A study commissioned by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and released last week makes the economic case for reviving a major river catchment in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province.
The report focused on the Thukela River basin, where farming, cattle-grazing and the spread of invasive alien plants have damaged fragile savannah and grasslands. That has hampered the land’s ability to sustain livelihoods and to maintain essential ecosystem services, such as supplying water and trapping carbon.
The new study, The potential costs and benefits of addressing land degradation in the Thukela catchment, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, found that the benefits of restoring the Thukela basin would outweigh the costs. To arrive at those conclusions, researchers used satellite imagery and ecosystem accounting to map where ecosystem services are provided and thus where restoration would be most worthwhile.
“We must ensure that nature enters economic and financial decision-making,” says William Speller, an ecosystems and biodiversity expert with UNEP. “This is not about putting a price tag on every bee and tree. It is about understanding that intact ecosystems are ultimately worth more to humanity than when they are destroyed.”
The new report comes two weeks after the launch of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem restoration, a global push to revive the natural world. Human actions have significantly altered about 75 per cent of dry land and 66 per cent of marine environments, pushing many ecosystems to the brink of collapse.
Ecosystem accounting can help halt and reverse that damage, say experts. By assigning a value to the services nature provides humanity, it allows policymakers to see beyond traditional economic metrics, like gross domestic product, and gain a finer perspective on the environmental consequences of economic development.
For the Thukela River report, researchers developed pilot ecosystem services accounts based on the System of Environmental Economic Accounting – Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA), the international standard for ecosystem accounting adopted in March this year.
Researchers found that restoring large areas of grassland, chiefly through removing invasive alien plants, implementing sustainable land management and addressing soil erosion by replanting trees, would improve the basin’s ability to store carbon, lead to higher stocks of wild foods and medicines, create more productive rangelands for livestock farming, and bolster water supplies. (Invasive plants, like eucalyptus, are thirsty.)
“This study suggests that investing in measures to slow, halt and hopefully reverse the net impacts of poor land management in the past would likely have a positive net benefit and that addressing land degradation can be justified in economic terms,” says Jane Turpie of Anchor Environmental Consultants, lead author of the report.
The study highlights how restoring ecosystems can help to achieve national development goals in South Africa, such as water security and rural development, says Mandy Driver of the South African National Biodiversity Institute. “It illustrates that investing in ecological infrastructure is as essential as investing in other forms of social and economic infrastructure, such as dams and transport networks.”
The Thukela report is part of the Natural Capital Accounting and Valuation of Ecosystem Services project in which South Africa was one of five participating countries. South Africa is a signatory to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and is aiming to achieve “land degradation neutrality” by 2030.
Kiruben Naicker of South Africa’s Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment said the report will help redirect investment “where it is needed most and complement the country’s resource mobilization drive”.
The Thukela study is part of a larger UNEP effort to ensure nature enters economic and financial decision-making. Speller says the techniques used in the Thukela River basin can be applied to degraded ecosystems around the world: “The new framework can be a game changer in decision-making. By highlighting the contribution of nature, we now have a tool that allows us to properly measure and value nature. It can help us bring about a rapid and lasting shift towards sustainability for both people and the environment.”
4 Best Tips How To Write A Literary Analysis Essay
Writing a literature essay or analysis is not an easy task. It is necessary to plunge deeply into the text and understand why the author used various techniques. You will also have to comment on the plot, events, and characters. Creating an excellent literary analysis requires patience, skills and theoretical knowledge. If you are missing the last item, read this article to the end.
First of all, you need to understand what analysis means in literature, and your best friend in doing so is practice. Writing essays may be challenging, especially when the words are buzzing around your head but refuse to appear. If you can’t concentrate and come up with something, try to read a literary analysis essay written by a professional, just for a start. It will give a basic understanding of how to write a literature essay, and you will feel sure. Sometimes a proper example is the best teacher, and it is better to see an excellent work once to learn from it.
So, what’s coming next after getting a sample? The following step in writing a literary analysis essay is thoroughly studying the text and formulating a thesis statement. Take into account the general format of an academic essay while you write:
- An opening paragraph that conveys your essay’s key argument.
- The body of your paper is broken up into sections, where you present your thesis and back it up with textual proof.
- A summary of the core argument you’ve made throughout your analysis.
Study the source(s) and make some preliminary notes. Highlight the aspects you find catchy, unexpected, or baffling; these are the areas you should focus on in your paper.
One of the primary purposes of literary analysis is to go deeper into a piece of literature. First and foremost, a student should be on the lookout for literary devices, which are linguistic tools authors use to emphasize certain points in the text or evoke specific emotions in the reader.
