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Human Rights

One year after the Moria fire: Few lessons learned as Greece expands barriers to refugees’ protection

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Women and children at the the Turkey-Greece border at Pazarkule.(file photo) © IOM/Uygar Emrah Özesen

45 NGOs and civil society groups have today released a report urging the European Union and Greek government to abandon plans to dramatically restrict the movement of people in refugee camps in Greece. With financial and technical support from the European Commission, authorities in Greece are constructing fences and concrete walls around dozens of existing camps and building closed camps in remote locations on the Aegean islands. New legislation aims to further restrict the freedom of movement of camp residents and access for NGOs, journalists, and others with critical aid delivery and monitoring roles. 

When a devastating fire destroyed Moria camp on the Greek island of Lesvos burned to the ground on the night of 8-9 September 2020, Greek and European officials promised they would improve reception conditions. EU Commissioner for Home Affairs Ylva Johansson said there should be “no more Morias.” Yet, rather than pursuing alternatives to camps, the EU and Greece have hardened their approach. As the report shows, authorities are pursuing “harmful policies focused on deterring and containing asylum seekers and refugees,” thus “jointly implementing and deepening the status quo.” 

Within months of the fire in September 2020, Greek and EU officials agreed to the construction of  Multi-Purpose Reception and Identification Centres (MPRICs) on five Aegean islands. On the mainland, they began building walls and chain link fencing around dozens of existing camps. Camp residents and NGOs familiar with the plans have likened these facilities to prisons.

The report identifies a number of significant concerns about the plans, warning that the new structures “will impede effective identification and protection of vulnerable people; limit access to services and assistance for asylum seekers; hinder independent monitoring of conditions inside facilities; and exacerbate the harmful effects of displacement and containment on individuals’ mental health. Moreover, these policies will preclude displaced people’s integration in local communities, to their detriment and that of Greece.”

The European Commission is funding the construction projects with grants exceeding €250 million. Commissioner Johansson has defended the work, insisting that the new structures on the islands will not be closed and that people will be free to come and go. Yet the Greek authorities make no secret of their intention to restrict freedom of movement for camp residents: on 29 March 2021, the Greek Minister of Migration and Asylum, Notis Mitarachi, described the new MPRICs as “closed and controlled.” He has used similar language when discussing camp facilities.

Questioning how and why EU funds are being used to restrict the freedom of movement of people seeking sanctuary, the report urges Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) to urgently investigate the current construction process and intervene to protect the rights and liberties of people seeking asylum in Greece. In a list of recommendations, the report asks EU institutions and national governments, particularly the Greek authorities, the European Commission and its Task Force Migration Management, and Members of the European Parliament to:

  1. Guarantee that new arrivals to the Greek island are not detained in MPRICs by default and that restrictions on movement are based on an individual assessment and do not exceed limitations laid down in law. 
  2. Secure a firm commitment from the Greek authorities that the freedom of movement of residents of all camps will be upheld, and that access to essential services, including education (especially for children), and healthcare is guaranteed. 
  3. Guarantee that asylum seekers located at facilities in remote areas have access to city centres or nearby urban areas by facilitating transport and opportunities for engagement, thereby preventing the harmful effects of isolation and social exclusion and promoting an early start to integration. 
  4. Urgently scrutinising the use of EU funds to finance the construction of MPRICs and walls around mainland camps, and considering a moratorium on construction until the fundamental rights of residents are guaranteed. 
  5. Guarantee a timely and adequate monitoring and evaluation plan to assess conditions in the new MPRICs and walled-off camps and their impact on residents’ access to rights, material reception conditions, services, assistance, mental health, and education  (especially for children).
  6. Ensure that legislation governing NGOs’ access to reception facilities in Greece is in line with EU and international law and standards regarding the freedom of association and does not hinder the provision of adequate services and support to asylum seekers living inside reception facilities. The EU Commission should proceed without delay in assessing whether Greek legislation restricting NGO activity is compatible with EU law.
  7. Urge the Greek government to revoke the new restrictions on cash assistance to allow asylum seekers to live in independent housing, and investing in alternative accommodation to reception facilities to promote integration and social inclusion while people complete the asylum process.
  8. Urge the Greek government to introduce protocols for the operation and monitoring of all reception facilities that ensure adequate security and protection of camp residents and staff without encroaching on their rights and freedoms. 

