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African Union, Israel and the crisis of the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam



 – First: My analysis of the statement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo to deny its role in the Renaissance Dam, and its endorsement (indirectly) of Israel’s role in the Renaissance Dam, and a new analysis for the first time on (the relationship of the Israeli statement in Cairo with Washington’s strategy in encircling the Chinese Silk Road initiative in the region and establishing a new security umbrella)

 – Second: The role of the United States of America in persuading the African countries to accept the Israel’s membership as an observer within the African Union in the face of Chinese expansion and influence

– Third: The relationship between the discoveries of oil and Gas fields within the territorial waters of the Mediterranean and the Israeli pressure on Egypt through (the water threat), and the new game to distract Cairo by dragging it to (the clash outside its regional sphere of influence in the eastern Mediterranean, not the Middle East)

 – Fourth: Analyzing the content of the statements of the former Ethiopian ambassador to Israel (Hilawi Youssef) for the Israeli role in the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

– Fifth: The vision of the Israeli think tanks and their experts for the Israeli benefits from (Israel’s deepening of the Renaissance Dam crisis between Egypt and Ethiopia)

– Sixth: The publication of Israeli military intelligence sites for the Israeli role in the Renaissance Dam, and the reasons for Cairo’s silence about Tel Aviv’s role (according to the Israeli analysis)

   Perhaps this analysis is completely different from the previous analyzes circulating about the reasons and significance of accepting Israel’s membership, and the most dangerous (its timing) as an observer within the (African Union) after the session of the (UN Security Council) which was held on July 1, 2021 to discuss the crisis of the Renaissance Dam between Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia, which decided to refer the file to the African Union once again, and of course everyone was suddenly amazed at the speed of Israel’s penetration of the seat of the (African Union) as an observer in the same month of the Security Council session referred to, despite the postponement of the Israeli membership application for several years past, in addition to linking the Egyptian researcher to Washington’s decision suddenly and for the first time to appoint (a special American envoy  In the Horn of Africa region, led by Ethiopia) in the context of (the re-administration of US President “Joe Biden” to read the scene inside Ethiopia and the African Union, and transform the US-Chinese competition on both sides of the Red Sea into (a united security umbrella under the US to confront Chinese expansion with the help of Israel as an ally of Washington within the African Union itself).

  It is the same trend that the Egyptian researcher analyzed, with the presence of:

 (Some American pressures on African countries to provide an opportunity for Israel as an eye to Washington within the (African Union) itself to confront Chinese expansion and penetration through the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam crisis)

  Perhaps the reason that made me adopt this new analysis, regarding (the American role within the African Union to accept Israel within it after referring the Renaissance Dam file to the African Union), is my meeting and discussion with the current member of the Ethiopian Parliament (Mohamed Al-Arousi) in its new session, within a group of researchers and experts to discuss the Renaissance Dam crisis and the Ethiopian viewpoint on it in a clear academic way.

   After I have finished my analysis on the development of all potential solutions, including some new innovative solutions that I have analyzed to solve the raised Renaissance Dam crisis, and commenting on the words of other analysts, I have directed the same question that has always occupied me to the Ethiopian Member of Parliament (Mohamed Al-Arousi), as an opportunity to ask him, about: (Why is Israel now being accepted into the African Union?), so the Ethiopian parliamentarian’s answer was:

 “Ethiopia is not the lonely one that accepted Israel’s membership, there are 54 other African countries within the African Union, and of course the majority agreed”

  Also, my other question to the educated Ethiopian parliamentarian, who read very professionally, astonished me on a personal level as an extraordinary person capable of dialogue in this thorny file in all its aspects and dimensions, which opened to me because of my conversation with him other analytical horizons, about (the Israeli role in the Renaissance Dam).

   The Ethiopian parliamentarian’s answer came, that Israel is not greedy for the Nile waters as we promote in Cairo, by referring to (the statement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo about denying the Israeli role in the Renaissance Dam), which I will respond to it as an academic political analyst in a different and detailed way that everyone completely overlooked. With my attempt, as an Egyptian academic, to review all of the Israeli academic studies on Israel’s projects and plans to obtain water, whether through the Jordan River, a project that Jordan has repeatedly rejected, or through the Nile River.

   Knowing that the Ethiopian parliamentarian “Mohamed Al-Arousi”, responded to my discussion with him and my question about this matter, regarding (Israel’s desire to partner with the Ethiopian side to obtain the waters of the Nile), and the Ethiopian researcher “Mohamed Al-Arousi” has responded to it, that:

 “Israel has already agreed with Cairo several years ago to transfer the waters of the Nile to Israel through the desert or desert of Serapeum in Ismailia and the Sinai lands through the construction of several tunnels that allow the transfer of the Nile waters to Israel”

   The Egyptian researcher tried to search for this point in particular, which I did not find any basis for its truth, in addition to my pursuing and referring to (previous statements by the Egyptian military officials), regarding the denial of this matter, about the “Sarabium Desert Project to transfer the Nile waters from Egypt to Israel through the construction of tunnels” to transport water to Tel Aviv.

   Accordingly, the Egyptian researcher tried during the last period to analyze the various visions and analyzes of the Israeli, Ethiopian and American think tanks, their experts and politicians to find out the aspects of the Israeli benefits in confronting Egypt from the construction of the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, especially since there are accusations leveled at the Israeli side from Cairo about the Israeli benefit from the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam crisis, due to Israel’s strong relations with the Ethiopian side, as Israel owns huge investments in the fields of (agriculture, industry and military defense), and Ethiopia is considered a distinct strategic location for Israel that can be used by Israel as a strong pressure card on Egypt.  The Egyptian researcher will analyze a number of the following points:

 – First: My analysis of the Israeli embassy in Cairo’s statement to deny its role in the Renaissance Dam, and its endorsement (indirectly) of Israel’s role in the Renaissance Dam, and a new analysis for the first time on (the relationship of the Israeli statement in Cairo with Washington’s strategy in encircling the Chinese Silk Road initiative in the region and establishing a new security umbrella)

  I have heard, as many have heard, that Israel has issued a statement denying its relationship with the Renaissance Dam, and the Egyptian researcher made a comprehensive analysis of the statement of the Israeli embassy from an academic and research standpoint, and it became clear to her the following:

 1) When the Egyptian researcher returned to the original statement issued by the Israeli embassy in Cairo, the Egyptian researcher found the opposite, regarding that:

 “The goal of the Israeli statement is to confirm that Israel’s role in the Renaissance Dam will not affect its relationship with Cairo with regard to the Israel’s management agreement for the Renaissance Dam”

  Despite the announcement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo, that:

