, a more open world economy, and a more inclusive economic globalization.
A recent World Bank report showed that investments linked to the Belt and Road Initiative could help lift more than (9 million people out of extreme poverty and another 34 million out of moderate poverty) in a variety of countries.
China established 82 joint areas of cooperation with 24 other countries within the framework of Belt and Road Initiative created more than two billion dollars in (tax revenues), and most importantly, it contributed to creating more than (300,000 jobs) for the countries passing through China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
Infrastructure development has also made remarkable progress in the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative, for example, China succeeded in Greece, which is jointly managed by the (Chinese Cosco Shipping Company), the (Greek port of Piraeus) witnessed an increase in (handling container capacity at a rate of five times) after entering the Greek port in partnership with Chinese companies within the framework of the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative, and thanks to China’s cooperation with (the Greek port of Piraeus), the Greek port has now succeeded in occupying the 36th place among the top 100 ports in the world. The world is on the Lloyd’s List, a list that constitutes a major criterion for judging the quality of development and industry around the world.
China has succeeded, through the Belt and Road Initiative, in achieving remarkable success, as it has accomplished with other linkage projects for China, such as: Chinese international cooperation in the fields of: (railways, roads, air transport, energy, and telecommunications).
Chinese Belt and Road Initiative projects have provided business opportunities for Chinese companies and for all other companies around the world, to partner and cooperate in the implementation of many projects, for example: China succeeded through the Belt and Road Initiative in (building wind power plants), which is called the “wind corridor”, such as (the wind corridor in the province of Sindh in Pakistan), and others in many countries of the world.
The Chinese Belt and Road Initiative provides a platform to strengthen ties between China and all closely countries more. The Chinese initiative aims to enhance cooperation in (five main areas), which are:
(Policy coordination, infrastructure, trade, finance, people-to-people exchanges)
Policy coordination within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative is the key to flexible cooperation between China and the world. Beijing never tries to impose the initiative on others or impose any specific policy and plans, but China pays close attention to aligning the Belt and Road Initiative with (the development strategies of its partners in Belt and Road) to serve the interests of all.
So far, most Belt and Road countries have signed political agreements with other participants in the initiative on (norms and standards, tax policies, intellectual property protection, dispute settlement, infrastructure development) and others.
We find the affirmation of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, during his speech at the (opening of the first Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation) in 2017, confirmed that:
“China is ready to exchange development practices with other countries, but China has no intention of interfering in the internal affairs to other countries, Beijing does not seek to export its social system and development model, nor to impose China’s will on others, and China, through its Belt and Road Initiative, will not resort to outdated geopolitical maneuvers”
I consider these messages to Comrade Chinese President “Xi Jinping” in his political discourses is attempting to set (global rules within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative).
Most importantly, we find that within the framework of the Belt and Road cooperation, China has upheld and practiced the principle of “comprehensive consultation, common development and mutual benefits”, seeking self-development while providing opportunities, expertise and capital at the same time to its BRI partners along with various countries of the world.
Hence, the Chinese Belt and Road Initiative has succeeded in providing a platform for strengthening the links between the various countries of the world within the framework of the Chinese initiative.
Through this analysis of the most important developmental roles of China and its Belt and Road Initiative, we can understand the mechanism and plans for Chinese success, by developing a long strategy, known as: (adapting to global economic development), with China adopting modern development and economic patterns, through which it leads global economic projects through the “Belt and Road Initiative”, and adjust the speed and pattern of its development instead of striving for a higher growth rate, and this is the secret of the attractiveness of the Chinese development model and the Belt and Road Initiative as a breakthrough for modern China and the great Chinese dream of leading the world.
