Marine safety is an expression that explains the problems associated with the aquatic life, national safety, sea territory, economy, financial growth of a nation and its safety. Gwadar port can become a doorway for business, commerce, collaboration, coordination and development for our country.Pakistan’s position in the marine region has become significant nowadays due to this recent development.Both China and Pakistan have friendly relations with each other for decades. It is therefore logical that any Chinese interest in the region would give centre-stage to its Friend. Any economic progress would bring stability and prosperity throughout the South-Asian region and beyond.
It automatically raises a need to reinforce marine safety control in Gwadar port and China’s Marine Silk Road. Both nations understand why marine growth and marine safety in Pakistan are of utmost necessity. Pakistan and China can achieve the geo-political aims and their desired strategy by working extremely closely together.
According to Mahan’s Sea Power theory, the prosperity of a nation depends on its sea power.A nation can have dominant influence on the international community if marine protection and marine control is implemented. One of the important factors he mentioned was the geographical area of the country or the nation. He has also carefully raised the importance of the number of streams, creeks,seashore anchorage and reservoirs that are linked with the sea route. According to Mahan, the location of shore-line is also of vital importance. Another important factor is the mindset of people residing in that country or nation with context to their beliefs, ideology and opinions. The number of people residing in the country has an importance of its own. Their perspectives regarding business and commercial activities has a lot of bearing according to him. Are they business-minded and do they believe in economic prosperity due to trade and commercial activities on the sea shore? Does the administration and authority believe in their interests or do they want the prosperity of the nation? If political leaders want monopolization of power then the country will not prosper.The decisions made by the people residing in the country will not be able to bear economic and financial progression in that case.Mahan emphasized that marine forces were important in making a nation world-wide powerful and strong because of its military decisions and financial superiority. Military and naval might has been used as an extension of diplomacy for ages.
Marine safety plays a fundamental role in a state’s security. Naval security is dependent on government’s decision regarding political, economic affairs as well as the relations with other states. It is necessary for the development of a nation or a region to resolve the disputes with their neighbour. Throughout history, international disputes have created immense problems for countries and their economic progression.Different countries can coexist with friendly neighbour resulting in greater benefit for its people. For the prosperity of nations, peace is an essential element. To avoid war and hostility an element of understanding and mutual survival will be formed between the states. Hence states will learn to co-exist peacefully. Peaceful relationships between both the states are important for economic growth and prosperity. Marine safety and Marine Safety Control requires all nations to stop naval violence, stealing ships, stopping the use of illegal drugs, and putting an end to the illegal buying and selling of humans, drugs and weapons. Naval safety involves the safety of ships and the marine environment. Pakistan’s prosperity is dependent on reinforcing marine safety control. If Pakistan does not strengthen its naval safety, it will bear grave economic losses. It would create an image of an unstable sea-power globally. Besides this, it will not be able to protect the smuggling of ships and the illegal use and transportation of drugs. Sea route is of vital importance as it is linked to the Indian Ocean, South East Asia, Arabian Sea and Africa. Unfortunately, Arabian Sea faces the issues of marine security control. Smuggling of drugs and weapons is widely observed in the Arabian Sea. However, unauthorized and illegal use of drugs and weapons in the Indian ocean has been reduced owing to regular patrolling.Oil is carried through the Indian Ocean for the purpose of trade which is important for the prosperity of South Asian region and other countries as well. Naval safety is an important issue and it must be addressed adequately. Sea laws should be implemented and followed to eliminate illegal transfer of drugs,human-trafficking and weapons. It would automatically help to reduce sea crimes.
Pakistan is politically unstable so it is difficult for Pakistan to maintain China’s trust. China believes thatmodern infrastructure and technology use by Pakistan can help eliminate poverty.It will contribute to economic prosperity of the Pakistani nation. The vision behind the Economic Corridor is to improve the lives of the Pakistani and Chinese people by building economic cooperation, logistics and regional connections. In addition to local challenges, the implementation of the Pakistan Economic Corridor project faces a number of international reservations.
