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Technology as a Driver of Structural Transformation in the LDCs

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At the margins of the second session of the Intergovernmental Preparatory Committee (PrepCom2) of the Fifth United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (UN LDC5), the Enhanced Integrated Framework (EIF), together with the United Nations Technology Bank for Least Developed Countries (UN Technology Bank) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), organized a high-level side event focused on the role of technology as a driver of structural transformation in the least developed countries (LDCs).

“Industry 4.0 is a reality, also in LDCs”, said Bernardo Calzadilla-Sarmiento, Managing Director, Directorate of Digitalization, Technology and Agri-Business, and Director, Department of Digitalization, Technology and Innovation. “New technologies are being used in creative ways to drive structural transformation; as such, we have to break the idea of sequential industrial transformation”.

Technologies such as artificial intelligence, big data and drones can help enterprises in LDCs enhance their productivity and competitiveness, and move up the value chain ladder in agriculture, industry, and the services sector. Similarly, digital goods and services trade enhances the opportunity for small‑ and medium enterprises (SMEs) to participate in global trade and enhance their financial inclusion.

“Technology has changed the rules of the game and the possibilities are endless”, said Calzadilla-Sarmiento. “While exploring the opportunities, we need to narrow the digital divide, allow LDCs to benefit from the technologies and reduce inequalities, to leave no one behind. In the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, industrialization can also contribute to economic recovery and technology is the fuel to the engine”.

The side event is one of UNIDO’s contributions towards the Fifth United Nations Conference on the LDCs (LDC5), which will take place in January 2022, in Doha, Qatar.

“UNIDO is strongly committed to supporting LDCs in their path towards industrialization and technology-enabled structural transformation”, said Manuel Mattiat, Programme Officer in charge of LDCs matters at UNIDO. “We are eager to use our expertise and networks to provide policy advice and build the capacities and partnerships necessary to increase equitable access enabling the fourth industrial revolution among the LDCs”.

UNIDO suggests that the next programme of action for the LDCs envisages achievable and impactful outcomes on structural socio-economic transformation, especially by developing digital and innovation skills for both women and men, especially in start-ups and Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). At the same time, it will be essential to address the potential of new partnership models for resource mobilization from various streams such as innovative financing, cost-sharing contributions, and national and international development finance institutions (DFIs).

“To restart economies smartly, intra-regional and continental avenues are important to follow”, said Mattiat. “There is an opportunity for the next programme of action for LDCs to make use of innovative cooperation corridors which are yet to expand, such as the Africa Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) Agreement or South-South and Triangular Cooperation modalities”.

In the lead-up to the UN LDC5, UNIDO will organize a series of activities in support of LDCs, including the 9th Ministerial Conference of the LDCs to be held in November, at its headquarters, as the last pre-event leading towards the UN LDC5 while also preceding the Organization’s 19th General Conference. Throughout these activities, UNIDO will continue to advocate the need for multilateralism to support structural transformation in LDCs well as the need to foster favorable and conducive environments through policy and infrastructure; innovative ecosystems; private sector development; competencies and digital skills; and strong partnerships.

At the same time, UNIDO believes that it is with a sense of urgency that the LDCs needs to be steered onto an environmentally sustainable and carbon-neutral path. For instance, the next programme of action for LDCs is an opportunity to advocate for a global just transition towards an efficient economy for a more equitable use of resources reversing biodiversity loss, and curbing pollution and waste.

“Beyond appropriate policies, this calls for mobilizing the industrial community to leverage investments helping developing countries’ abilities to respond to national, regional and global challenges, including climate change”, said Mattiat. “Mobilizing finance, technology and capacity-building to  scaling up economies in developing countries can only be achieved through impactful business models and partnerships with cross-sectoral stakeholders, such as the UNIDO Programme for Country Partnership (PCP).

UNIDO will thus continue to upscale its advocacy for LDCs through sharing knowledge, exchanging best practices and showcasing normative outputs.

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Coding – what is it and what are the benefits?

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Coding has become more popular in recent years with everyone from entrepreneurs, hobbyists, children and professionals. And with many different kits now available, it’s easier than ever to try your hand at coding.

If you’re unsure what coding is or where to begin, read on to discover more and find out the benefits of learning this new skill.

What is coding and what is it used for?

In a nutshell, coding is writing a set of instructions in a language understood by machines to enable a computer to follow to carry out a task. It’s used daily across the world in multiple applications from appliances to traffic systems and the motor industry.

With more of the world relying heavily on digital systems, there is an increased need for those who know how to code. But it’s not just for professionals. Anyone can now try their hand at coding and it’s increasingly popular amongst hobbyists who are creating exciting projects during their spare time.

A good place to start when thinking about coding as a hobby is by using a Raspberry Pi kit. Starter kits are great for beginners and allow you to develop your coding skills with everything you need in one package.

Benefits of learning to code

Whilst some benefits of learning to code such as future career options might be obvious, there are other advantages to this skill:

  • You could become smarter – Coding can utilise the logical part of your brain which is useful for other tasks, not just the coding process. It can also be very creative if you use your coding skills to work on different projects.
  • It increases your employability – and not just in the computer software industry. Skills learnt from coding are transferrable and the kind of qualities employers across many industries will be looking for.
  • It helps you understand technology – By getting to grips with computer languages, you’ll learn how technology works at a base level – knowledge that will filter through to everyday life as well as in your career.
  • Enhance problem solving skills – By learning to code you’ll learn how to address problems and, in turn, become skilled at solving them. Tools that will be transferred to other aspects of life.
  • Coding is a universal language – so there are endless opportunities to learning this skill.  

