Authors: Juliana Taimoorazy and Uzay Bulut
Pope Francis visited parts of northern Iraq once occupied by the Islamic State (ISIS) terrorists, including the cities of Mosul and Baghdeda in the Nineveh Plains, on the third day of his historic trip to the country.
On March 7, the Pope prayed among Mosul’s ruined churches before meeting Christians there. The city was once a former ISIS stronghold. He later met Christians in the ancient Church of the Immaculate Conception, which was torched by ISIS and has now been restored, in the Assyrian town of Baghdeda (Qaraqosh).
ISIS had invaded and captured Baghdeda in August of 2014 after the withdrawal of Kurdish forces. This invasion forced a majority of Nineveh inhabitants to leave their homes. The indigenous Christian community, which belongs to a number of denominations, forms a demographic majority in the Nineveh Plains. This is a region of immense historical, cultural and religious significance among the natives in the Assyrian heartland.
Mosul and Nineveh
Mosul contained sizeable ethnic Assyrian and other Christian communities, with many active ancient churches and monasteries, until its invasion by ISIS in 2014. Mosul has also for centuries been a significant center for Christians.
Mosul is built along the Tigris, one of the Biblical rivers of Paradise, opposite the ruins of the well-known Assyrian capital city of Nineveh, which was inhabited as early as 3,000 BC. This was where, according to the Bible, the residents escaped God’s destruction after the prophet Jonah came to them and encouraged that they turn away from sin.
“Mosul and the Nineveh Plain are places of great historical and current relevance for the Assyrian people as a whole,” said Efrem Yildiz, a Professor of Hebrew and Aramaic Studies at the University of Salamanca.
“But above all it is important for the implantation of Christianity in the Middle East starting with northern Mesopotamia, the ancestral territory of the Assyrians who converted to Christianity in the first century of the Christian era. The kingdom of Adiabene, together with that of Ashur and Osrhoene, were the first small Assyrian kingdoms to convert to Christianity and were the ones who brought the Gospel to all Far East.
“Currently, the Christian presence in the area is essential for all of Mesopotamia and especially for the Assyrian people, who are divided into different Catholic and non-Catholic ecclesial branches. The Nineveh Plains is the last hope to be able to implant true democracy and develop Christianity as it deserves, if it has the support of the Western world,” said Yildiz.
The indigenous people of Iraq are Assyrians, who have inhabited there for millennia. The ancient Assyrians ruled their empire from several capitals in what is today known as Iraq. One of them was the city of Nineveh, which was once the largest city in the world. However, Assyrians have been stateless for more than two millennia, since the fall of the Assyrian Empire and sack of Nineveh in 612 BCE.
Hannibal Travis, a Professor of Law at the Florida International University, notes:
“As the early Christian church was growing and evangelizing distant lands, the Assyrian identity survived the destruction of Nineveh. Assyrians continued to practice their ancient religion and inhabited their ancient capital of Assur, rebuilt in a new style.”
However, with the Arab conquests of Mesopotamia, Persia, Syria, Armenia, Egypt, and the Levant, the Eastern Christian peoples fell to a subordinate status, also known as dhimmitude.
“Arab officials decreed the destruction of many churches, the cessation of Christian religious services, the deportation of Christians from the land, the expropriation of their property, and the executions of those who resisted,” adds Professor Travis.
Despite severe persecutions, Assyrians have remained resilient.
“The modern Assyrians of Iraq and Persia have had such ancient Assyrian names as Sargon and Sennacherib since the earliest European contact with them. The name ‘Assyria’ was also consistently applied to the area around the ancient Assyrian capital of Nineveh, and the Christians of Iraq reaffirmed their Assyrian identity from the earliest French and British contact.”
Assyrian contributions to science and intellectual developments, even under Muslim rule, are also well-documented. Assyrian Christians living under the Abbasid Caliphs, for instance, are credited with translating many Greek scientific and philosophical works into Arabic, writes Professor Travis.
