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Post Pandemic Recovery + SME + MFG + Skills + Jobs



Unless big potholes are filled, the roads to post-pandemic-economic-recovery will only create more traffic jams; the challenges are something like the Olympic Games of Economics played by highly skilled players on worldwide digital highways, not to be confused with routine games at local community ballparks. Most economic development issues of today are global-age centric, demanding special global-age skills to solve issues of our new digitalized world of future trading in harmony for common good and mutual prosperity.

Three crushing factors;

ONE: The 50/50 Factor: In broader strokes, no matter what only 50% of the world will open andremaining 50% drift away in 50% closures while billions plus displaced, replaced, misplaced workers wander and other 50% gone far away remote and 50% downtown dimmed. When the united forces of “Work + Office + Health + Money + Politics + Future”clash with “AI + AR + VR + Remote + Zoom” the surprises will be the next 100 national elections scheduled within the next 500 days. Covidians will vote on meritocracies and seek leaderships ready to face truth, accept mistakes and surrender to honest real value creations over confusion of crypto-fantasies.

TWO: The Meritocracy Factor: The cruelty of pandemic further magnified when once mighty institutions and rotundas of political leadership across the world may lose 50% or all of their remaining credibility. It is not just the cost of bureaucracies lingering for decades to a nation butthe real losses are 1000 times bigger than lost opportunities in the global markets. Digitized mobilization to uplift meritocracy is a new art. Testing and upskilling all frontline teams of all layers of the national economic agenda to mix and blend with virtualized economic expansion is one of the top priority solutions.

THREE: The Fear Factor: The widespread ‘fear’ amongst western economies of gradually losing global market shares hurting advancements.  The western economies recognized over centuries as super successful knowledge rich nations now losing to population-rich-nations, while population rich as cursed nations for feeding hungry mouths, today, they are blessed as each citizen with mobile devices in hand now a potential trade center. Western economies already on defense creating tectonic shifts on trade-skills against highly productive Asian nations are lacking collaborative activism.

Overview: Western economies over decades abandoned upskilling and lifelong learning in a big way, convinced that Universities and YouTube will take care of all, furthermore, when reading daily newspapers is already dead now study of Atlas as daily routine is a new survival kit, only skilled entrepreneurial warriors with global thinking ready for tolerance, diversity will survive. Ignored are the hidden national treasures of entrepreneurialism and global-age thinking.  Proof is in numbers and global indices on performance scales.

Missing from mainstream media, political punditry and academia such critically harsh but hot topics now also a proof of their ‘fear’ while their silence challenging their levels of competencies and confidence levels required tackling the new post pandemic world. Nevertheless, freshly printed money will run out and soon test the architectural structuring of the house of cards. Why do knowledge rich nations have the greatest opportunities to open up to some 200 nations and 10,000 cities and what type of sweeping mind-shifts are needed and what is stopping them?

Revolutionary Options: The National Mobilization of Midsize Economies 

Stage One: Those nations awakening with the principal philosophy of the ‘National Mobilization of Entrepreneurialism on Digital Platforms of Upskilling for Exportability’ are harmoniously narrating the new global-age mantra; constant learning, constant disruption, constant advancements, constant dialogues as post-pandemic recovery and humanistic realities. As undeniably,  “Work + Office + Health + Money + Politics + Globalization” suddenly, combined into one single global task, creating original new thinking and bringing impossible ideas, people and faraway lands closer and entrepreneurialism in center. 

The Real Test: Any global regions interested in adapting such thought leadership, normally address the common difficult questions: Are there enough small medium enterprises within a nation ready to quadruple their performance, productivity and profitability and display their goods and services on the global stage? Are local trade groups, chambers and associations of the nation in agreement to uplift exportability via upskilling? Are local government agencies fully skilled to cope with such global-age and transformational challenges?  When such programs are not new funding dependent, rather execution and mobilization starve, so what is stopping them. The world can easily absorb unlimited exportable ideas in unlimited vertical markets. The well-designed innovative ideas are worthy of such quadrupled volumes.  The entrepreneurial and dormant talents of a nation are capable of such tasks.  The new global age skills, knowledge and execution are now the missing links

Stage Two: One: Identify and create a national agenda to upskill SME on innovative excellence and exportability. Two: Deploy trade associations and Chambers on digital platforms so memberships skate nationally and globally. Three: Quadruple midsize economy via upskilling for micro-exports and reskilling micro manufacturing. Explore how Expothon Africa is expanding across the continent and how Dr. Ameenah Gurib-Fakim is planning a systematic approach to nations and what are the key lessons while the new global TV Show series on critical grassroots prosperity solutions lining up world-class experts. Regions best bring like-minded trade groups and agencies and create high quality virtual events for local leaderships. The time to change has already passed, the time to mobilize and revolutionize has arrived. Study more on Google.