 “Israel has no investments in the Renaissance Dam, and that all the talk in this regard is rumors to spoil the relationship between the Egyptian and Israeli regimes”

  2) Although everyone celebrated this Israeli statement, we will note here that the same Israeli statement revealed another, more dangerous part of the Israeli plan with regard to the Renaissance Dam, when it confirmed that:

  (All of Israel’s relationship with the dam is administrative only, and that the Ethiopian government signed an agreement with the Israeli Electricity Company, to manage the water projects that will be built on the Blue Nile, including the Renaissance Dam, and the other three dams that will be established later to generate hydroelectric power)

 3) Based on the same Israeli statement, what may be understood from it is that:

  “Israel will be the controller of the waters of the Blue Nile, and of all dams and projects based on the Nile, especially in Ethiopia, in addition to the Israeli role towards the construction of new dams, which will be established in the future, and perhaps it will determine the proportions of the incoming and outgoing water starting from the source of the dam, starting from (Tana Lake), until the downstream in the Mediterranean Sea”

 4) Analysts in the West and the Ethiopian side may go further to explain the reasons for the recent Israeli appearance in the Renaissance Dam project, and whether this has any significance about its attempt to exert pressure on Cairo, in addition to questioning (a matter that is difficult to verify), regarding:

 The reasons for activating the Egyptian-Israeli joint action in (the Sheikh Sabah Canal in Al-Arish in Egypt)? And whether this is due to the Israeli role in the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, which American and Western experts confirm, as explicitly stipulating the (Egyptian-Israeli cooperation in the Sheikh Sabah Canal in Al-Arish).  in Egypt), considering that this was mainly part of the “secret annexes” of the peace agreement between the late Egyptian President “Anwar Sadat” with Israel in 1979.

 5) The Egyptian researcher also linked between the statement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo about denying the Israeli role in the Renaissance Dam and the tour of the new American envoy to the Horn of Africa, whose name is (Jeffrey Feltman), as a Jewish figure close to the Israeli circles, since the first of last June in 2021, and for a period of (Six days), during which “Feltman” toured the Gulf and Africa, which included (the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar in addition to Kenya), with the aim of discussing ways of cooperation in supporting the stability and development of the Horn of Africa, in addition to finding satisfactory solutions for all parties in the file of the Renaissance Dam, as stated in the “US State Department’s statement” on Feltman’s visit.

 6) As it became clear to the Egyptian researcher, “Feltman’s visit to the Gulf capitals” came within the framework of the recommendations of senior thinkers of think tanks in the United States of America at the end of October 2020, and these recommendations came as a reaction and a warning to the (American State Department) against the policies pursued by the administration of the former American president “Donald Trump”, which was often controversial because it sparked many whirlwinds in several regions around the world, including the regions (the Gulf and the Horn of Africa, of which Ethiopia is located).

 7) The timing of the issuance of the statement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo may have come based on (joint US-Israeli coordination), especially after the escalation of the climate of competition between the Gulf states over the Horn of Africa and Ethiopia, which led to the emergence of security and geopolitical challenges on both sides of the Red Sea in the face of both Washington and Tel Aviv, which seek to allay the fears of the Gulf states and Egypt.

 8) Therefore, the recommendations of the American think tanks were represented in the direction of easing the competition of the Gulf countries in the march towards the Horn of Africa, East Africa and Ethiopia mainly in order not to impede the American cooperation with Israel to protect the sea straits in the Middle East such as: (Bab Al-Mandab Strait, Hormuz Strait and Gibraltar.

 9) The statement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo, in agreement with Washington, also aims to distract Egypt and the Gulf by (transferring conflicts between the Middle Eastern countries from the Horn of Africa and Ethiopia to another arena, which is primarily the Mediterranean). Therefore, Israel has signed an agreement with Greece and Cyprus to transfer gas and energy to Europe based upon the recommendations from Washington in the face of Cairo, so it is expected that the arena of competition in the coming period will be the eastern Mediterranean region, with Israeli help for Washington’s policies and plans, as we mentioned.

 10) Perhaps the most dangerous thing, which is no one paid attention to, is (encouraging Washington and Israel to bring Gulf investments to the Horn of Africa and Ethiopia to achieve balance with China), which is what actually happened with Ethiopia, which received financial packages as aid from Gulf countries estimated at three billion dollars, in addition to opening of several Gulf countries for projects, investments and development projects in a number of countries in the Horn of Africa and encouraging the establishment of industrial centers in those African countries in the east of the African continent in cooperation with the Arab Gulf states under US-Israeli supervision and encouragement in the face of Chinese expansion and penetration in East Africa, the Horn of Africa and Ethiopia.

 11) The statement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo considered as an (American-Israeli attempt) according to the recommendations of the American think tanks to (integrate the East African region with both Egypt and Sudan to form a unified security umbrella for the Red Sea), to become one of the seas which completely dominated by the United States of America as a step within  the (strategy of encircling China’s giant project “Chinese Silk Road Initiative”)

  Accordingly, it is possible to link (the statement of the Israeli embassy in Cairo) to allay Egypt’s concerns about Israel’s role in the Renaissance Dam (by creating a new position by the United States of America of the American envoy to the Horn of Africa), as a considered solution among the other measures encouraged by the specialists in the American and Israeli foreign affairs themselves, as an attempt to (separate the files of the Middle East and the Horn of Africa from each other), and to pay more attention to the region of the Horn of Africa, East Africa, the Nile Basin countries and Ethiopia, and to integrate Egypt, Sudan, and even the Arab Gulf with them, at the expense of the Middle East.

 – Second: The role of the United States of America in persuading the African countries to accept the Israel’s membership as an observer within the African Union in the face of Chinese expansion and influence

   The Egyptian researcher’s analysis came differently, regarding the fact that the United States of America itself has involved Israel within the (African Union) to serve as (an eye for America) within the (African Union), and thus passing its decisions. And my mentioned analysis referred and based on a large set of indicators and the highest priorities for the United States of America in confronting of  China, as follows:

 1) The Egyptian researcher based her analysis on the response of the Ethiopian researcher and the current member of the Ethiopian Parliament, “Mohamed Al-Arousi” during her discussion with him and my specific question to him, concerning:

 – What is the significance and interpretation of the reasons and “timing” of accepting of the Israel’s membership as an observer within the (African Union), after discussing the crisis directly within the UN Security Council?