Fourth: The role of the Belt and Road Initiative in China’s modern renaissance, and sharing the experience of “Chinese governance” globally for a common future for humanity
There is a very clear assertion by Chinese President “Xi Jinping” in his various political speeches on the (renaissance and modernization of China is the spirit of the modern era) for China. In this context, the speech of the Chinese President, Comrade “Xi Jinping”, came on July 2021, during the celebration of the centenary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, stressing in:
“His country’s military and economic development is “irreversible”
What struck me the most during Comrade “Xi Jinping’s speech” was his entire speech for an hour, in which he repeated several times the importance of (linking the role of the Communist Party of China in the renaissance and modern history of China), in which President “Xi” explicitly affirmed:
“The Communist Party of China has been essential to the country’s growth, and attempts to separate it from the people will “fail”
Hence, it becomes clear to us, by analyzing the content and context of President “Xi Jinping’s statements and speeches”, that all of China’s modern development initiatives have been strategically planned by the leaders of the Communist Party, emphasizing the party’s flexibility in dealing with all international variables, rejecting unilateralism and hegemony, and calling for cooperation and exchange benefits for everyone, through:
Emphasis on China and its ruling Communist Party’s defense of “extended consultations between multiple international parties on an equal footing”, has led to the development of the Belt and Road Initiative from a mere Chinese proposal to a “global consensus”.
That is why China is keen to support the role of multilateral mechanisms to enhance those (extended multilateral consultations), as China is actively participating in coordination and cooperation in a substantive manner on the Belt and Road Initiative with other participating countries, and makes full use of the existing multilateral cooperation mechanisms, such as:
(Group of 20, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Asia-Europe Meeting, China-Africa Cooperation Forum, China-Arab Cooperation Forum, China-Pacific Island Countries Economic Cooperation and Development Forum),and others.
Through its Belt and Road Initiative, China is trying to cooperate with various international institutions within the (framework of multilateral cooperation), and this was emphasized by Chinese President Comrade “Xi Jinping”, especially in his speech at the (opening of the annual meeting of the Boao Forum for Asia in 2021), China proposed to continue building the Belt and Road with high quality, implement the principles of consultation, partnership and benefit, promote the open, green and fair concept, and strive to achieve high-standard sustainable development goals that benefit various peoples around the world.
Through the Belt and Road Initiative, China is trying to establish (international multilateral cooperation with all international institutions), entitle: “strengthening international cooperation, jointly building the Belt and Road, and achieving win-win development”. The two most important keywords in the framework of the Chinese Belt and Road, are: (cooperation and win-win for mankind). In other words, the Chinese side adheres to the (principles of consultation, sharing and benefit) by proposing the “Belt and Road initiative”, with the aim of achieving common development and common prosperity for countries along the line by strengthening interdependence and cooperation among them.
Comrade Chinese President “Xi Jinping”, through the Belt and Road Initiative, seeks to link and network the important Chinese initiative on jointly building the “Belt and Road” with various institutions and countries, which covers all international transactions and partnerships in all continents from Asia and Europe, and takes several forms, such as: (the Maritime Silk Road in the twenty-first century), which crosses the Indian Ocean to reach East Africa and the Mediterranean.
This Chinese initiative is considered the largest public achievement that China has provided to the international community so far, and it is an international cooperation initiative that is widely welcomed by many international institutions and different countries around the world, as it contributes in (reducing the development gap between different regions through policy coordination, infrastructure interconnection, business communication, money circulation and peoples understanding), in the end in an effort to (accelerate the pace of the regional integration process among countries along the Belt and Road), and push for common development and prosperity to these countries and even to other regions and in the service of regional peace and stability. This imposes (an international multilateral cooperation pattern between China and the world).
The importance of (strengthening international multilateral exchanges and cooperation within the framework of the Belt and Road) is due to the membership and participation of more than 100 countries or international organizations and their support and positive response to the Chinese initiative, including more than 40 countries and international organizations that have signed cooperation agreements with China. The volume of investments made by Chinese companies in the countries along the line amounted to more than 50 billion dollars, and a large number of important projects were translated into reality, which contributed to (stimulating economic development in various countries and creating a huge number of job opportunities).