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Human Rights

Urgent action needed to protect Vietnamese workers trafficked to Serbia

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Urgent action is required to assist and protect some 400 Vietnamese migrant workers who were allegedly trafficked to Serbia, experts appointed by the UN Human Rights Council said on Friday. 

Eight companies, including Vietnamese labour recruitment agencies and Chinese construction firms registered in Serbia, have reportedly been implicated in serious human rights abuses, they said, citing information received.  

The experts have written to the businesses and are also in contact with authorities in the three countries.  

Appalling conditions 

“We are deeply concerned that these migrant workers may have been trafficked for purposes of forced labour, and have been living and working in appalling conditions in Serbia, at serious risk to their lives and health,” they said in a statement. 

They were also disturbed by allegations that civil society groups wanting to assist the workers have not been allowed access to them. 

The experts urged the Governments of Serbia, Viet Nam and China to ensure that businesses based in their territory, or operating under their jurisdiction, respect the human rights of all workers. 

“This includes not only the businesses who rely on migrant labour but also labour recruitment agencies,” they said. 

Duty to protect 

Regulation and monitoring of labour recruitment agencies is also critical to effectively prevent trafficking for the purposes of forced labour, they added. 

The experts reminded governments of their duty to protect against business-related human rights abuses. 

Countries must also take appropriate steps to ensure victims have access to justice and effective remedies, and to ensure ongoing assistance and protection, including against forced return. 

They also highlighted the obligations of businesses to exercise due diligence in ensuring that the rights of all workers are protected, without discrimination, recognising the particular needs and rights of migrant workers. 

Independent experts 

The eight human rights experts who issued the statement receive their mandates from the UN Human Rights Council, located in Geneva. 

They monitor and report on specific issues of global concern, which include trafficking in persons, contemporary forms of slavery, the human rights of migrants, and implementation of UN principles on business and human rights. 

The experts operate in their individual capacity and are neither UN staff nor are they paid for their work. 

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Human Rights

UNRWA condemns demolition of Palestinian home in East Jerusalem

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The Salhiyya family's personal belongings after the demolition of their home in East Jerusalem. © UNRWA

The UN agency that supports Palestinian refugees, UNRWA, on Thursday urged Israeli to immediately halt all evictions and demolitions in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, after an entire family was forced out of their long-term home the previous day.  

Israeli police evicted the Salhiyya family from their two adjacent houses, according to news reports, in the Sheikh Jarrah neighbourhood in East Jerusalem early on Wednesday, and later tore down the structures – a move which UNRWA’s West Bank field office has condemned. 

Staff who visited the scene on Thursday morning observed the total destruction of the property, with school bags, clothes and family photos still partially visible beneath the rubble. 

Against international law 

“Under international humanitarian law, the forcible transfer of protected persons, as well as the destruction of real or personal property belonging individually or collectively to private persons by Israel, as the occupying power, is strictly forbidden, except where such measures would be rendered absolutely necessary by imperative military reasons, or for the security of the population under occupation,” the agency said. 

The 15-member Salhiyya family, who include an older woman and young child, had been living in Sheikh Jarrah for nearly 40 years, according to UNRWA.   

The neigbourhood and tensions surrounding evictions, and attempted evictions, was at the heart of brutal fighting that erupted last year in Gaza, between Israel and the militant group, Hamas. 

Arrests and injuries 

Israeli forces raided the two Salhiyya houses on the property, at 3am on Wednesday, while the family was sleeping.   

In a matter of hours the homes, as well as their possessions, were destroyed, UNRWA said, adding that Israeli forces injured several family members during the eviction operations. 

The head of the family, Mahmoud Salhiyya, along with other relatives, was also arrested.  Mr. Salhiyya had threatened to set himself on fire two days ago after Israeli forces demolished his business, located next door. 