Forefront external challenge to this corridor is India’s labile approach to the corridor. India’s serious demand is that Gilgit-Baltistan is a disputed territory. The trail route through this area is illegal. Another concern in India is that they see Gwadar as a Chinese “String of Pearls” encircling it in the deep sea, stretching from the East-coast to the Pacific Ocean. China is also building ports in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh which poses a potential military challenge to India. India expects that in the future, China will block Indian sea routes by stealing such ports. As a result, India is dissatisfied with the progress made by the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and is sabotaging the corridor by playing its cards in Balochistan. The recent arrest of Indian agent Kulbhushan Jadhav generally confirms Indian intervention in Balochistan and Pakistan. In order to sabotage the success of this corridor the Indo-Afghan nexus remains active. Continued internal instability in Afghanistan is purported to be linked to Pakistan. All acts of terrorism in Afghanistan are claimed to have their roots in our country. Additionally, India is building military bases in Afghanistan where terrorist activities are taking place. Sabotage of the economic corridor through Afghanistan continues unabated. Pakistan-Afghan relations falter over an insecure Durand Line repeatedly.
Another challenge in implementing the Corridor is Chabahar Port. Iran is developing the Chabahar port in cooperation with India. India is investing billions of dollars in the project to disrupt the Gwadar Port. It repeatedly resorts to negative propaganda regarding capacity and the depth of waterways. It has claimed that Gwadar is about to expire. However, President Rouhani said: “Chabahar will not compete with Gwadar, but the two will complement each other.”
Another important obstacle is the involvement of the major powers. The two main powers, the United States and Japan, are eyeing a multi-billion dollar project. China has adopted various policies to control the United States. The United States feels it as threatening to its global power with and thus placing obstacles in the way of port of Gwadar. In addition, the United States understands that Gwadar Port might be used for military purposes in the future. As part of its safeguard policy, the United States signed a “strategic and economic partnership” with India. US assistance to NSG India is also part of this partnership. Their cooperation poses a challenge not only to China but also to Pakistan. On the other hand, Japan is under pressure because the use of the Economic Corridor will reduce the distance between China and its trading countries to 9,000 km, which will have a profound impact on Japan’s exports. Moreover, it includes an integrated transportation and information technology system, communication channels, agricultural development, and poverty relief. Moreover, it includes tourism, financial cooperation and human resource development. Gwadar port is very important for China and for international trade between nations. This route links the South Asian region with South China Sea and new infrastructure is being built. Marine pathways, railways, roads and power structures are being built. This route would open new avenues of trade and commercial activities thus creating new sources of income. Absence of ensuring naval security will significantly affect Pakistan and China. Additionally, it will bode economic and financial loss for oceans and the linked territories with this sea route which will also be adversely affected. India and United States want hegemony over the region however China doesn’t appreciate this decision. China has helped Pakistan in reinforcing its naval capabilities through management, coordination, engineering and ship transportation. The infrastructure is built by Chinese workers and the investment is done by Chinese nation. Moreover, Pakistan has been blessed with a very important strategic location. This remains a plus point for a country deferred under the burdens of basic-needs fulfillment till today. Usually such projects are considered as nothing but riot-starters but this project has become a reason for which many are willing to let go of their past relations.This has kick-started a competition amongst the regional players as they are gradually realising the potential upside. For many in the region this has become a chance to achieve economic and social reconciliation in their neighbourhood. In the current scenario an opportunity like this presenting itself is not less then a miracle perhaps. This reason should suffice as enough evidence to handle the case with sanity. Messing up this opportunity means moving back the entire block by 50 years to be precise. The rationalization of decision-making regarding the project should be the prime concern of the authorities.They should make the rules which are not bypassed and implement the requisite policies effectively. For prime purposes another thing to be kept in mind by the country concerned that even at the time of the East India Company trade was the opening part. Soon the white man eventually built a castle and introduced the strongest monopoly that have been discovered till now.This project promotes worldwide collaboration, cooperation and requires global control. Naval forces of China and Pakistan are working day and night for this project to be successful. Furthermore the Middle-Eastern proverb “Fashion moves around the sea” is another justification and reasoning as to why the sea port will be a game-changing part for the country. Asian slowly growing dominance is augmented with the country’s trade routes as a major contribution.The investor country can also fulfill and solve it’s old issues between the neighbour as the time proceeds. This will eventually give Pakistan a moment of relief from the external pressures in order to straighten up its image of falling justice and institutional system.
For China it will open more opportunities as the trade of oil will be possible from a short route. In addition this arrangement will also enable China to observe Indian marine operations.
- What problems will China and Pakistan face nationwide?
- What will be the marine security concerns and how will they affect the economic prosperity of both Pakistan and China?
- How can Pakistan and China achieve the geo-political aims and what is the desired strategy to achieve them ?
- What are the future implications of Gwadar Port worldwide?