This is the same trend that the Chinese President emphasized in his speeches, stressing that “the idea of the Belt and Road Initiative originated from China, but its benefits extend to the whole world, as this initiative has opened new horizons for cooperation between China and all countries of the world”. This requires China cooperates with all international institutions to reap the benefits of multilateral cooperation between China and the world.
This is what China recently warned of the leaders of (the Group of Seven “G7”), with the rejection of the Chinese political leaders in the Communist Party of China for hegemony and unilateralism and the rejection of some multilateral cooperation, emphasizing that:
“The days when a small group of countries decided the fate of the world are long gone Far”. This is the same direction taken by the (spokesperson for the Chinese Embassy in London), who asserted that: “Gone are the days when a small group of countries dictated global decisions”.
With the assertion of the spokesperson for the Chinese Embassy in London, that: “We always believe that countries, big or small, strong or weak, poor or rich, are equal, and that global affairs should be dealt with through consultation among all countries”. These statements come at a time when the (Group of Seven countries “G7”) are trying to present a unified position on China.
The Belt and Road Initiative is a global project and turns China into a “partisan of economic cooperation, trade and globalization” with all institutions and countries.
The Chinese initiative aims to promote (international interdependence, global growth and development, and increase understanding, respect, mutual trust, and friendly relations between peoples and countries), which indicates (a new era in multilateral cooperation).
The initiative reflects China’s vision of promoting pluralism through (building bridges between continents, states and citizens).
The clearest example of the importance of multilateral cooperation between China and the world within the framework of the Belt and Road in (the current health crisis of the spread of the Corona pandemic), which confirmed to us the importance of (interdependence and mutual dependence) among the countries of the world, which reinforces China’s view of activating (effective multilateralism). Not only to recover from post (Covid-19) emergency, but also, to change for the better. Therefore, the need to support pluralism is more important and urgent than ever.
Also, we find an example of the importance of the comprehensive strategic partnership between Europe, Asia and China, on the basis of (joint commitment to market rules and international standards and norms), which will be in the interest of all international parties, and will enhance economic, trade and investment relations between China and the continents of the world.
Hence, China seeks to support multilateral cooperation by “sharing the experience of Chinese governance for a common future for mankind”. China also supports many scholars, politicians and businessmen, in addition to policy and decision makers from various countries of the world within the framework of international multilateral consultation, partnership and benefits.
Based on the foregoing, this year’s celebration of the anniversary of the founding of the modern People’s Republic of China bears with it the features of many successes and challenges that China has fought globally, and since that time China has witnessed major transformations in its development and economic path, leading to the realization of the “Greatest Chinese Dream for Mankind”, by adopting and launching of the “Chinese Belt and Road Initiative”, and the emergence of China as a role model, especially in developing societies and countries, with its call for a multilateral system, which is in line at the present time in China by preparing an entire generation of Chinese youth for this long and arduous task, by reminding it of China’s history and struggle until its international success.
Which was practically translated by the Communist Party leaders by preparing for it by calling for (attention to the youth young people and the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation). It contains a history of China, entitled “The Great Journey”.
He also asked all cinemas in China to show propaganda films known as “red films”, twice a week, starting from last April 2021, with a primary goal of “reminding the success and renaissance of China and its ability to move forward with its international development and economic projects, despite all the challenges and difficulties it faced to impede its growth and disrupt its interests”.