Other families at risk 

UNRWA stated that sadly, cases like the Salhiyya’s are not unique as scores of Palestine refugee families in different areas of Sheikh Jarrah alone – over 200 persons, many of them children – currently face imminent threat of eviction.  

Across East Jerusalem, an estimated 218 Palestinian households are at risk of displacement by the Israeli authorities, the agency said, citing 2020 data from the UN humanitarian affairs office, OCHA

These households comprise some 970 people, including 424 children. 

UNRWA called on the Israeli authorities to abide by international law and, as the occupying power, to ensure the protection of Palestine refugees and civilians in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem.  

“All individuals have a right to safe and secure housing and to live in peace and dignity,” said the agency. 

Agencies call for release of seriously ill child 

In another development in the region, UNRWA and two other UN agencies are calling for the immediate release of a seriously ill Palestinian child detained in Israel. 

Amal Nakhleh, now 18, has been held without charge for more than a year, a measure known as administrative detention.  He has a rare neuromuscular disorder, according to media reports. 

Israel has extended his detention until 18 May, according to a statement issued on Thursday by the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), UNRWA, and the UN human rights office, OHCHR

“Neither Amal nor his lawyers or family have been informed of the reasons for his arrest and detention. Amal suffers from a severe autoimmune disease that requires continuous medical treatment and monitoring,” they said. 

Not an isolated case 

The UN agencies called for his “immediate and unconditional release”, in line with international human rights law. 

This is not an isolated case, they added, as currently at least three Palestinians are in administrative detention who were under age 18 when they were first detained. 

“We echo the calls of the UN Secretary-General who in his Report on Children and Armed Conflict has, every year since 2015, urges Israel to end the administrative detention of children. This practice deprives children of their liberty and must immediately end.” 

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Human Rights

UNRWA seeks $1.6 billion to support Palestinian refugees in 2022

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A young girl takes part in UNRWA's Keeping Kids Cool summer activities in Gaza. © UNRWA 2021/Mohamed Hinnawi

The UN agency that supports Palestinian refugees, UNRWA, on Tuesday appealed for $1.6 billion to support its lifesaving work this year amid acute regional crises and chronic funding shortfalls. 

UNRWA provides services and programmes, including education, health and food assistance, to more than five million Palestinians across the Middle East. 

The 2022 budget proposal includes additional emergency funding to address humanitarian needs arising from crises in Gaza, the West Bank, Syria, and Lebanon. 

‘Indispensable’ to stability 

Philippe Lazzarini, the agency’s Commissioner-General, said budget shortfalls pose a serious threat to its ability to maintain operations. 

“The international community recognizes the lifesaving role of UNRWA and its indispensable contribution to stability in the Middle East. It also recognizes how cost-efficient and agile UNRWA is. In 2022, that recognition must be supported by the adequate level of funding to meet this critical moment for Palestine refugees,” he said

The budget proposal comes as UNRWA confronts chronic funding gaps as needs keep rising. 

Distress and despair 

It is estimated that 2.3 million Palestinian refugees are living in poverty, and the COVID-19 pandemic continues to threaten health and livelihoods. 

Distress and despair have become the norm among Palestinian refugees, according to UNRWA.  Many, particularly in Gaza, Syria and Lebanon, report that they are ready to use any means to try to migrate outside of the region. 

Breaking the cycle 

UNRWA has committed to investing in comprehensive programmatic reform and modernization to meet needs in an even more cost-effective and efficient manner.  

The agency said that being fully-funded across its full range of services, will assist its efforts towards breaking the cycle of despair among Palestinian refugees through measures such as providing some $31.2 million in microfinance loans and carrying out vital structural improvements to refugee camps. 

 “The amount that UNRWA is requesting for 2022 will directly contribute to the wellbeing of Palestine refugees, to efforts to combat and contain COVID-19 and to regional stability,” said Mr. Lazzarini. urging donors to step up. 

“The international community must give UNRWA sufficient and predictable funding so we may continue to provide Palestine refugees with a sense of security and normality they deserve.” 

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