Gwadar port has worldwide implications, whether related to economy, trade or commercial activities. It does not only affect China and Pakistan’s economic prosperity but the prosperity of South Asia and beyond. Pakistan and China’s naval and marine forces are working day and night for the development of Gwadar Port. However,India and United States want to have dominance over the South Asian region. They are only concerned about their self-interests. Through the Indian Ocean almost half of the trade is carried out. If this combined project of Pakistan and China becomes unsuccessful it will have global and worldwide implications. It will destroy multiple naval forces and many nations will face economic and financial loss. However,if marine safety control is ensured, this initiative will be successful and economic prosperity will be observed in the future. It may not be wrong to say that in the realist paradigm usually what we see is the self interest to every extent. Hence it is a thoughtful thing to take necessary steps in time to settle down your affairs domestically and nationally. Which is Pakistan have to be extra careful Mahaan’s Sea Power Theory: Significance of Marine Safety Control in Gwadar Port in dealings with the giants of economy.
India’s Strategic Use of TTP to Undermine Pakistan’s Stability
Again, bloodshed in the city of flowers, with more than 90 martyrs and at least 250 injured in a suicide attack by the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan in Peshawar. India’s backing for the TTP and its participation in the group’s avowed jihad against Pakistan have emerged as the most important security challenges in South Asia, with significant ramifications for regional stability and peace.
The Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), commonly known as the Taliban in Pakistan, is a Pakistan-based Islamist extremist group. The group, which was founded in 2007, has claimed responsibility for a number of fatal assaults against Pakistani civilians and military personnel. TTP has proclaimed war against Pakistan’s government and military forces, arguing that they are not Islamic enough.
TTP has become a major security danger to Pakistan over the years, spreading widespread fear and instability. The group’s constant strikes on civilians and military targets have resulted in hundreds of deaths and massive devastation. The rising frequency and savagery of TTP assaults has caused considerable alarm among Pakistanis and the international world. Despite significant international criticism, the TTP continues to carry out atrocities with impunity.
Evidence of India’s Support for TTP:
Over the last decade, Pakistani security services have often reported on the Indian intelligence agency (RAW) providing support to the TTP. This assistance has been reported to include financing, training, and weaponry, all of which have aided the TTP’s capacity to carry out strikes against Pakistan. Pakistani officials, security professionals, and independent investigators have claimed India’s participation with TTP, citing proof of Indian involvement in TTP activities and divulging the false flag operations.
TTP commanders obtaining safe shelter in India is another piece of evidence pointing to India’s connection with TTP. TTP commanders have been said to have crossed the border into India for medical treatment and then stayed for lengthy periods of time. The granting of safe haven to TTP commanders implies that India is not only supporting the organization, but also shielding its leaders from prosecution and reprisal.
In addition to the Indian intelligence agency’s direct backing for TTP, there have been claims of Indian media outlets distributing misinformation in favor of TTP. This has included interviews with TTP officials and positive coverage of TTP’s efforts by Indian news sources. The media coverage has been interpreted as a means for India to legitimize the TTP’s conduct and seek sympathy from the world community.
India is contributing to Pakistan’s instability by supplying TTP with the money, safety, and legitimacy it requires to carry out its assaults.
India’s Motives Behind Supporting TTP:
One of India’s key motivations for supporting the TTP is to undermine Pakistan’s government and military. By assisting the organization, India is able to undermine Pakistan’s ability to maintain security and stability, creating an atmosphere in which the TTP may operate with impunity. The ultimate purpose of this assistance is to weaken Pakistan’s military and political institutions, making it easier for India to achieve a regional advantage.
Another reason India backs the TTP is to create a political and security vacuum in Pakistan. By assisting the organization, India may foment turmoil and instability in the country, creating possibilities for India to exploit the situation. The political and security vacuum left by the TTP’s operations can then be utilized by India to further its own goals and acquire more influence in the area.
India’s backing for the TTP might also be interpreted as an attempt to shift attention away from its own human rights violations in Kashmir. By assisting the TTP and producing turmoil and instability in Pakistan, India is able to divert attention away from its own activities in Kashmir, which have been severely condemned for abusing the human rights of Kashmiris. By helping TTP, India can divert attention away from its own acts and position itself as a responsible regional actor.