Hence, during (the anniversary of the celebration of the centenary of the founding of the ruling Communist Party) a large campaign began, aimed at “the gathering of the Chinese people around their leaders and party”, with all media broadcasting a large propaganda campaign on the history of China and its modern renaissance in a version adopted by the Communist Party, with the release of a new song It met with popular success in China, entitled: “One Hundred Percent”, to praise China’s achievements internally and around the world, and emphasize the most important Chinese policies and achievements and the most important challenges it faced, while calling for solidarity and union of the Chinese people around the political leadership and the Communist Party so that China could complete its international path of advancement the dream of all the Chinese people, which was confirmed by the meanings of President “Xi Jinping’s speech”, stressing that the solution is:
“Multilateral cooperation, rejecting selfishness, and working together in a free multilateral world to exchange benefits and profits, with what brings us together from one common destiny for humanity and for all of humanity”
Chinese Communist Party and the path of “high-quality development” at Guangdong Province
During the meeting of “Huang Kunming”, Secretary of Guangdong Provincial Party Committee mentioned that it is significant for Guangdong embark on a path of high-quality development fit for its own situation. According to my highly understand of China’s high-quality development and analysis to the nature of the Chinese society and the polices of the Communist Party of China regarding the development is meaning (all-round building a strong modern socialist country) and all-round rejuvenation of the Chinese nation still need to rely on development.
With the continuous development of the Chinese economy and the deepening of reforms, China put forward a new expression of “high-quality development” for the first time at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in 2017, which indicates that China’s economy has moved from a stage of rapid growth to a stage of high-quality development.
Changing China’s economic development strategy is an inevitable choice in line with the law of development and the demands of its development. Now, China is seeking to change its previous development pattern of relying on a large number of factors of production to focus more on quality and efficiency. It has begun to adhere to the implementation of the new development philosophy that emphasizes innovative, coordinated, green and open development for all, and to build a new development pattern that relies on domestic trade and promotes integration between domestic and foreign trade to enable the Chinese society to complete the building of a strong modern socialist country in an all-round way, Chinese side should stick to advancing high-quality development as the top priority, as President Comrade “Xi Jinping” stressed in the report.
High-quality development mainly depends on the economy’s vitality, innovation and competitiveness. In order to improve these capabilities, China is accelerating the implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy, intensifying its efforts to achieve a high level of self-reliance in scientific and technological research, mobilizing forces and focusing on solving intractable problems in original and pioneering science and technology research to achieve breakthroughs in some crucial and pivotal technologies, which are guided by these strategies, China has achieved good results in manned space industry, lunar and Mars sounding, deep-sea and land exploration, supercomputers, satellite navigation, quantum information, electro-nuclear technologies, large-scale passenger aircraft, medicine, biopharmaceuticals and other fields over the past years, and joined the ranks of innovative countries in the world.
Green development is an important symbol of the transition of China’s economy from the stage of rapid growth to the stage of high-quality development. In recent years, China has pushed the green transition to a development mode, implemented the comprehensive rationalization strategy, developed green and low-carbon industries, and advocated green consumption.
The bright future of China’s economy stems from more flexible and high-quality development. In 2021, China calmly responded to changes in the world as well as the COVID-19 epidemic, took new steps to build a new development pattern, achieve new results in high-quality development, and achieve a good start for the 14th Five-Year Plan. China has maintained a leading position in the world in economic development and in epidemic prevention and control, accelerated the growth of national strategic scientific and technological forces, improved the flexibility of the industrial chain, continued to deepen supply-side structural reforms, and made solid progress in the green transformation of the low-carbon economy and prosperity subscriber.
Here, with the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China, the significant advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the technological foundation accumulated since reform and opening up, the extremely large market advantage and domestic demand potential, and with huge human capital and human resources, the Chinese economy will continue to grow steadily on the path of high-quality development, enabling China to contribute in achieving a steady and stable progress in the recovery of the global economy.
China’s Deflating Population: The Economic Marvel in Eclipse?
So China’s population shrank last year. I admit my first instinct was … well, isn’t this a good thing? I mean, during the entire 1960s and 1970s, global discourse misted around how the world population kept growing beyond the finite resources of this world. And how food scarcity and poverty would create a social depression. China, with a population of roughly 1.4 billion people, was specifically a focal point of population reduction strategies. After the widespread catastrophe of the Great Leap Forward, a debilitating social program orchestrated by Mao Zedong in the late 50s, China’s population was on the up and up in the following decade, to the point that the infamous ‘One-Child Policy’ was introduced in the late 70s to inhibit the burden of a growing population – and concomitant poverty. Since then, however, China has dynamically transformed into an economic powerhouse – a factory floor for global manufacturing. And here lies the answer to this population conundrum: Shrinking population in China is a problem now!