 So, the response of the Ethiopian researcher and parliamentarian “Mohamed Al-Arousi” to the Egyptian researcher was completely sound and logical, and his assertion:

 “It is not only Ethiopia in the African Union that has the right to accept Israel’s membership, but there are more than 54 other African countries, who have agreed unanimously to accept Israel’s membership as an observer within the African Union”

 2) Accordingly, this proposition, or rather the Ethiopian defense of itself about the reasons for Israel’s acceptance now within the corridors of the (African Union) to discuss the crisis of the Renaissance Dam, and the approval of the (majority of the 54 African countries) for Israel’s membership, as a:

 (Conclusive evidence in itself by the Egyptian researcher to prove of the American pressured role and support for Israel, its first ally, as an (eye) for Washington within the corridors of the (African Union) itself to confront China”

 3) Perhaps this dangerous and unprecedented analysis is what the Egyptians and Arabs did not pay attention to, in view of (Israel’s inability alone to pass its request regarding accepting its membership request for many years in the African Union until after a session of the UN Security Council was held and the crisis file was referred to the African Union again), and therefore, it confirmed that (Washington itself is behind Tel Aviv’s game to pass the agenda of the United States of America in the face of Chinese competition in the Horn of Africa and East Africa), which is Ethiopia at the forefront and in the heart of it.

 4) The reasons for this (negative role of the United States of America within the UN Security Council) can also be explained during its discussion of the “Ethiopian Renaissance Dam” project, and the analysis of how Washington managed its talks from the beginning in favor of Ethiopia and Israel, with some other privileges granted to Sudan without Egypt. As well as the importance of East Africa and the Horn of Africa for the American and Chinese influence in the Horn of Africa and East Africa.

 5) We also find the attempt of the United States of America to exert pressure on Ethiopia and the countries of the Nile Basin region mainly through (facilitating the penetration and penetration of the Israeli dimension to the security of Ethiopia and African countries in several files in order to serve Washington in the face of China).

 6) The United States of America is trying to apply American pressure through Israel not to Ethiopian technological cooperation with China, in view of (the partnership project between the Ethiopian government with the Chinese e-commerce giant “Ali Baba Group”, to create the (electronic global trade platform) (eWTP), which is believed that:

 “It is such a Chinese initiative to change the rules of the game in the digital economy within Ethiopia, East Africa and the Horn of Africa in the face of American influence and penetration”

 7) In the face of (Chinese technological penetration into Ethiopia), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) launched a project in Ethiopia, known as (Digital Health), with the aim of enhancing digital information about the Ethiopian health sector, and improving the quality of health system services in Ethiopia within five years.

 8) Also, the (US Agency for International Development) announced the work of (American technology partnership with local Ethiopian universities) to provide training courses to develop competencies in health innovations and digital electronic solutions, in the face of China.

 9) In addition, immediately after Ethiopia announced its first digital strategy in May 2020, “Beilin Seyoum” the spokeswoman for the Ethiopian Prime Minister, confirmed that:

  “Ethiopia welcomes the Chinese support for the implementation of this strategy, which means more technological cooperation between Ethiopia and China”

 10) This also coincided with another (technological competition) between China and the United States of America within Ethiopia, especially with the announcement of the US Embassy in Addis Ababa that the (US Agency for International Development and the Ethiopian Ministry of Finance) signed a (development partnership agreement with the aim of supporting the education, health and digital agriculture sectors), as well as Washington’s support for Ethiopia’s efforts to move to the “middle-income countries” category, which means more US-Chinese competition within Ethiopia.

 11) The United States of America used its allies in Ethiopia to confront China, which was represented in the cooperation of the (Japanese International Cooperation Agency) (JICA) to enhance the American penetration in the field of technology in Ethiopia. On March 2020, a competition was held in cooperation with the (Ethiopian government, the US Agency for International Development and the Japan International Cooperation Agency),  entitled: (Solve IT 2020), with the aim of supporting Ethiopian youth to develop innovative projects and ideas, promote entrepreneurship, and find solutions to local problems through the dependency of the digital technology sector.

 12) Experts agree that this (American-Japanese) competition in Ethiopia is a kind of competition with the annual competition held by (the Chinese Huawei Company) to discover and nurture talented youth at the technological level in Ethiopia.

 13) Here, it seems that the political aspect in the US-Ethiopian relations largely overshadows the competition between China and the United States in Ethiopia, especially in the (technological and digital) sectors.

 14) All of these factors, in addition to Washington’s own desire to be present within the African Union in the face of Chinese influence and penetration itself, and Beijing’s expressing its intention to “support the issue of technical negotiation in view of China’s experience in the management and construction of dams between the Egyptian and Sudanese sides in the face of Ethiopia within the African Union”.

 15) The United States of America supports its Israeli ally to be directly involved in the issue of the “Renaissance Dam” linked to the Nile River, in order to impose its political and security presence, which will authorize it at a later stage (the revival of Israeli projects aimed at delivering the waters of the Nile to the settlements in occupied Palestine lands), giving up the seriousness of what Israel is currently suffering from with regard to its “water security”, in light of its increasing desire to expand and bring more settlers to Israel.

16) It is mentioned in this context that America and Israel’s project to transfer the Nile waters to occupied Palestine was one of the most important projects presented in the (multilateral talks), which were held in the “Vienna round” in 1992, where “the Israeli negotiators insisted not to give up on that, under the pretext of  Israel’s need for water in the future, including the waters of the Nile”.

  17) We find here that one of the Israeli negotiators at the time, (Dan Salazevsky), said it explicitly, that:

  “If anyone means true peace between Israel and Egypt and its neighbours, one should not argue about water”

  18) The most dangerous analysis of the Egyptian researcher is:

  “The United States of America sought to make Ethiopia a corridor towards Africa, and a strategic outlet for it that would allow it to open political, security and military channels in the Horn of Africa that would be supportive in its ongoing conflict with China, through American cooperation with the countries of the region in East Africa through its ally of Israel, through their cooperation with countries, such as: (Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti) from within the (African Union) itself, and this was reinforced by developments in the Red Sea region, especially Yemen”

  19) The validity of the Egyptian researcher’s analysis regarding the United States’ assistance to the Israeli side to accept its membership as an (observer within the African Union) can also be inferred through direct and explicit statements announced by former Israeli Prime Minister “Benjamin Netanyahu” before the Ethiopian Parliament on July 2016, during his visit to “Addis Ababa”, with “Netanyahu” literally confirming that:

 “We will support Ethiopia with technology to benefit from its water resources”

  20) Here, we find that Netanyahu’s statements are a clear support for Addis Ababa in the issue of its dispute with Egypt regarding the Renaissance Dam, especially since it coincided with the opening of the first phase of the dam on the waters of the Blue Nile by the Ethiopian authorities in the same month for his visit on July 2016.