The 47th G7 Summit UK: The 47th G7 summit scheduled for 11–13 June 2021 in the United Kingdom while it holds the presidency of the G7. The participants will include the leaders of the seven G7 member states as well as representatives of the European Union. The President of the European Commission has been a permanently welcome participant at all meetings and decision-making since 1981, while the current President of the European Council has been the EU’s co-representative since the 36th G8 summit, hosted by Canada in 2010. The Right Honorable, Justin Trudeau, Emmanuel Macron, Angela Merkel, Mario Draghi, Yoshihide Suga, Joe Biden, Ursula von der Leyen, Charles Michel, Scott Morrison, Narendra Modi, Moon Jae-I, Cyril Ramaphosa, participants of the meeting. All hosted by Right Honorable Boris Johnson in the UK on 11-13 June 2021 will create an amazing agenda; the real test is in declaring innovative excellence and national mobilization of programs key elements to create harmoniously global impact on post pandemic economies. The challenge is to ask the ‘most difficult’ questions. The G7 nations will debate while the remaining some 190 Countries watch and try to apply to their own critical paths, hopefully more honest and mature dialogue will appear.

Questions for G7: Here are some key global observations suggested as topics trying to understand futurism:In need of revolutionary minds to conquer something of value for humankindto isolate grassroots prosperity as the most critical issue. Needed are special series of high caliber debates and discussions to foster local economic growth across the world.  Is suggesting to G7 a very good start, or what else do you recommend?

The Key Suggested Hot Topics:

Dawn of Thinker-Gatherers; The largest number of people ever assembled across the world and forced to follow beingremote, isolated, lock downed, displaced, replaced, misplaced, officeless, workless, while able to feel emotionally, suffer economically and think critically, building courage strong enough to face the truth, finally come to some enlightenment of sorts. Do they see dawn, sunshine or sunset? How prepared are national leaders to articulate their own vision of common good and own ideas of local prosperity.

Nouveau Occupationalism; Futurism is disrupting labor-productivity, workforce and Human Resource management. Brand new occupational tasks needed with full comprehension of ‘AI + AR + VR + Remote’ platforms but all this as subservient to our superior mental contributions in our new but respectable occupations. The new world now needs more humanity, like the rise of the Vice President of Thinking and Director of Human Intelligence but clearly differentiated from Captain of Robotic Sniper Dogs. Where is the voice of corporate leadership on AI centricity versus humanity?

Common good is now a common global cause; Success is not in super-complex-manipulated-numbers but hidden in simple adding correctly with real math to tabulate real value creation via human toil of productivity and performance resulting in grassroots prosperity, the collective global leadership must create new measurements. Why are global institutions and trade groups already riding on global rhetoric of commerce, submissive to bureaucratic processes and crypto-hype and not tabling pragmatic and immediately implementable futuristic solutions?

Portability of Industrial Plants; brought nations to their knees, will they ever stand up again? Will exportability of remote workers on virtualized global platforms cover some losses? If a million qualified entrepreneurs were allowed to land in a nation on special permits to mobilize the economy of the nation because academia and government both not only failed to create armies of entrepreneurs but also equally created sophisticated fighting soldiers to fight wars. The notion of expansive and super selected business education served us well during the last century but is questionable today. Which nation is bold enough to discuss such topics openly?

Exportability of Democracy; brought tribalism to its own streets. Will it ever fix the local-social-crisis? Why should we leave all this to historians of latter day millennia to recapture today as our dark days? Should we let them write about why fake-prosperity on its own, without ‘grassroots prosperity’ selling overseas such notions of freedom while sacrificing other cultures to such fakery is nothing but sin? Which leadership is planning a sea change of thinking on such affairs and have an open agenda to discuss or define democracies?