The Consequences of India’s Actions:
One of the most serious consequences of India’s backing for the TTP is the worsening of terrorism in Pakistan. India is feeding the fire of terrorism in the area by supplying finance, training, and equipment to the group, making it easier for TTP to carry out its heinous actions. This has had a significant influence on Pakistan’s security and stability, as well as the safety of its population. Terrorism has exacerbated violence and loss of life, creating an environment of dread and insecurity throughout the country.
India’s backing for TTP worsens regional tensions and instability. The rise of terrorism in Pakistan has heightened tensions between Pakistan and India, as well as between Pakistan and its neighbors. This has produced a climate of insecurity and uncertainty in the region, threatening regional peace and security. As each side gets more entrenched in its stance, the international community’s ability to find a solution to the crisis has become more difficult.
India’s backing for TTP has had a significant influence on regional peace and security. The rise in terrorism and tensions has made it increasingly difficult to establish regional peace and stability. This has had a detrimental influence on the region’s economic development, social advancement, and people’s well-being. The continuation of violence and insecurity has also made it more difficult for the international community to address the underlying causes of conflict and work toward a long-term solution.
The international community must take steps to confront India’s backing for TTP. India’s activities are clearly against international law and standards, and they endanger regional peace and security. The international community must strongly denounce India’s conduct and endeavor to hold those involved accountable for their acts.
Holding those involved accountable for their conduct is critical to preventing such incidents in the future. The international community must act to bring individuals who promote terrorism and destabilize the area to account. This involves investigating and punishing individuals responsible for supplying TTP with support, as well as those involved in planning and carrying out terrorist actions. Only by taking firm action can we expect to restore stability and security to the area and prevent such actions in the future.
Cyberwar, Netwar: The Untouchable and Unpredictable
Territorial integrity, sovereignty and non-interference are salient features of a just and secure state. For a state to exist, compete and survive in the international context, a country must be well equipped. The unbiased, neutral and non-aligned movement is the best way to reach heights, especially for small states. However, this is not an easy task, ‘everything has a price’. The existence and co-dependence of a state are made further vulnerable as well as strengthened by way of ‘information’. Unlike in past, when troops protected borders, at present country must face and react to content generated and disseminated on online platforms.
Cyberwar and Netwar are mechanisms that are used by certain individuals as well as entities to infiltrate systems, pass a message, steal information or change the material content. “Cyberwar” is the act of “disrupting, if not destroying, information and communication systems”. On the contrary, “Netwar” is to “disrupt, damage, or modify what a target population knows or thinks it knows about the world around it”. These threats are vicious to national security. Since the whole world is digitalized, any information regardless of its credibility reaches a wide audience. There are various modes of cyberwar including Phishing, Ransomware, E-commerce data interception, Crimeware-as-a-Service, Cyber Scams and Crypto-jacking. (Arquilla and Ronfeldt 1995) states, that a Netwar may focus on public or elite opinion, or both. It may involve diplomacy, propaganda and psychological campaigns, political and cultural subversion, deception of or interference with local media, infiltration of computer networks and databases and efforts to promote dissident or opposition movements across computer networks.
According to Blackfog’s 2021 State of Ransomware Report, government agencies were the top targets for cybercriminals, followed by education, healthcare, services, technology, manufacturing and retail. According to Curran, Concannon and McKeever (in Janczewski and Colarik 2008: 03) have pointed out; the LTTE became the world’s first terrorist outfit to attack a country’s computer system in 1998. Another example is India. In August 2013, Indira Gandhi International Airport (IGI) faced a Cyberattack. ‘Technical snag’ hit the operations of terminal no. 03. Nisar & StepovayaIn (2022) has cited (UNODC, 2021) which states that in September in Malaysia, a web-hosting service was the target of a ransomware attack demanding US$ 900,000 in cryptocurrency and In May, four subsidiaries of an international insurance company in Thailand, Malaysia, Hong Kong, and the Philippines were hit by a ransomware attack asking for US$ 20 million. Where that being said for cyber-war, net war is also a crucial problem. This is explicit in Russia and Ukraine conflict where information advantage is heavily discussed and debated. Byman (2022) has mentioned, “Confrontation between Bahrain, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE (the so-called “Quartet”) and Qatar, for example, began in 2017 in part due to social media exploitation involving hacked email accounts and associated disinformation”. Sri Lanka too faces disinformation by LTTE and its international networks.