  21) We find a succession of Israeli public statements in support of Ethiopia, where the Deputy Director-General for African Affairs in the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs “Ainat Shelin”, announced, in December 2019, about:

  “Tel Aviv’s readiness to “share its extensive experience in water management” with Addis Ababa”

 22) Previously, the former Israeli ambassador to Ethiopia “Raphael Morav”, announced that:

  “Israel is working to introduce a modern irrigation system in Ethiopia to participate in water, irrigation, agriculture, hydroelectric power generation, dam management, and all Ethiopian water projects”

  Throughout this comprehensive analysis by the Egyptian researcher of the path (the US-Chinese competition in the Ethiopian interior, and Washington’s alliance with Israel), the Egyptian researcher approaches the perspective that the US-Chinese competition in East Africa and the Horn of Africa, and the intensive Chinese investments in Ethiopia, as well as (the convergence of interests  In this context, both the American and Israeli parties may have pushed to coordinate between them and put severe pressure on African countries to ensure Israel’s participation in water projects in Ethiopia and Africa, which comes through the back gate of American pressure on African countries to accept Israel’s membership as an observer within the African Union to confront  The growth of Chinese influence itself.

 – Third: The relationship between the discoveries of oil and Gas fields within the territorial waters of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Israeli pressures on Egypt through (the water threat), and the new game to distract Cairo by dragging it to (the clash outside its regional sphere of influence in the eastern Mediterranean, not the Middle East)

  A number of the same Israeli academic analyses pointed out to the Israel’s desire, and later inform the Egyptian researcher under the administration of President “Biden” on several reports of American think tanks closely related to the political circles in Washington, which aimed to chart a path (limiting the increase in Egypt’s influence in the region  The Middle East) and distracting Cairo by dragging it to (the clash outside its regional sphere of influence in the Eastern Mediterranean, not the Middle East), to create a kind of (regional balance), which allows for Israel’s regional superiority, especially after the discoveries of oil fields within the territorial waters in the Mediterranean, which may lead to (Egypt’s leadership regionally and making it a center for gas export), and with the Egyptian government buying heavy weapons and aircraft carriers.

  Israel found its insignificance in putting pressure on Egypt through the (water threat), which hits the Egyptian economy, as we know that the lack of water quantities may cause a mass exodus in addition to the collapse of the economy. Here, we find that the most prominent Israeli pressures on Egypt through the “water threat” to it, through:

  1) What many data and leaks indicate that “the negotiating mechanism that Ethiopia follows with Egypt was laid by (a negotiating team in the Israeli Foreign Ministry), including former Israeli Foreign Minister “Shaul Mofaz”, and the Director General of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Iraqi origin, who is said to be of Iraqi origin, besides he is a key partner in managing the Qatari Al-Jazeera channel, whose name is “David Kimhi”, who was working as a former agent in the Israeli intelligence service, known as “Mossad”.

  2) The Israeli government also opened a “popular subscription” in the Central Bank of Israel to collect donations directed to bonds and permits to serve the “Renaissance Dam” project, leading to the Ethiopian government bringing in many Israeli experts and technicians to work in the trial and implementation stages throughout the second phase of building the dam.

  3) This was already reveals by the former undersecretary of the Sudanese Ministry of Irrigation “Haider Yousef”, with his assertion, about:

 “There is an entire floor in the Ethiopian Ministry of Water dedicated entirely to Israeli water experts”

  4) Tel Aviv seeks, through this, to push towards recognition as a “Middle Eastern state in the first place,” and as a party to the waters of the Nile from the Ethiopian gate, which Israel sees as a right after that to benefit from the waters of the Nile.

  5) The announcement of (Israel, Cyprus and Greece) in January 2020, the signing of (an agreement to extend a pipeline under the Mediterranean, to export gas to Europe), a wide debate in Cairo about: (the reasons and feasibility of establishing this Israeli line with Cyprus and Greece in the face of Cairo), and the extent of its impact on Egyptian planning to transform into a (regional gas center in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East).

  6) Here, we find that the new (Israeli-Greek-Cypriot) line, which was called “EastMed”, will extend under the sea for a long distance in order to (transfer natural gas from the eastern Mediterranean region to Europe through the Israeli gate), with indications about “Israel deliberately did this, so that Egypt would not turn into a regional power in the region vis-à-vis Israel”

  7) The signing of this Israeli agreement with the eastern Mediterranean countries, namely (Greece and Cyprus), comes at a time when competition for natural gas is raging between (the eastern Mediterranean countries and Turkey in the face of Egypt as well), with the presence of (Turkish efforts and plans to establish a foothold and a foothold for Turkey). In the agreements concluded regarding gas exploration and its export to Europe), and disputes over the demarcation of the maritime borders between (Ankara, Cyprus and Greece), which also explains the reasons for Turkey’s support for Ethiopia in the file of the Renaissance Dam, the intensity of the presence of Turkish companies inside Ethiopia and the increase of Turkish direct investments inside Ethiopia in the recent period as a powerful pressure card in the face of Cairo, which is the same Israeli way of thinking as well.

  8) The Egyptian researcher analyzes this matter as:

  “The Israeli announcement with Greece and Cyprus of the agreement to establish the new gas pipeline, called “EastMed”, opened the door to doubts about the real reasons behind this Israeli agreement, which was signed by three countries that have close relations with Egypt, and the (impact of this Israeli line between Greece and Cyprus to transport gas and energy to Europe), is based on Egypt’s project to be transformed into a (regional energy center) in the eastern Mediterranean, which mainly depends on the export of gas to Europe”

 9) Also the analysis of Israel’s intentional entry into competition with Egypt over natural gas and energy in the eastern Mediterranean, with Egypt’s advantages related to its proximity to gas fields discovered in both (Cyprus and Israel), as well as Egypt’s possession of a strong gas infrastructure, and its uniqueness in owning  Two natural gas liquefaction stations in the areas of (Idku and Damietta) in Egypt.

10) Here, it is possible to link (the Israeli competition with Egypt to acquire natural gas and energy fields in the eastern Mediterranean and the Israeli influence in the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam), with the analysis that the “EastMed agreement between Israel, Greece and Cyprus”, may represent a harmful alternative to the Egyptian plans to export gas to the eastern Mediterranean region through the liquefaction stations owned by Cairo in (Idku and Damietta), with Israel deliberately entering into a competition with Cairo in the eastern Mediterranean region to prove its influence.

 11) From the Egyptian researcher’s point of view, (Egypt’s only pressure card against Israel is Italy), given that Italy has not yet agreed to the project to transfer natural gas and energy pipelines to Europe through Israel, Greece and Cyprus, given that Italy is the last point in the aforementioned line to connect it to Europe.