Power of invisible algorithms; when national leadership simply is not skilled enough to question anything on mystery of economic numbers, is there any need to become master crypto-coder or what is required is new realization on how economies are already high-jacked in daylight. Which financial, academic or institutional body is ready to engage to solve such challenges of basic math?

Sound bites articulating the future of a nation; Teleprompters glorified, but messages lost as routine sound bites, citizens wander, when leadership becomes some virtual reality act managed by special teams of sorts. Is it about time to strip naked the heart and soul of the nation?  When will we see frank and honest narratives?

Conclusion: A brighter future awaits; 50% of the world will open commerce, 50% of the global populace will also open their mind, 50% of the current ‘going forward economic development models may not survive. There are some fine teams, some highly articulate leadership and some thriving economies. The challenges are to bring them all together so humankind divides narrow and global collaborative synthesizing rises. Nevertheless, the technology will shine to fill the gaps with speed and efficiency on digital platforms economies leaving paper-based-economies in the dustbin. Plan wisely, submerge in lifelong learning, the Covidians of the world have a full decade of challenging economic disruptions. The issues of climate change and environment are only solved when grassroots prosperity provides full stomach to figure out the working of minds and acquire truthful clarity of common good, otherwise such notions are just expensive global advertising campaigns of smoke and mirrors. Global goals must be for global common good.

Dive deep into futurism but not like an AI Robot, but like a common human being searching for common good.

The rest is easy 

Naseem Javed is a corporate philosopher, Chairman of Expothon Worldwide; a Canadian Think tank focused on National Mobilization of Entrepreneurialism Protocols on Platform Economy and exportability solutions now gaining global attention. His latest book; Alpha Dreamers; the five billions connected who will change the world.

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How Bangladesh became Standout Star in South Asia Amidst Covid-19



Bangladesh, the shining model of development in South Asia, becomes everyone’s economic darling amidst Covid-19. The per capita income of Bangladesh in the fiscal year 2020-21 is higher than that of many neighbouring countries including India and Pakistan. Recently, Bangladesh has agreed to lend $200 million to debt-ridden Sri Lanka to bail out through currency swap. Bangladesh, once one of the most vulnerable economies, has now substantiated itself as the most successful economy of South Asia. How Bangladesh successfully managed Covid-19 and became top performing economy of South Asia?

In March 1971, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman declared their independence from richer and more powerful Pakistan. The country was born through war and famine. Shortly after the independence of Bangladesh, Henry Kissinger, then the U.S. national security advisor, derisively referred to the country as a “Basket Case of Misery.” But after fifty years, recently, Bangladesh’s Cabinet Secretary reported that per capita income has risen to $2,227. Pakistan’s per capita income, meanwhile, is $1,543. In 1971, Pakistan was 70% richer than Bangladesh; today, Bangladesh is 45% richer than Pakistan. Pakistani economist Abid Hasan, former World Bank Adviser, stated that “If Pakistan continues its dismal performance, it is in the realm of possibility that we could be seeking aid from Bangladesh in 2030,”. On the other hand, India, the economic superpower of South Asia, is also lagging behind Bangladesh in terms of per capita income worth of $1,947. This also elucidates that the economic decisions of Bangladesh are better than that of any other South Asian countries.

Bangladesh’s economic growth leans-on three pillars: exports competitiveness, social progress and fiscal prudence. Between 2011 and 2019, Bangladesh’s exports grew at 8.6% every year, compared to the world average of 0.4%. This godsend is substantially due to the country’s hard-hearted focus on products, such as apparel, in which it possesses a comparative advantage.

The variegated investment plans pursued by the Bangladesh government contributes to the escalation of the country’s per capita income. The government has attracted investments in education, health, connectivity and infrastructure both from home and abroad. As a long-term implication, investing in these sectors helped Bangladesh to facilitate space for businesses and created skilled manpower to run them swiftly. Meanwhile, the share of Bangladeshi women in the labor force has consistently grown, unlike in India and Pakistan, where it has decreased. And Bangladesh has maintained a public debt-to-GDP ratio between 30% and 40%. India and Pakistan will both emerge from the pandemic with public debt close to 90% of GDP.