Threats, which occur on online platforms, are equally important as much as militaristic aspects of warfare. Where the militaristic aspect includes conquering and declaring power, Cyberwar and Netwar disrupt systems and brainwash people respectively. Since crimes conducted, are unpredictable, intangible and cross borders, ascertaining the criminal is daring. Due to these reasons, imposing liability as to whether it is collective or individual becomes strenuous. Furthermore, lack of experience, expertise in personnel, lack of technology and inadequate infrastructure can be identified as problems. Information illiteracy is another pertaining issue, which is the inability of individuals to recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate and use information effectively. Moreover, cyber-attacks are widely done due to their low cost and widespread nature.
With that being said, it is imperative to reiterate, that national security is threatened by Cyberwar as well as Netwar. Thus, any country must overcome the challenges mentioned afore. For that, to fight cyber war, enhancing technological infrastructure and technical capacity is important. In netwar, information literacy must be instilled to the population. Hence, people will be able to evaluate the quality, credibility and validity of the content. In addition, it is crucial to have a reporting mechanism for false content disseminated online. International cooperation is effective to combat Netwar and Cyberwar. Likewise, it is vital to sign and ratify necessary laws and follow resolutions in the international context. Furthermore, individuals, government, as well as private entities, must behave in a cyber-resilient manner that they are otherwise not incentivized to do.
Operation Neptune Spear and the Killing of Osama bin Laden
The founder and first leader of Al-Qaeda, And establishing 20-years republican government in Afghanistan: Neptune Spear was the secret name or code of the operation that was carried out under the leadership of the CIA on May 2, 2011 in the Abbottabad region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa for killing of the leader of the Al-Qaeda group Osama bin Laden. This operation, which was carried out from Afghanistan to the territory of Pakistan by former President of the United States Barack Obama, is generally known as JSOC.
Why this mission was named Neptune Spear?
The reason why the operation to kill Osama Bin Laden, the leader of the al-Qaeda group, was given the name Neptune’s Spear is as follows: The mission was named Operation Neptune’s Spear because it was the emblem of the United States Navy Seal, and Neptune in classical mythology means the god of the sea. In addition, this operation is commonly known as JSOC, because the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) is a sub-command of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM), which played an important role in the operation to kill Osama Bin Laden on May 2, 2011.
The Neptune Spear operation started on May 1, 2011 from the American military base in Jalalabad province of Afghanistan, and ended on May 2 in Abbottabad, Pakistan. Former President Obama, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton, Vice President Joe Biden, Defense Secretary Robert Gates and members of the national security team were monitoring the operation online. All involved in Operation Neptune Spear were 23 SEALs, an interpreter, two helicopters and a combat dog. The operation started from a base of the American forces in Jalalabad, Afghanistan, on May 1, 2011 at 10:30 pm local time, and on May 2, 2011, after 40 minutes long operation, they ended by killing Osama Bin Laden before one o’clock. Who was Osama Bin Laden and how did he become a big threat to the world, especially the United States? Osama bin Laden, the son of Muhammad bin Awad, was born on March 10, 1957 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, but some sources close to Osama believe that he was born in 1958. Osama bin Laden had five wives, his first wife was Najwa Ghanim, who married him in 1974, his second and divorced wife was Khadija Sharif, who married him in 1983, and His third wife was Khairya Saber who married Osama bin Laden in 1985. His fourth wife was Siham Saber, who married Osama bin Laden in 1987, and his fifth wife was Amal al-Sadah, who married Osama bin Laden in 2000.