  Hence, we find that these challenges related to the implementation of the Israeli line in the face of Egypt came in light of an Israeli competition with Cairo to set its foot as a major player in (exporting eastern Mediterranean gas to Europe), which is another analysis of the existence of a real Israeli competition with Cairo to play a major regional role, whether in Eastern Mediterranean or the Middle East in general.

 – Fourth: Analyzing the content of the statements of the former Ethiopian ambassador to Israel (Hilawi Youssef) for the Israeli role in the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam

  Analyses indicate that Israel is using the Renaissance Dam (as a pressure and profit card) at the same time, and the contents of the speeches, messages and statements of (Hilawi Youssef), the former Ethiopian ambassador in Tel Aviv, and its indicators can be analyzed, according to the incident today from the great Israeli role in “Addis Ababa” and its various investments, especially  In the Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, through the following:

  1) The Ethiopian ambassador (Youssef Hilawy) confirmed in some previous statements that there are more than 240 Israeli investors in Ethiopia.

  2) As well as his most dangerous assertion, with (the ideological link) between Ethiopia and Israel, where Israel has ideological relations with Ethiopia, through the Ethiopian Jews, as Ethiopia includes a large number of (the Falasha Jews), and a large number of them are active in the service of the Israeli army after their emigration to Israel.

  3) In confirmation of the statements of Ambassador (Hilawi Youssef), we find that in 2016, the visit of the Israeli Prime Minister (Benjamin Netanyahu) to Addis Ababa, which coincided with the opening of the (first phase) of the Renaissance Dam, which raised many questions about the coincidence of the matter.

  4) Most importantly, following Netanyahu’s visit to Ethiopia, several reports were issued in 2017, which indicated that Ethiopia had concluded (aircraft defenses with Israel to protect the Renaissance Dam) from any external aggression, but Israel did not comment on these statements until October 22, 2019, however, when negotiations between Ethiopia, Egypt and Sudan were complicated, and the United States entered the negotiations as a party, the (Israeli Embassy in Cairo) issued a statement denying Ethiopia’s use of any Israeli air defense systems to protect the dam, or participating in its construction from near or far.

  5) However, there are indications that refute the Israeli defense of the crisis. In 2016, the former Ethiopian ambassador (Hilawi Youssef) to Israel revealed the truth of the matter, saying:

 “Israel manages the electricity project in the Renaissance Dam and provides consultations related to power stations built on the waters of the Blue Nile, in addition to launching agricultural projects within the dam’s plan with Israeli investments in more than 240 Israeli projects”

  6) The Ethiopian Ambassador (Hilawi Youssef) also confirmed in previous statements to the official Ethiopian “Walta News Agency”, that:

  “Ethiopia and Israel are intensifying their cooperation together in the field of combating terrorism, which is a global threat, and Israel is helping Ethiopia in various development activities, including the transfer of modern Israeli agricultural technology to the country”

 7) As confirmed by Ambassador “Youssef Hilawy”, about:

 “The Ethiopian embassy in Israel is working to promote the investment possibilities available in Ethiopia, with the aim of attracting a larger number of potential investors from Israel to the country, and the Ethiopian embassy in Tel Aviv is working in partnership with Ethiopians residing in Israel to attract larger potential Israeli investments into Ethiopia”

  Here, by tracing all the contents of the speeches and messages of Ethiopian officials, especially Ambassador “Youssef Hilawy”, about Ethiopia’s relationship with Tel Aviv, we can conclude the extent of the complexity of those relations between the two parties, to the extent that Israel has penetrated into the Ethiopian interior and participated in water management projects and dams with the Ethiopian side, and providing the Ethiopians with all the necessary technical studies on the Renaissance Dam, which eventually culminated in the acceptance of Israeli membership as an observer within the African Union with Ethiopian and African blessing and with American encouragement to confront Chinese penetration and influence.

– Fifth: The vision of the Israeli think tanks and their experts of the Israeli benefits from (Israel’s deepening of the Renaissance Dam crisis between Egypt and Ethiopia)

  There are many Israeli academic studies that explicitly dealt with how the Israelis benefit from (the Nile water) taking advantage of the peace agreement between Egypt and Israel in 1979, which stipulated cooperation between the two sides to maintain regional security and the security of the region, which are (water delivery projects to Israel, specifically to the settlements. This is the basis that Israel has always sought, whether with regard to benefiting from (the Jordan River or the Nile River), which was strongly rejected in earlier periods by the Egyptian and Jordanian sides.

  – In general, the Egyptian researcher was able to summarize the most prominent of those Israeli academic think tanks and the research studies related to the Israeli benefit from the Nile waters in the first place, as a historical reference that the Egyptian researcher had to mention, to respond to all the Israeli justifications and defenses that say that Israel does not fully view the Nile waters, the most important of these Hebrew studies are:

  1) In 2018, the (Israeli National Security Research Institute) “INNS” published a report in which it explicitly referred to (the political benefit accruing to Israel from deepening the Renaissance Dam crisis between Egypt and Ethiopia).the Israeli researcher “Ofir Winter” said in his article, that:

   “The crisis of the Renaissance Dam and Egypt’s openness to foreign aid in dealing with the water crisis, along with the practical line taken by President Sisi, creates a window to expand the policy of normalization between Egypt and Israel in the field of water management, desalination techniques and huge possibilities for cooperation between the two countries”

  With the Israeli researcher’s assertion, that:

 “This is in the way in which the water resources crisis contributed to strengthening relations between Israel and Jordan”

  2- The most important thing is what the Israeli researcher (Ophir Winter) referred to in his subsequent analyzes, regarding: (the prospects for the State of Israel benefiting from the Renaissance Dam crisis), where he sees that:

  “The idea of ​​reducing the water deficit that Egypt will suffer from in the future will lead it to resort to Israel, which is pioneering in desalination techniques and improving its consumption in irrigating agricultural lands, and thus improving relations between the two countries and enhancing cooperation, and away from the cold policy that Egypt used to deal with Israel”

  3) With the assertion of the Israeli researcher (Ophir Winter), in his important analysis of the extent and how Israel benefits from the Nile water, asserting that:

 “This will serve a variety of interests, including: enhancing Egyptian recognition of the benefits of peace with Israel, and expanding bilateral relations between the two governments and the Israeli and Egyptian parties in both countries”

  4) The researcher (Winter) also indicated in his analysis that:

 “The supreme dream that has been haunting Israel for many years, which is (connecting the Nile branch to Israel and the Israeli benefit from it), this demand, which was met with a categorical Egyptian rejection”.