Bangladesh’s economy and industry management strategy during Covid-19 is also worth mentioning here since the country till now has successfully protected its economy from impact of pandemic. At the outset of pandemic, lockdowns and restrictions hampered the country’s overall productivity for a while. To tackle the pandemic effect, Bangladesh introduced improvised monetary policy and fiscal stimuli to bring them under the safety net which lifted the situation from worsening. Government introduced stimulus package which is equivalent to 4.3 percent of total GDP and covers all necessary sectors such as industry, SMEs and agriculture. These packages are not only a one-time deal, new packages are also being announced in course of time. For instance, in January 2021, government announced two new packages for small and medium entrepreneurs and grass roots populations. Apart from economic interventions, the government also chose the path of targeted interventions. The government, after first wave, abandoned widespread lockdown and adopted the policy of targeted intervention which is found to be effective as it allows socio-economic activities to carry on under certain protocols and helps the industries to fight back against the pandemic effect.

Another pivotal key to success was the management of migrant labor force and keeping the domestic production active amidst the pandemic. According to KNOMAD report, amidst the Covid-19, Bangladesh’s remittance grew by 18.4 percent crossing 21 billion per annum inflow where many remittance dependent countries experienced negative growth rate. Because of the massive inflow of remittance, the Forex reserve of Bangladesh reached at 45.1 billion US dollar.

Bangladesh’s success in managing COVID19 and its economy has been reflected in a recent report “Bangladesh Development Update- Moving Forward: Connectivity and Logistics to strengthen Competitiveness,” published by World Bank. Bangladesh’s economy is showing nascent signs of recovery backed by a rebound in exports, strong remittance inflows, and the ongoing vaccination program. Through financial assistance to Sri Lanka and Covid relief aid to India, Bangladesh is showcasing its rise as an emerging superpower in South Asia. That is why Mihir Sharma, Director of Centre for Economy and Growth Programme at the Observer Research Foundation, wrote in an article at Bloomberg that, “Today, the country’s 160 million-plus people, packed into a fertile delta that’s more densely populated than the Vatican City, seem destined to be South Asia’s standout success”. Back in 2017, PwC (PricewaterhouseCoopers) report also predicted the same that Bangladesh will become the largest economy by 2030 and an economic powerhouse in South Asia. And this is how Bangladesh, a development paragon, offers lessons for the other struggling countries of world after 50 years of its independence.

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Build Back Better World: An Alternative to the Belt and Road Initiative?



The G7 Summit is all the hype on the global diplomatic canvas. While the Biden-Putin talk is another awaited juncture of the Summit, the announcement of an initiative has wowed just as many whilst irked a few. The Group of Seven (G7) partners: the US, France, the UK, Canada, Italy, Japan, and Germany, launched a global infrastructure initiative to meet the colossal infrastructural needs of the low and middle-income countries. The Project – Build Back Better World (B3W) – is aimed to be a partnership between the most developed economies, namely the G7 members, to help narrow the estimated $40 trillion worth of infrastructure needed in the developing world. However, the project seems to be directed as a rival to China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Amidst sharp criticism posed against the People’s Republic during the Summit, the B3W initiative appears to be an alternative multi-lateral funding program to the BRI. Yet, the developing world is the least of the concerns for the optimistic model challenging the Asian giant.

While the B3W claims to be a highly cohesive initiative, the BRI has expanded beyond comprehension and would be extremely difficult to dethrone, even when some of the most lucrative economies of the world are joining heads to compete over the largely untapped potential of the region. Now let’s be fair and contest that neither the G7 nor China intends the welfare of the region over profiteering. However, China enjoys a headstart. The BRI was unveiled back in 2013 by president Xi Jinping. The initiative was projected as a transcontinental long-term policy and investment program aimed to consolidate infrastructural development and gear economic integration of the developing countries falling along the route of the historic Silk Road. 

The highly sophisticated project is a long-envisioned dream of China’s Communist Party; operating on the premise of dominating the networks between the continents to establish unarguable sovereignty over the regional economic and policy decision-making. Referring to the official outline of the BRI issued by China’s National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the BRI drives to: “Promote the connectivity of Asian, European, and African continents and their adjacent seas, establish and strengthen partnerships among the countries along the Belt and Road [Silk Road], set up all-dimensional, multi-tiered and composite connectivity networks and realize diversified, independent, balanced, and sustainable development in these countries”. The excerpt clearly amplifies the thought process and the main agenda of the BRI. On the other hand, the B3W simply stands as a superfluous rival to an already outgrowing program.