According to the data released by the Chinese government last week, China’s population contracted by circa 850,000 people in 2022; with 9.56 million births against 10.41 million deaths, it was the first time in more than half a century that deaths outnumbered births in China. The initial thought would be to blame it on the pandemic. But that would be a blinkered assumption without gauging the stunted birth rate. It was the sixth consecutive year that the number of births fell, down from 10.6 million in 2021, according to the National Bureau of Statistics. Many demographers and statisticians warned for years about a population decline on the cards, albeit much later in this decade. This presage was why the government reposed its one-child policy in 2016 and extended the limit to three children in 2021. Local governments offered tax rebates and outright cash handouts to couples having children. The source of anxiety was partly social and partly economic – or maybe socioeconomic is the correct juxtaposition.
China is a rising economic power, the world’s second-largest economy, and the strongest contender to dethrone American supremacy. But in listing all the superlatives, we sometimes forget that China is still a developing economy. Despite its phenomenal evolution from endemic poverty, its average population still earns less than the average earnings in advanced economies. And the shrinking population is a two-pronged issue that could constrict China, like other leading developing economies, into a middle-income trap.
Just by simple inference, we can judge that a declining population is also an aging population. Impressive modernity in China’s healthcare system has led to an increase in life expectancy. Meanwhile, a decades-long hiatus in birth-conducive policies and changed mores of young Chinese couples, often antipathetic to having children altogether, have led to a sharp decline in births. A combination of these factors has invited a conspicuous outcome: Shrinkage in China’s working-age population. In fact, China’s working-age population has been in decline since 2015; according to a government spokesman, it could fall to roughly 700 million (approximately 23%) by 2050. This factor would be particularly problematic for China, which has long been a competitive labor market for manufacturing heavyweights like Apple and Microsoft. But moreover, a bulging elderly population amidst falling tax receipts would pose a challenge to government finances, especially given the comparably underdeveloped social safety net programs in China. Therefore, either taxes ought to be raised sharply or state pensions to old-age dependents would hit the skids – a spartan policy dilemma either way.
We can draw apt comparisons from Japan – the world’s third largest economy – which has notoriously suffered from a lopsided aging population and accompanying anemic economic growth since the asset bubble burst of the 1990s. I mean, China’s real estate market does look like a financial crisis just waiting to happen. But post-boom Japan has tried virtually every bizarre economic strategy – from negative interest rates to yield curve control – yet has failed to spark demand-led inflation. Strangely, however, China has sustained its bustling economy on prohibitive rates of investment rather than consumer demand, which has remained relatively lukewarm due to policymakers’ reluctance to pass the complete scope of economic growth to households. Nonetheless, a contracting labor force would perhaps accelerate the exodus of manufacturing from China unless the government finds alternatives to sustain China’s unrivaled productivity levels.
We could blame China’s ‘zero Covid’ policy for strangling economic growth. It is no surprise that China’s economy grew by a modest 3% in 2022, its slowest rate in nearly four decades, barring 2020. Intermittent lockdowns and pedantic mass testing regimes cast a pall over economic activities. And higher interest rates imposed by the Federal Reserve and other central banks have dampened global demand and diluted appetite for Chinese imports. According to government officials, year-on-year Chinese exports fell by 9.9% in December. While an economic turnaround is widely expected later this year, a falling working-age population; a skyward old-age dependency ratio; and the ongoing trade tussle with the United States could cost China many more decades to supersede the American edge. However, China has been an iridescent success story, an economic miracle of sorts. And therefore, if the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) could somehow prioritize economy over national security; social reforms over governmental control; and collaboration over confrontation, I reckon China can again defy the odds and achieve its dream.