  5) The Israeli researcher (Ophir Winter) also confirmed in his studies on Israel’s benefit from the Nile waters, that:

  “In the early days of peace, and in the wake of the Camp David agreement, there was interest and negotiations with the Egyptian side about the idea of ​​a project to flow the Nile waters from Egypt to Israel, and here the conditions of the two countries at the present time provide an opportunity to revive the stolen hopes by reversing the roles”

 6) The Israeli think tanks have repeatedly put forward this Israeli desire on how to bring about Israeli rapprochement with the Egyptian side, and to make partnerships and cooperative relations to benefit from the transfer of water from Cairo to Tel Aviv, based on articles and studies that dealt with projects through which it is possible (transferring Nile water to the Israeli settlements).

  7) The most prominent of these Israeli studies was what was known as the “Elisha Kali Project”, which the Israeli engineer Elisha Kali thought about, and to the effect:

  Israel put forward the idea of ​​a water transfer project on the Egyptian side, which included the transfer of a part of the Nile water estimated at 1% annually to supply the Israeli settlements in the “Negev, Gaza Strip and the West Bank”, through pipes that pass under the Suez Canal next to the Egyptian Ismailia region, with a length of up to 200 Km”

 8) In the same vein, the Israeli expert, “Arlo Zorov”, put forward a project for the Israelis to adopt to transfer water from Cairo, through:

 “The Israeli side must work on a project with Egypt, which includes (digging 6 channels under the Suez Canal) working to (push fresh water to a main intake point), to then pump the water to (the Sinai coast) and through sub-channels and tunnels that reach out to the Negev desert in Israel”

 9) We find that most of the Israeli academic and research studies focused on (the issue of securing the delivery of Nile waters to Israeli settlements) as a basic and urgent need for Israel’s security.

10) Several studies in recent years have shown that Israel is going through a crisis that Israeli experts consider to be (very dangerous with regard to water resources), threatening the economy of the occupation entity in an unprecedented manner.

11) Most of the Israeli Center for National Security Studies (INNS) analyzed that in recent years it became clear that many of (the lakes of occupied Palestine, its river basins and groundwater), have reached their lowest level ever since the establishment of the Hebrew state, where they approached (Tiberias Lake) is dangerously off the “black line”, the level below the intake pipes from the water pumps that send the lake’s water to neighboring towns in Israeli settlements.

 12) We find the confirmation of all Israeli studies that to improve the standard of living and build settlements in Israel, it is imperative to secure an increase in water by (600 million cubic meters) each year.  If this percentage fails to be obtained, it will be necessary to secure Israel’s share of water, which will be at the expense of (agricultural projects), which will lead to an economic and social crisis, and will lead to the deterioration of the “population distribution” program in Israel, due to the desire for internal migration and population movement from one place to another, due to, the lack of (water supply in a number of settlements) at the expense of some other settlements.

  Finally, we find that through the Egyptian researcher’s previous presentation of the most prominent of those Israeli academic and research studies on the necessity of coordinating with Cairo to transfer the Nile water to Tel Aviv, this is a (real and tangible evidence of Israel’s use of the Renaissance Dam crisis as a policy of pressure on Egypt) to deliver the Nile water to its lands through  The “policy or theory of reversing the roles”, means putting Egypt in an existential threat position due to the lack of water, and the only solution remains in the hands of Israel, which will become a lifeline to implement its demand to reduce the danger of the dam in exchange for delivering water to the Israeli lands.

 – Sixth: The publication of Israeli military intelligence sites for the Israeli role in the Renaissance Dam, and the reasons for Cairo’s silence towards Tel Aviv’s role  (according to the Israeli analysis)

  What caught the attention of the Egyptian researcher most frankly, reading and analyzing was what (the Israeli DEBKA website) confirmed, that:

 “Ethiopia’s choice of the Israeli (Spider) air defense system came after Ethiopia was convinced of its performance in the Kashmir conflict between India and Pakistan”

  With the aforementioned site, which is known for its close proximity to (Israeli military intelligence departments), it is claimed that:

 “The Israeli installation of the missile system around the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam was completed after the Israeli work began in May 2019, considering that it is the first Israeli air defense system abroad that can launch (two types of missiles), the first with a range of 5 km, and the second with a range of 50 kilometer”.

  Several published Israeli studies, referred by the “Israeli DEBKA website”, confirmed that:

 “Ethiopia was, and still is, the spearhead (the Israeli political, economic and military penetration into the African continent), at the expense of the decline of Egyptian influence before the era of President El- Sisi”.

  Israeli analyses on several websites also explicitly indicated that the latest evidence of (the close Israeli relationship with the dam) is the signing of an Israeli company contracts to distribute the electricity that will be generated by the dam to (Kenya and South Sudan), and communications are underway to reach similar agreements with other countries in the (Nile Basin region).

  The most dangerous point from my point of view referred to (the Israeli military intelligence DEBKA website), and its analysis of the reasons for Israel’s focus on Ethiopia in the face of Egypt, by listing the following reasons:

 1) Because Ethiopia’s water share represents more than 85% of the quantities of water in the Blue Nile Basin from the Nile’s water.

 2) Therefore, Israel stood behind the incitement to construct the Renaissance Dam to control water sources under the heading of the (electricity generation).

 3) In the same context, Israel submitted studies to (Rwanda and Congo) to build (three dams) to tighten control over (the waters of the Great Lakes), which supplies the Nile with about (15%) of the water sources.

  Finally, the (Israeli military  DEBKA website),  concluded the matter, by saying that:

  “The Egyptian official silence towards these published Israeli news reports may be due to Cairo’s desire to avoid detonating a crisis with the (Hebrew state), given the war that the Egyptian forces are waging in the Sinai, and it depends in one way or another on the Israeli security and military cooperation in this war, but this does not mean that the Israelis will stop their plans to encircle and strangle Egypt, despite their repeated praise for their close relations with the Egyptian President (Abdel Fattah El-Sisi) and the Egyptian government”

  Hence, the Egyptian researcher concluded, in view of her comprehensive analysis of the (Israeli role in the Renaissance Dam), with the help and supervision of the United States of America to confront its competitor to (China), as its archenemy in the African continent, that Washington exerts intense pressure on its African allies to accept Israel’s membership as an observer within the African Union to discuss  The crisis of the Renaissance Dam, and missing the opportunity for China, which wants to play a (technical negotiating role) during the discussion of the Renaissance Dam file within the (African Union), given also the Israeli ambitions (which were originally published), about the Israeli desire to share the Nile waters with Cairo, and the intensity of the Israeli academic and research studies which are all thrown and poured in this previous direction.