Initially known as One Belt One Road (OBOR), the BRI has since expanded in the infrastructural niche of the region, primarily including emerging markets like Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. The standout feature of the BRI has been the mutually inclusive nature of the projects, that is, the BRI has been commandeering projects in many of the rival countries in the region yet the initiative manages to keep the projects running in parallel without any interference or impediment. With a loose hold on the governance whilst giving a free hand to the political and social realities of each specific country, the BRI program presents a perfect opportunity to jump the bandwagon and obtain funding for development projects without undergoing scrutiny and complications. With such attractive nature of the BRI, the program has significantly grown over the past decade, now hosting 71 countries as partners in the initiative. The BRI currently represents a third of the world’s GDP and approximately two-thirds of the world’s entire population.

Similar to BRI, the B3W aims to congregate cross-national and regional cooperation between the countries involved whilst facilitating the implementation of large-scale projects in the developing world. However, unlike China, the G7 has an array of problems that seem to override the overly optimistic assumption of B3W being the alternate stream to the BRI. 

One major contention in the B3W model is the facile assumption that all 7 democracies have an identical policy with respect to China and would therefore react similarly to China’s policies and actions. While the perspective matches the objective of BRI to promote intergovernmental cooperation, the G7 economies are much more polar than the democracies partnered with China. It is rather simplistic to assume that the US and Japan would have a similar stance towards China’s policies, especially when the US has been in a tense trade war with China recently while Japan enjoyed a healthy economic relation with Xi’s regime. It would be a bold statement to conclude that the US and the UK would be more cohesively adjoined towards the B3W relative to the China-Pakistan cooperation towards the BRI. Even when we disregard the years-long partnership between the Asian duo, the newfound initiative would demand more out of the US than the rest of the countries since each country is aware of the tense relations and the underlying desperation that resulted in the B3W program to shape its way in the Summit.

Moreover, the B3W is timed in an era when Europe has seen its history being botched over the past year. Post-Brexit, Europe is exactly the polar opposite of the unified policy-making glorified in the B3W initiate. The European Union (EU), despite US reservations, recently signed an investment deal with China. A symbolic gesture against the role played by former US President Donald J. Trump to bolster the UK’s exit from the Union. As London tumbles into peril, it would rather join hands with China as opposed to the democrat-regime of the US to prevent isolation in the region. Despite US opposition, Germany – Europe’s largest economy – continues to place China as a key market for its Automobile industry. Such a divided partnership holds no threat to the BRI, especially when the partners are highly dependent on China’s market and couldn’t afford an affront to China’s long envisaged initiative.

Even if we assume a unified plan of action shared between the G7 countries, the B3W would fall short in attracting the key developing countries of the region. The main targets of the initiative would naturally be the most promising economies of Asia, namely India, Pakistan, or Bangladesh. However, the BRI has already encapsulated these countries: China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIMEC) being two of the core 6 developmental corridors of BRI. 

While both the participatory as well as the targeted democracies would be highly cautious in supporting the B3W over BRI, the newfound initiate lacks the basic tenets of a lasting project let alone standing rival to the likes of BRI. The B3W is aimed to be domestically funded through USAID, EXIM, and other similar programs. However, a project of such complex nature involves investments from diverse funding channels. The BRI, for example, tallies a total volume of roughly USD 4 to 8 trillion. However, the BRI is state-funded and therefore enjoys a variety of funding routes including BRI bond flotation. The B3W, however, simply falls short as up until recently, the large domestic firms and banks in the US have been pushed against by the Biden regime. An accurate example is the recent adjustment of the global corporate tax rate to a minimum of 15% to undercut the power of giants like Google and Amazon. Such strategies would make it impossible for the United States and its G7 counterparts to gain multiple channels of funding compared to the highly leveraged state-backed companies in China.

Furthermore, the B3W’s competitiveness dampens when conditionalities are brought into the picture. On paper, the B3W presents humane conditions including Human Rights preservation, Climate Change, Rule of Law, and Corruption prevention. In reality, however, the targeted countries are riddled with problems in all 4 categories. A straightforward question would be that why would the developing countries, already hard-pressed on funds, invest to improve on the 4 conditions posed by the B3W when they could easily continue to seek benefits from a no-strings-attached funding through BRI?