Osama had about twenty male and female children from his first four wives, but according to some sources, Osama had twenty-four male and female children from his fifth wife, and some put the number of children at 26, but the exact report is 24 about Osama’s children. Osama bin Al-Adeen studied economics at Abdul Aziz University, And in addition to this, after receiving education in the field of Civil engineering, politics and Shari’a, he studied partially in English literature at Oxford University in England, But intellectually, he was more encouraged towards the jihadist ways and intellectually he chose the jihadist way. Before Osama Bin Laden left Britain and went to Pakistan to choose the path of war, he showed intellectual interest in the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Moreover, during his university years, he financially supported jihadist groups in South Sudan, Egypt, Syria and a number of African countries, because he inherited 20 to 25 million dollars from his father, And Osama spends a part of that money on construction projects and financially supports terrorist groups with the money received from those construction companies. In 1979, Bin Laden went to Pakistan and stayed with his intellectual and jihadist teacher, Abdullah Azzam, and prepared for the war against the former Soviet Union in Afghanistan, after that, he became friends with Ayman al-Zawahiri and founded the (Maktab-Al-Khadamat) in 1984 with Abdullah Azzam, Ayman al-Zawahiri and Osama bin Laden. After that, he started recruiting fighters for Mujahideen against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan and spent most of his wealth on financing terrorists. After that, Osama bin Laden started a massive effort to establish Al-Qaeda and started recruiting fighters from Africa, the Middle East and South Asia, And he accelerated the search for young people with a fighting and jihadist mindset from all over the world, and he focused on Egypt in order to attract Egyptian engineers. After extensive financial and armed cooperation with other jihadist organizations in Pakistan, in 1988, the Al-Qaeda armed group was activated by Osama, Not only did they continue their attacks in Afghanistan, but they also carried out many bloody attacks in the Middle East and Africa. The bloodiest attack was the 11th of September 2001 and the darkest day in the history of the United States. September 11 or 9/11, on September 11, 2001, 19 Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial airplanes, and the first two commercial airplanes and suicide bombers targeted the New York City International Trade Center. The third plane targeted the headquarters of the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, and the fourth plane planned to attack the federal government building in Washington DC, but did not reach the target, And in four attacks, around 3000 Americans were killed and up to 25000 Americans and foreigners were injured. After this attack, Osama was included in the list of the most wanted terrorists by the United States and the Western alliance, a list controlled by the FBI.
After 10 years of intense investigations and intelligence investigations, on May 2, 2011, the US government avenged 9/11 by killing Osama at the ISI’s most secure location in Abbottabad, Pakistan. However, Osama’s body was thrown into the sea before his body should be presented to the intelligence agencies of the world as evidence. But there is some confidential information that Osama bin Laden, the American dictator and the founder of al-Qaeda, was recruited by the CIA in 1979 at the beginning of the US-sponsored jihadist war against Afghanistan, And he was 22 years old and trained in a CIA-sponsored guerrilla training camp. In any case, Osama’s entry into Afghanistan led to the fall of the first Taliban regime, and at the same time, a person who was famous for so dear to Westerners came to power in Afghanistan.
How did Hamid Karzai get from immigration to the presidency?
Common understanding between former President Hamid Karzai and the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States and some untold facts: When the Al-Qaeda group carried out the deadly attacks in New York, Washington and Pennsylvania on September 11, 2001, and the leader of this group, Osama bin Laden, took refuge in Afghanistan. In addition, the first Taliban regime of Afghanistan at that time, under the leadership of Mullah Omar Mujahid, accepted the refuge of Osama Bin Laden. Not only that, the American people knew that the United States and the security agencies of this country would not remain silent, and would soon start preparing for revenge. But before that the United States, the Central Intelligence Agency, the Army, and the Special Operations Command of the United States Army started a response plan, they first proposed to the Afghan government to hand over Osama Bin Al-Adeen to the United States. Nevertheless, the leader and founder of the Taliban, Mullah Omar Mujahid, rejected their request, and for the second time, the United States tried to mediate the Saudi Arabia. The US asked the Taliban government to hand over Osama to the government of Saudi Arabia, but Mullah Omar Mujahid said that handing over Osama Bin Al-Aden to Saudi Arabia means handing over to America.
Furthermore, after rejecting the second proposal, the plan to attack Afghanistan was started by the United States and its allies on October 7, 2001. Just 15 days after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, CIA and US Special Forces personnel were sent to northern Afghanistan, to meet local tribal leaders and local commanders such as Abdul Rashid Dostum and work together, to start a war against the Taliban, who controlled the country and gave shelter to Osama bin Laden. A CIA team arrived with $3 million in $100 bills to use to recruit tribal leaders and strengthen the war against the Taliban, and teams of military units came from the fifth Special Forces Group. The then President of the United States, George W. Bush, together with the head of the CIA, George J. Tenet, made a coordinated decision to overthrow the Taliban government by appointing an influential person from the southwest zone of Afghanistan after the formation of a new government in the country.
That person was Abdulhad Karzai’s son Hamid Karzai who spent a lot of time in exile in Pakistan, not only he was the national leader for the Pashtuns of this side of the border, but he also had a special status among the Pashtuns of that side of the border in Pakistan. This position made him a target of the CIA. After October 7, 2001, members of the Central Intelligence Agency began to secretly visit Hamid Karzai’s house in Quetta and Chaman, Baluchistan, Pakistan, as a result, in July 2002, Hamid Karzai came to power in Afghanistan under the warm support of the CIA and the West, and he remained the president of Afghanistan until September 2014.
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