   Thus, we find here (the convergence of the Israeli-American desire and interests to play a role inside Ethiopia), given the (American-Chinese rivalry inside Ethiopia), considering that:

  (China is the largest investor and the largest source of foreign direct investments (FDI) in Ethiopia as well, while the USA is the largest source of aid to Ethiopia)

   Hence, we understand this new final analysis reached by the Egyptian researcher, regarding (the US-Israeli alliance within the African Union in the face of China) that the management of the (file of the Renaissance Dam issue), and the desire of each party to acquire the largest share of interests within this most dangerous file related to  Managing water within the countries of the Blue Nile Basin and Ethiopia, and controlling (Egypt and Sudan), as the two countries downstream of the Nile River.

Associate Professor of Political Science, Faculty of Politics and Economics / Beni Suef University- Egypt. An Expert in Chinese Politics, Sino-Israeli relationships, and Asian affairs- Visiting Senior Researcher at the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies (CMES)/ Lund University, Sweden- Director of the South and East Asia Studies Unit

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African Union’s Inaction on Ethiopia Deplorable – Open Letter



The crisis in northern Ethiopia has resulted in millions of people in need of emergency assistance and protection. © UNICEF/Christine Nesbitt

A group of African intellectuals says in an open letter that it is appalled and dismayed by the steadily deteriorating situation in Ethiopia. The letter, signed by 58 people, says the African Union’s lack of effective engagement in the crisis is deplorable. The letter calls on regional bloc IGAD and the AU to “proactively take up their mandates with respect to providing mediation for the protagonists to this conflict”.

The letter also asks for “all possible political support” for the AU’s Special Envoy for the Horn of Africa, Olusegun Obasanjo, whose appointment was announced on August 26, 2021. A United Nations Security Council meeting on the same day welcomed the former Nigerian president’s appointment.

Earlier in August 2021, UN  chief Antonio Guterres appealed for a ceasefire, unrestricted aid access and an Ethiopian-led political dialogue. He told the council these steps were essential to preserve Ethiopia’s unity and the stability of the region and to ease the humanitarian crisis. He said that he had been in close contact with Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed and had received a letter from the leader of the Tigray region in response to his appeal. “The UN is ready to work together with the African Union and other key partners to support such a dialogue,” he said.

August 26, 2021 was only the second time during the conflict that the council held a public meeting to discuss the situation. Britain, Estonia, France, Ireland, Norway and the United States requested the session.

Fighting between the national government and the Tigray People’s Liberation Front broke out in November 2020, leaving millions facing emergency or crisis levels of food insecurity, according to the United Nations. Both sides have been accused of atrocities.

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Africa: The G20 Must Recommit to Covax



It is one year since the international community gave its backing to the COVID-19 Vaccine Global Access (COVAX) facility to lead a worldwide effort to end the acute phase of the pandemic. The initiative aimed to ensure that every country, and not just those with sufficient money or resources, could access life-saving vaccines once they became available. As G20 health ministers prepare to meet in Rome on September 5-6, they are in a position to ensure that COVAX fulfills its mission.

A year ago, no one knew when or even if it might be possible to develop a safe and effective vaccine against COVID-19, let alone the 20 that are available today. But since making its first international deliveries in February, COVAX a partnership established by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance has delivered more than 235 million vaccine doses to 139 countries, and expects to deliver another billion doses in the fourth quarter. Only China, India, and the United States have delivered more. This start to the largest and most complex vaccine rollout in history has given hope to millions of people and laid solid foundations for how we respond to future pandemics.

Yet, so much more could, and should, have been achieved by now. It is unacceptable that only 1.8% of people in low-income countries have received their first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine, compared to 82% in high- and upper-middle-income countries. This shocking inequality is as economically senseless as it is destructive to human life, with the latest estimate of the cost of the slow rollout amounting to $2.3 trillion.

The world was woefully unprepared for a pandemic, and this is reflected in the challenges COVAX has faced. By the time initial funding arrived, wealthy countries had already locked up early vaccine supplies. Export bans affecting key suppliers, and difficulties experienced by many manufacturers in scaling up production to the required level, also undermined COVAX’s ability to access doses early.

Given increasing global vaccine inequity and the rise of new, more contagious coronavirus variants, we must put these challenges behind us. Thanks to the support of almost all G20 governments, alongside that of foundations and private businesses, COVAX has now raised nearly $10 billion and secured more than 600 million donated doses. All the preparations are in place for the most comprehensive vaccination effort that the world has seen.

Based on the committed orders COVAX has placed with vaccine manufacturers and the additional donations, hundreds of millions of new doses should now be available each month. We need to make sure they reach poorer countries and get into people’s arms. To avoid further delays, and for the facility to succeed, we need support from G20 leaders in four key areas.

First, we need doses, and we need them now. The premise of COVAX was always that the facility should be able to negotiate and buy its own doses. With our early vaccine access compromised, donations have played a vital role in maintaining our ability to keep doses flowing to those most in need. Of the 600 million doses pledged to COVAX to date, 100 million have now been delivered. We need more, and soon, with longer shelf lives and greater certainty so that recipient countries have time to plan their rollout. This can be achieved without jeopardizing high-income countries’ national vaccination efforts.

We also need G20 leaders to support our call for transparency. COVAX has legally binding agreements with manufacturers for more than four billion doses, but has all too often faced delays in accessing them. Without greater clarity regarding firms’ order books, it is impossible to know whether these holdups are due to production challenges or preferential treatment for bilateral arrangements. Insisting that manufacturers are transparent about their order timelines can ensure a level playing field where no one particularly those living in developing countries gets bumped to the back of the vaccine queue because of another bilateral deal.

In addition to ensuring that manufacturers keep their commitment to COVAX, governments should make global vaccine access their highest priority. Countries with pending orders for doses that they currently do not need should allow COVAX to take their place in the queue so that we can get doses to needy countries now.

Finally, lower-income countries require continued financial and technical support for their COVID-19 vaccine rollouts. Strengthening national health systems will help these countries to ensure delivery of doses and mitigate the pandemic’s secondary effects, and will leave in place infrastructure critical to future global health security.

By recommitting to COVAX, G20 leaders will recommit to a multilateral solution that builds on the astounding scientific progress of the past year. Based on COVAX’s latest forthcoming supply forecast, when topped up with doses through bilateral deals, equitable COVID-19 vaccine access can protect up to 60% of the adult population in 91 lower-income countries. This would represent a huge step toward the WHO target of 70%, which is needed to suppress the coronavirus everywhere, and COVAX represents the best opportunity to achieve it.

Failure would mean more lives lost, broken health-care systems, even deadlier and more transmissible variants, and a pandemic with no end in sight. The G20 must not allow that to be an option.