Nepal-China Relations and Belt and Road Initiative
China appears to be more “functional” in Nepal recently. A new administration led by leader Pushpa Kamal Dahal has acted on the same pitch initially also. The Rasuwagadhi border crossing, which had been blocked for three years, has been reopened for two-way trade, and the much-anticipated Gyorong-Kathmandu train project’s final survey has also begun as of January 1, 2023. The second phase of the 10-lane ring road project from Kalanki to Chabhil is anticipated to start soon as well. All these accumulatively demonstrate the current nature of friendship between them and the profound Belt and Road Initiative is the key rostrum for the current complexion of the relationship between them. Hence, the trends are indicating a greater form of cooperation even in the regional domain as well.
Meanwhile, China and Nepal have inked a six-point agreement to strengthen bilateral collaboration and exchanges on governance, legislation, and supervisory practices, in line with Beijing’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). On September 12, 2022, in Kathmandu’s federal parliament building, Agni Prasad Sapkota, Speaker of the Parliament, and Li Zhanshu, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the Chinese National People’s Congress, signed the agreement. According to the agreement, the nations would exchange information about each other’s legislative, oversight, and governance activities. Five years after BRI’s founding, on May 12, 2017, Nepal formally joined the process. Nine projects – the upgrading of the Rasuwagadhi-Kathmandu road, the construction of the Kimathanka-Hile road, the construction of the road from Dipayal to the Chinese border, the Tokha-Bidur Road, the Galchhi-Rasuwagadhi-Kerung400kv transmission line, the Kerung-Kathmandu rail, the 762MW Tamor Hydroelectricity Project, the 426MW Phuket Karnali were on the to do list. However, more than any other nation, China invested US$188 million in Nepal during the 2020–21 fiscal year. During KP Sharma Oli’s visit to Beijing in 2016, Nepal and China also ratified a transit transport agreement for commerce with other parties.
However, amidst the current global tension and the changing rapport of international politics, China remains as a key investor in Nepal. Besides, the recent activities from the Nepal administration showed a shift in policy domain from the previous regime which in some cases was rigid to Chinese projects. Meanwhile, the BRI becomes more eminent in the strategic, political and economic domain of the status quo. Against such backdrop, the next sections will discuss current trends of the BRI in Nepal.
Nine Projects: Token of Continuation of the Initiative
Nepal put forward nine potential projects to be undertaken under the BRI at the beginning of 2019. These included setting up a technical institution in Nepal, building new highways, tunnels, and hydroelectricity dams, as well as conducting a feasibility assessment for a trans-Himalayan railway that would connect Jilong/Keyrung, a Chinese port of entry, with Kathmandu. This enhanced the significance of the project which will direct to more prosperous China- Nepal relations.
Nepal, the “Pillar”
Hou Yanqi, the Chinese ambassador to Nepal, stated in April 2022 that Nepal was one of the BRI’s most significant pillars and that projects were still moving forward despite the “speed of pragmatic collaboration” slowing down because of the coronavirus pandemic and Nepal’s changing political climate.
Transit Through China: Better Connectivity and Trade
Kathmandu protocol agreement with Beijing, Nepal will import and export goods from a third country through China through Tianjin, Shenzhen, Lianyungang and Zhanjiang seaports and land ports of Lanzhou, Lhasa and Shigatse. They will also get the facility of transporting goods through six dedicated transit points of the two countries. It will boost the trade for improved connectivity.
Extended Cooperation in Domains Except for BRI
In addition to the BRI projects, China is currently making significant investments in Nepal’s infrastructure, including ring road expansion, dry ports at the border crossings of Larcha and Syabrubesi, the establishment of China Study Centers, a new international airport in Pokhara, and optical fiber cable connectivity from Kathmandu to the Chinese border.
Energy Exploration: New Domain of Cooperation
China is also looking into the prospect of discovering gas and oil deposits in Nepal and is building a border river crossing at Hilsa, Humla. It will open a new domain of cooperation based on mutual interest.