The B3W, despite being a highly lucrative and prosperous model, is idealistic if presented as a competition to the BRI. Simply because the G7, majorly the United States, elides the ground realities and averts its gaze from the labyrinth of complex relations shared with China. The only good that could be achieved is if the B3W manages to find its own unique identity in the region, separate from BRI in nature and not rivaling the scale of operation. While Biden has remained vocal to assuage the concerns regarding the B3W’s aim to target the trajectory of the BRI, the leaders have remained silent over the detailed operations of the model in the near future. For now, the B3W would await bipartisan approval in the United States as the remaining partners would develop their plan of action. Safe to say, for now, that the B3W won’t hold a candle to the BRI in the long-run but could create problems for the G7 members if it manages to irk China in the Short-run.

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COVID-19: New Dynamics to the World’s Politico-Economic Structure



How ironic it is that a virus invisible from a naked human eye can manage to topple down the world and its dynamics. Breaking out of CoronaVirus, its spread across the globe and the diversity of consequences faced by the individual states all make it evident how the dynamics of the world could be reversed in months. Starting from the blame games regarding coronavirus to its geostrategic implications and the entire enigma between COVID-19 and politics, COVID-19 and economies have shaken the world. Whether it is the acclaimed super power, struggling powers or third world states or even individuals, the pandemic has unveiled the capability and credibility of all, especially in political and economic domains. Wearing masks in public, avoiding hand shake and maintaining distance from one another have emerged as ‘new normal’ in the social world of interaction.

Since the pandemic has locked its eyes upon the globe, world politics has taken an unfortunate drift. From the opportunities for leaders to abuse power during state of emergency (which is imposed in different states to limit the spread of novel Coronavirus) to the likelihood of rise of far-right nationalists to the emergence of ‘travel bubbles’ between states (such as New Zealand and Australia) and the increased chances of regionalism in post-pandemic world to the new terrorist strategies to gain support and many others, all are result of the pandemic’s impact on the political world, one way or the other. Since the end of WWII, the United States has taken the role of global leadership and after the Cold War, it became more prominent as it was the sole superpower of the world. Talking ideally, pandemics are perceived to bring up global cooperation but in the COVID-19 scenario it has started a whole new set of debates, sparkled nativism versus globalization and the sharp divide in global politics has drifted the focus from overcoming the global pandemic through global response to inward looking policies of leaders.

Covid-19 has impacted every sphere of life, be it social, political, health or economic. The pandemic itself being the result of a globalized world has affected globalization badly. It is the best illustration of the interrelation of politics and economics and how the steps in one sector impact the other in this interdependent, globalized world. Political actions such as restricting travel had drastic economic impacts especially to the countries whose economy is largely dependent on tourism, foreign investment etc. Similarly, economic actions such as limiting foreign products’ access had political implications in the form of sudden unemployment and downturn in living standards of people.

For the first time in history, oil prices became negative when its demand suddenly dropped when industries were shut down almost everywhere. Russia and Saudi Arabia’s oil clash which led to increased oil production by Saudi Arabia further complicated the situation. This unprecedented drop in oil demand and consequently its price would only help in the economic recovery of countries. Covid-19 has impacted three sectors badly. First of all, it affected production as global manufacturing has declined due to decrease in demand. Secondly, it has created supply chain and market disruption. Finally, lockdowns affected local businesses everywhere. Bad impact aside, pandemic has led to the change in demand of products. Instead of investment and foreign trade, states having strong medical and textiles industries have got the opportunity of increasing exports. This is because there are requirements of face masks everywhere to avoid contagion. Need for medical instruments have also increased such as ventilators in developing countries specially. 

The only positive impact of Coronavirus is that it fostered environmental cleanliness. It is said that it can avert a climate emergency but the fact is that, as soon as the lockdown will be eased and businesses will begin returning into functioning, economic growth and prosperity will be prioritized over sustainability and we might even witness, more than ever, carbon emissions into the atmosphere.

Novel coronavirus has brought new dynamics to the world’s politico-economic structure. While the world has the opportunity to come close for cooperation and consensus to fight it, we might witness increased regionalism in the post-pandemic world as a cautious measure and alternative where crisis management would be more cooperative and quick. There is a likelihood of the emergence of an international treaty or regime to ban bio-weapons. While the prevalence of political optimism is not assured in the post-pandemic world, we are likely to see the interdependent economic world, as before, to overcome the economic slump and revive the global economy. 

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