Whatever knowledge you have of coding, why not give it a go? You could be creating the next big robotics project, having fun playing games with your kids or even developing a new software programme in no time.

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C-Suite Toolkit Helps Executives Navigate the Artificial Intelligence Landscape

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The World Economic Forum published the “AI C-Suite Toolkit” to support executives in their Artificial Intelligence implementation decision making. The toolkit provides a holistic approach to AI, covering multiple dimensions businesses need to consider when making investments in AI. Emphasis is given on potential risks these technologies create and how to ensure the ethical and responsible use of them.

“The key skill executives need to develop is the ability to understand the art of the possible with AI while identifying the main risks it creates,” said Kay Firth-Butterfield, Head of AI and Machine Learning at the World Economic Forum. Furthermore, Theos Evgeniou, Professor at INSEAD and Co-Founder of Tremau said, “Organizations need to adopt new data and AI risk management practices, processes and tools in order to both comply with upcoming regulations and to ensure customer trust”,

The new toolkit is the result of a collaboration among several AI experts and executives across companies and industries. It also builds on the previous World Economic Forum guide that’s targeted at Boards of Directors.

“AI is like the Internet: it feels optional until it’s too late. We were delighted to contribute Best Practice AI’s practical digital strategy and transformation experience working with executives globally to this world class effort. C-suite leadership is key to deliver data-enabled business model transformation – and senior management learning critical to ensure that this is done ethically and sustainably. The toolkit provides both,” said Simon Greenman, Partner at Best Practice AI and Member of the World Economic Forum’s Global AI Council

The AI C-Suite toolkit raises and discusses key questions that company executives need to consider when making investments in AI. These questions cover aspects around AI and business strategy, the impact of AI on an organization, AI maturity and organizational change, best practices for implementing AI, understanding and managing AI risks, and adoption of ethical and responsible AI practices and processes.

“With our strong expertise in manufacturing consultancy and +100 SIRI maturity assessments, we see that the foundational knowledge of AI in operationalizing the strategy is visible as a common need. Global research on the subject confirm that using AI has benefits like providing cost reduction, inventory minimization, quality increase, profit optimization, etc., and potential risks like strengthening inequalities. Creating a platform for understanding the benefits and mitigating the risks is required, especially at the executive level. With the modularity and extensive understanding of AI, this toolkit will be a reference guide for all leaders,” said Efe Erdem, MEXT Group Director & Head of C4IR Turkey. “We are excited for this toolkit to come to life and serve as a critical guideline for the industry.”

Organizations at various levels of AI maturity can benefit from the steps laid out in the AI C-Suite Toolkit to leverage AI while mitigating possible risks. “As an advisor to C-suite executives of organizations aspiring to become AI and Data-driven, we have observed firsthand how fundamental it is for leaders to understand how to make informed decisions such that their organizations can truly reap the benefits of AI in the coming years. We believe this guide will be instrumental in helping executives identify the right opportunities to solve problems using AI and overcome the challenges and barriers they will face on their journey,” said Nihar Dalmia, Canada Government and Public Services Leader, Omnia AI, Deloitte.

The toolkit states, “a culture of large volume experimentation, data-driven decision making, and ethical AI distinguishes market leaders.” The authors and contributors urge organizations to pilot this toolkit and share their learnings of using it.

“The AI C-Suite Toolkit on Empowering AI leadership is a timely report for C-suite executives as more organizations embrace AI across their enterprise,” said Anand Rao, Global Leader, Artificial Intelligence, PwC, USA. “PwC is delighted to collaborate with the World Economic Forum on this toolkit to provide a practical and operational framework to implement AI in a responsible manner. The holistic and enterprise-wide end-to-end governance will enable C-suite executives to take advantage of the benefits of AI while also addressing the societal and ethical risks.”

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The Moscow Metro extends the Early Bird campaign

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According to the Moscow Department of Transport, the Early Bird discount program has been extended until March 31. Thanks to this project, passengers can save up to 50% on fare payment for morning trips on Lines 7 and 15 of the Moscow Metro.

The Department noted that the Early Bird campaign helped to redistribute passenger flows and reduce passenger traffic of the Line 7 of the Moscow Metro, the busiest line of the network, during the peak hours. Cars on the Line 7 are now 7% freer in the morning peak hours. In addition, the crowdedness at Kitay-Gorod station has been decreased up to 18%, and Vykhino and Polezhaevskaya – up to 17%.

According to Maksim Liksutov, the Deputy Mayor of Moscow for Transport, the project has proved its effectiveness, having impacted the most popular section of the metro during peak hours. In this regard, it was decided to extend the Early Bird campaign.

«Thanks to the campaign, as well as to the adjustment of fares on Kazansky railway direction for those who travel to the railway station, cars became 7% freer in the mornings on Line 7 – we managed to relieve the load on the most popular section of the metro during rush hours. In this regard, the Mayor of Moscow decided to extend the Early Bird discount program until March 31», – said Maksim Liksutov, the Deputy Mayor of Moscow for Transport.

The project was launched in November 2020. Discounts are valid on weekdays until 07:15 and from 08:45 to 09:15 on the Moscow Metro Lines 7 and 15. About 100 thousand passengers use discounts every day. More than 5.7 thousand Moscow residents changed their daily travel time to off-peak. By the end of 2021, passengers have made more than 25 million discounted trips.

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