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More African Countries Register Russia’s Sputnik Vaccine



Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC) is a specialized technical institution of the African Union (AU) that strengthens the capacity and capability of Africa’s public health institutions as well as partnerships to detect and respond quickly and effectively to disease threats and outbreaks, based on data-driven interventions and programmes.

During the outbreak of the coronavirus, the African Vaccine Acquisition Task Team (AVATT), was established by African Union, as a component in support of the Africa Vaccine Strategy and was endorsed by the AU Bureau of Heads of State and Government on 20th of August 2020.

Dr John Nkengasong, Director of the Africa Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), has emphasized: “Africa has to team up with development partners to achieve its 60% continent-wide vaccination in the next two years. I think that is why we should as a collective of the continent, and of course, in partnership with the developed world make sure that Africa has a timely access to vaccines to meet our vaccination targets.”

An official media release in February 2021, the Africa Vaccine Acquisition Task Team from the African Union (AU) informed that Russia would supply and deliver 300 million Sputnik V vaccines to Africa. That step was intended to support African countries to attain their targeted immunization of 60% of the population by the year-end. That vaccine story disappeared, but instead what become so common is the speedy registration of Sputnik V on bilateral basis in various African countries.

According to the latest, Nigeria has become the 68th country in the world to approve the Russian vaccine. The use of the Sputnik V coronavirus vaccine has been approved in Nigeria, the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) said in an official statement.

“The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF, Russia’s sovereign wealth fund) announces the approval of the Russian Sputnik V vaccine against coronavirus by the National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control of Nigeria (NAFDAC). Nigeria has become the 68th country in the world to approve the Russian vaccine. Total population of all countries, where Sputnik V is approved for use, now exceeds 3.7 billion people, which is nearly half of the global population,” the statement said.

“Nigeria is the most populous nation in Africa, and the approval of Sputnik V will provide for using one of the safest and most effective vaccines in the world. Sputnik V is based on a proven human adenoviral vectors platform and is successfully used in over 50 countries. Approval in Nigeria will make an important contribution to the country’s fight against the pandemic,” CEO of the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) Kirill Dmitriev said.

Besides Nigeria, other African countries have registered Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine. Reportedly, the vaccine has been registered in Algeria, Angola, Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Morocco, Namibia, Tunisia, the Republic of Congo (DRC) and Zimbabwe.

Russia’s drive to share Sputnik V vaccine, of course, offers a chance to raise its image and strengthen alliances in Africa. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation has made efforts promoting the vaccine using all its channels. But supply and delivery have largely lagged behind, the pledges have simply not been fulfilled. Russian authorities have oftentimes said that they would step up efforts for fruitful cooperation in combating coronavirus in Africa.

Promising more than can be delivered appears to be a universal problem with coronavirus vaccines, and it is a real risk for Russia as well, said Theresa Fallon, Director of the Brussels-based Centre for Russia Europe Asia Studies. “They have won the gold medal for creating this very effective vaccine,” she said. “But the problem is how are they going to implement production and delivery?”

Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), with profit motivation, has attempted supplying the Russian vaccines through, Sheikh Ahmed Dalmook Al Maktoum, from the Monarch family and a third party in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, to a number of African countries. For instance, the Republic of Ghana reportedly signed US$64.6 million contract for Sputnik V vaccine from Russia through Sheikh Ahmed Dalmook Al Maktoum. It was double the price from the producer as reported in the media.

On the other hand, Russian President Vladimir Putin has noted, in a speech early September, that advanced countries that produce vaccines against the coronavirus do little to protect humanity from the pandemic.

“The benefits of vaccination are enjoyed mostly by advanced economies. The bulk of the vaccines is made there, and it is used to protect their own population. But very little is being done to protect humanity in the broad sense,” Putin said at the plenary session of the Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok, the Far East of Russia. “This is very bad for the producers, because all this boomerangs around the globe. For instance, in Africa the level of protection with vaccines is minimal, but contacts with the African countries continue. There is no getting away from this. This infection will return again and again.”

According to an official release obtained late February, the Sputnik V vaccine the following advantages:

• Efficacy of Sputnik V is 91.6% as confirmed by the data published in the Lancet, one of the world’s oldest and most respected medical journals; It is one of only three vaccines in the world with efficacy of over 90%; Sputnik V provides full protection against severe cases of COVID-19. 

• The Sputnik V vaccine is based on a proven and well-studied platform of human adenoviral vectors, which cause the common cold and have been around for thousands of years. 

• Sputnik V uses two different vectors for the two shots in a course of vaccination, providing immunity with a longer duration than vaccines using the same delivery mechanism for both shots. 

• The safety, efficacy and lack of negative long-term effects of adenoviral vaccines have been proven by more than 250 clinical studies over two decades. 

• The developers of the Sputnik V vaccine are working collaboratively with AstraZeneca on a joint clinical trial to improve the efficacy of AstraZeneca vaccine. 

• There are no strong allergies caused by Sputnik V. 

• The price of Sputnik V is less than $10 per shot, making it affordable around the world. 

In February, peer-reviewed medical journal The Lancet published an analysis from Phase III clinical trial of the Russian vaccine, showing its 91.6-percent efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. The Sputnik V vaccine was developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology.

Sputnik V was registered in Russia on August 11, 2020 as the world’s first officially registered coronavirus vaccine. Russian vaccines have advantages as no deaths have been reported after vaccination with the Sputnik V, Alexander Gintsburg, Director of the Gamaleya Center, the vaccine developer, said and was reported by TASS News Agency. “As of today, no deaths after vaccination with Sputnik V have been registered,” he said.

Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) is Russia’s sovereign wealth fund established in 2011 to make equity co-investments, primarily in Russia, alongside reputable international financial and strategic investors. RDIF acts as a catalyst for direct investment in the Russian economy. RDIF’s management is based in Moscow.

In Africa, during first of September, the coronavirus-related death toll has topped 196,190, while more than 6.9 million recoveries have been reported. South Africa accounts for a majority of coronavirus cases and deaths across Africa – 2,777,659 and 82,261 respectively. The death toll in Tunisia climbed to 23,451, and 664,034 cases have been confirmed. Egypt recorded 16,736 deaths and 288,441 coronavirus cases.

In Sub-Saharan Africa, Ethiopia is ranked second to South Africa (308,134 cases and 4,675 deaths) and is followed by Kenya (235,863 cases and 4,726 deaths) and Nigeria (191,805 and 2,455). The total number of COVID-19 cases has reached almost 8 million in Africa, according to the World Health Organization’s (WHO) Regional Office for Africa.

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