The best tip for writing all essays is to have a proper outline. Here is one you might use. For additional inspiration, you might also use Phdessay or other services with an impressive essay collection. It’s always beneficial to look at other authors’ interpretations and consider what you can borrow from them. And, of course, nobody canceled the structure, the bibliography, and the citations. Don’t miss anything important!
The first step in writing a literary analysis introduction for a literary analysis essay is to provide the work’s title and author. You need one or two phrases at the most to express yourself. The focus should be on the central theme for these phrases to be more compelling.
Give a quick summary of the book and discuss its significance in the literary canon. Why do we need to analyze this? Where does the author draw a line between right and wrong?
Get started on your paper by formulating a thesis. Justify your argument’s central thesis and its most critical supporting arguments.
Write a separate paragraph to elaborate on each of the claims made in the thesis. For example, a 600-word essay needs no more than three paragraphs. Use a clear subject phrase at the beginning of each one. Then, it would be best if you elaborated on your key argument. Every claim must be backed up with examples from the literature piece.
A literary analysis essay conclusion is the last paragraph you write to wrap up your assignment. Provide a brief overview of the work, your thoughts and emotions, and other relevant details here. Don’t start talking about anything else.
Emphasize the reasons your position is sound and the evidence you’ve provided in the paper’s middle part.
After the essay’s main points have been refined, they should be checked for typos and other errors. Sometimes it helps to read the whole text aloud slowly and clearly. Someone else should do it for you if feasible.
Multiple copies of the document should be produced and proofread before a final copy is made. It’s important to keep an eye out for sentence fragments, comma splices, and other frequent grammatical mistakes.
This academic task aims to analyze and assess some facets of a piece of literature. A literary analysis essay is defined as one that investigates the language, viewpoint, imagery, and structure. These methods are dissected to get to the author’s true intentions. After all, any analysis aims to shed light on the material by revealing hidden meanings. Your interpretations of the source material should be described in an analytical style that goes beyond a simple synopsis.
Boosting Equitable Development as Kenya Strives to Become an Upper Middle-Income Country
The World Bank Group (WBG) Board of Executive Directors today voiced its support for the WBG’s latest six-year strategy to support Kenya in its ongoing efforts towards green, resilient, and inclusive development.
The Kenya Country Partnership Framework (CPF) is a joint strategy between the World Bank, the International Finance Cooperation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) and the government to promote shared prosperity and reduce poverty for the people of Kenya. Informed by extensive stakeholder consultations, the CPF seeks to drive faster and more equitable labor productivity and income growth, greater equity in development outcomes across the country, and help sustain Kenya’s natural capital for greater climate resilience.
“The people of Kenya are in a position to reap even greater dividends from the country’s robust economic growth in terms of more durable poverty reduction,” said Keith Hansen, World Bank Country Director for Kenya. “Tackling the drivers of inequality now will help to ensure that Kenya can achieve and maintain more equitable development in the long run.”
Over the past decade, Kenya’s economy has outperformed its Low- and Middle-Income Country (LMIC) peers with the growing number of better-educated and healthier Kenyans in the labor force contributing more than any other factor to rising gross domestic product (GDP). More recently, however, the pace of poverty reduction, and then the COVID-19 pandemic, revealed how vulnerable many households are when faced with shocks. Though Kenya’s economy is rebounding from the pandemic and projected to grow by an average 5.4% during 2022-24, the ongoing drought and global inflation are causing poverty to rise. The CPF finds that Kenya is still well positioned to secure more inclusive growth and the WBG is ready to provide support that targets lagging areas and communities with better services and infrastructure that build household and community resilience. In doing so, it aims to help Kenya avoid the inequality and productivity traps experienced by other Middle-Income Countries (MICs).
“Kenya’s private sector is poised to drive faster job creation and to seize new opportunities from global and regional integration,” noted Jumoke Jagun-Dokunmu, IFC Regional Director for Kenya. “This will require a more level playing field for competition and innovation for large and small firms and between public and private enterprises.”
The CPF also aims to help raise the productivity of small firms, small producers, and women entrepreneurs, improve the investment climate across the country, and stimulate more private participation in public service delivery. To support Kenya’s response to climate change, the CPF has programmed investments to reduce water insecurity, and to mobilize more climate finance for both public and private investments.
“MIGA aims to unlock more private sector investment in climate responsive projects in Kenya through innovative financial solutions,” said Merli Baroudi, MIGA Director for Economics and Sustainability. “Kenya’s impressive progress in mobilizing private capital for renewable energy augurs well for other sectors.”
The CPF draws on Kenya’s Vision 2030, the new government’s development agenda, a Systematic Country Diagnostic, a Country Private Sector Diagnostic, a Completion and Learning Review of the previous Country Partnership Strategy, and over 34 stakeholder consultations, including with Kenya’s diaspora. The World Bank Group is Kenya’s largest development financier. IFC’s portfolio of private sector investments in Kenya is its fourth largest and fastest growing in Sub-Saharan Africa and MIGA’s financial operations in Kenya are its third largest program in Africa.