Poverty Reduction and Generating Newer Income Sources
Currently, roughly six Chinese airlines offer regular flights to Nepal. Nepal has the fastest-growing Chinese tourist industry. Nepal granted China access to choose 16 Himalayan regions that border China to develop as part of a program to fight poverty.
Security: Bringing Peace
Joint military drills between China and Nepal are also a new development in security cooperation. It will bring peace in the region since the image of Nepal is very clean.
Increased Diplomatic Connectivity
The BRI appears to be one of the three priority pillars for the Chinese government’s organizing principles of foreign policy, along with the Global Development Initiatives and the Global Security Initiatives, in terms of developing successful international relations rather than just an economic endeavor. It will bring a fresh start in the diplomatic domain of both countries and the future prospects of ties in the diplomatic arena can be discussed robustly.
No More Landlockedness
Under BRI and the Trans-Himalayan Multi-dimensional Connectivity Network, which will transform Nepal from a landlocked country to a land-linked one, there are multiple road, sea, and corridor networks throughout the world. It will boost the relationship to a great extent while there will be a surge in the arena of export and import.
The extension of the Qingzang railway from Tibet to Nepal and the border with India is among the most significant BRI projects. Three routes are being considered for this railway. The first would connect Shigatse to Kathmandu via Kerung and continue on to Pokhara and Lumbini before reaching the Indian border. The second would run from Shigatse to the Burang border and connect Humla and Darchula districts in Nepal with Pithoragdh, Uttarakhand, while the third would link Shigatse to the Yandong border of Sikkim, India.
As China and India have no trade disputes with one another, India would gain from this project as well after trading through this route. In comparison to other industrialized parts of the world, South Asia could see an increase in commerce and investment if this project is carried out on a win-win basis between China and Nepal.
Additionally, loans are typically provided on commercial terms through the Silk Road Fund and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), both of which are led by China (SRF). Due to project site clearance delays and the nation’s political instability, along with its comparatively short repayment time, Nepal’s big projects have raised concerns that they may not get off the ground.
Besides, three primary issues with China are of particular concern to the Nepalese government. First, instead of commercial loans, the nation favors grants and lenient loans from China. Second, it wants the interest rate and repayment period to be comparable to those of multilateral funding organizations like the Asian Development Bank and the World Bank. Thirdly, it thinks that bid competitions ought to be allowed for the BRI projects. But the Chinese authorities are not responding on the same page.
The Inception of a Recommenced Cooperation
Pradeep Gawali, Foreign Minister in the KP Sharma Oli’s government, said that from the perspective of Nepal, the BRI projects were the way to be connected to the trans-Himalayan multipurpose connectivity network. Nepal had been able to select the nine projects included in the BRI with great success. However, Chinese authority said on December 26 that it looks forward to cooperating with the new government to advance projects under the ambitious Belt and Road Initiative, a day after the Maoist party chairman Pushpa Kamal Dahal alias Prachanda was named as Nepal’s new prime minister (BRI). China aims to develop initiatives under the Belt and Road collaboration, according to Mao Ning, the official spokesperson for the Chinese foreign ministry, who congratulated Prachanda on his appointment. Beijing claims that as a longtime ally and neighbor of Nepal, China cherishes Nepali relations very highly. China is prepared to collaborate with the new Nepalese administration to broaden and deepen friendly relations and cooperation on all fronts, pursue high-quality Belt and Road cooperation, strategic cooperative alliance marked by enduring friendship for growth and prosperity new impetus, and bring more benefits to peoples from both sides.
Hence, it is evident that China’s policy toward Nepal is generally stable and uncomplicated, and the two countries’ bilateral relations have been cordial and shaped by Nepal’s strategy of balancing the divergent impact of China and its southern neighbor. Through BRI projects, Nepal could gain better connectivity relations with its northern neighbors, but in order to do so, Nepal must enhance its negotiations with China.
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