Tehran hosts Iran-Belarus business forum
Iran’s capital Tehran hosted an Iran-Belarus business forum at Saadabad Palace Complex on Tuesday evening, the portal of Iran Chamber of Commerce, Industries, Mines and Agriculture (ICCIMA) reported.
The forum was attended by senior officials from the two sides including First Vice President of the Islamic Republic of Iran Mohammad Mokhber and Prime Minister of the Republic of Belarus Roman Golovchenko.
Organized by ICCIMA jointly with the Belarusian Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BelCCI), the business forum was also attended by Iranian Minister of Industry, Mining and Trade Reza Fatemi-Amin, Chairman of the BelCCI Mikhael Miatlikov, and ICCIMA Head Gholam-Hossein Shafeie, as well as heads and representatives of more than 120 Belarusian and Iranian companies.
Forming working groups to remove trade barriers
Speaking at the forum, ICCIMA Head Gholam-Hossein Shafeie called for the formation of joint special working groups in order to identify existing challenges and problems in the way of the trade between the two countries and also to assess the feasibility of joint commercial projects.
According to Shafeie, empowering the two countries’ small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), strengthening banking and insurance cooperation, defining new joint projects, developing and facilitating the issuance of visas for businessmen and tourists, creating the necessary infrastructure for developing economic relations, especially in the commercial, industrial and technical sectors are among the measures that the governments of the two countries can take for boosting mutual trade.
The official also underlined the establishment of a joint trade committee between the chambers of Iran and Belarus as an effective measure for developing trade ties.
Iran to open $100m credit line for Belarusian traders
Further in the forum, Iranian Industry, Mining, and Trade Minister Reza Fatemi-Amin described Belarus as an important country from an industrial point of view and considered the economies of Iran and Belarus to be complementary to each other.
Pointing out that several business delegations have been exchanged between the two countries over the last four months, Fatemi-Amin said: “Fortunately, good agreements have been made so far to improve the financial channels between Iran and Belarus, and we are witnessing improvement in the logistics sector as well.”
At the end of his speech, Fatemi-Amin announced the opening of a $100-million credit line for Belarusian traders who are interested in buying Iranian products.
Iran, Belarus should provide trade, investment infrastructure
Elsewhere in the event, Prime Minister of Belarus Roman Golovchenko said there are numerous fields for cooperation between Iran and Belarus, and considered it necessary to reach an agreement to strengthen cooperation between the two countries.
Golovchenko further emphasized that the governments of the two countries should provide an appropriate environment for businessmen to operate.
U.S. has a vital interest in avoiding going to war for a lie
Last time, it was a U.S. president, George W. Bush, who dishonestly took America into a conflict, but that at...
Iran’s Parliament approves bill on accession to SCO
Iran’s Parliament has approved by a majority vote a bill on the Islamic republic’s accession to the Shanghai Cooperation Organization...
More Europeans will perish from energy crisis than Ukraine war death toll
More people will perish in Europe this winter because of unaffordable household energy costs than those who have died on...
4 Best Tips How To Write A Literary Analysis Essay
Writing a literature essay or analysis is not an easy task. It is necessary to plunge deeply into the text...
The Art of Military Leadership: Growing from a student to a leader
How does military leadership differ between students and leaders? What are some common traits found in successful officers? Leadership has...
Rostec State Corporation Promoting Development, Manufacturing and Exporting Military High-Tech Products
The Rostec State Corporation was established 15 years ago. Workers and foremen, researchers, engineers, designers and test operators, and all...
Thanksgiving, The World Cup and Sports Celebrities
Forty-six million turkeys surrender their lives so Americans can celebrate Thanksgiving. It is an occasion where traditionally families gather together...
Defense3 days ago
The Ukraine War is a sales-promotion campaign for Lockheed and other U.S. ‘Defense’ Contractors
Science & Technology3 days ago
Kissinger and the current situation considering the development of Artificial Intelligence and the Ukrainian crisis
Southeast Asia3 days ago
Sustain instability in Myanmar is censure to India’s Act East Policy: Time for Proactive measure
Green Planet4 days ago
The Collapse of the Climate Change Cult
South Asia4 days ago
Pakistan strongly believes in creating harmony among all civilizations
Environment4 days ago
Barcelona and Munich become zero waste candidate cities
South Asia4 days ago
An Analysis of Security Concerns Arising From Indo-Nepal Open Border
Intelligence3 days ago
Russia points to evidence exposing Kiev’s intentions to use biological weapons