The Pope went to these ancient lands in Iraq, which are of deep significance for Christianity. He visited the Church Square in Mosul to pray for the victims of ISIS. Surrounded by the ruins of the square’s Four Churches, he said the exodus of Christians from Iraq and the broader Middle East had done “incalculable harm not just to the individuals and communities concerned but also to the society they leave behind.”
2014 ISIS Invasion
Like the early Islamic armies who invaded the region in the eighth century, ISIS also murdered the Christians of Iraq, desecrated Christian places of worship, and beheaded religious statues.
When ISIS terrorists invaded Mosul in July of 2014, they threatened to kill Christians unless they converted to Islam or paid the jizya tax. A statement issued by the Islamic State was read at the city’s mosques. It called on Christians to comply or face death if they did not leave the city.
The ultimatum cited a historic contract known as dhimma, under which non-Muslims in Islamic societies who refuse to convert are offered so-called “survival” under second-class citizenship if they pay a fee, called a jizya. “We offer them three choices: Islam; the dhimma contract – involving payment of jizya; if they refuse this they will have nothing but the sword,” the ISIS statement said.
Christians in the region were thus forced to choose between paying the jizya tax, converting to Islam, leaving or getting murdered. Tens of thousands of Christians fled.
ISIS also launched a war on the region’s ancient and medieval cultural heritage, attacking archaeological sites with bulldozers and explosives. Jonah’s Tomb in Mosul, for instance, was destroyedin July of 2014.A year later, parts of ancient Assyrian sites such as Nimrud and Khorsabad were destroyed. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) described the bulldozing of Nimrud as a “war crime.”
“Nimrud is the modern name,” said Nicholas Postgate, a professor of Assyriology at the University of Cambridge. “The ancient name was Kalhu. It’s mentioned in the Bible, under the spelling ‘Calah.'”
According to the National Geographic:
“Reports of looting at Mosul’s libraries and universities began to surface almost as soon as ISIS occupied the city… Centuries-old manuscripts were stolen, and thousands of books disappeared into the shadowy international art market. Mosul University’s library was burned in December.
“Many of the site’s sculptures were housed in the Mosul Museum, and some were damaged during the rampage through the museum documented on video. Men were also shown smashing half-human, half-animal guardian statues called lamassus on Nineveh’s ancient Nirgal Gate. ‘I’m not sure there’s much left to destroy in Mosul,’ says Columbia’s Jones.”
ISIS particularly targeted Christian places of worship such as the Mar Behnam Monastery:”Established in the 4th century, the monastery was dedicated to an early Christian saint. The holy site, maintained since the late 1800s by Syriac Catholic monks, survived the Mongol hordes in the 1200s but fell to ISIS in March. The extremists used explosives to destroy the saint’s tomb and its elaborate carvings and decorations.”
Ramsin Edward, Director of Media and Communications of the Assyrian Cultural and Social Youth Association Inc. (ACSYA),authored a report on this matter titled “Assyrian Cultural Heritage at Risk in Northern Iraq.”
“Intentional destruction of archaeological sites, as well as places of cultural and religious significance have a devastating impact on indigenous Assyrians,” Edward said.
“These sites and monuments are very significant in validating collective memory, forming cultural identity, and providing the Assyrians with a sense of belonging. As Assyrians form new diaspora communities due to ongoing conflict in the region, they become increasingly more disconnected from their motherland and are confronted with the process of assimilation. This is extremely concerning.”
Despite all challenges, Edward remains hopeful. “The Pope’s visit to Iraq will most certainly draw attention to the country’s historic sites and may perhaps even encourage tourism. However, beyond these dusty ruins, there exists a living culture that is on the brink of extinction. The right to self-determination is an integral element of basic human rights and freedoms. An autonomous self-governing region and self-security will be the only viable and long-term solution for the Assyrians. Statically speaking, the areas in the Nineveh Plains where Assyrians maintain their own security have seen the most re-settlement in contrast to other areas.”
Assyrians have for centuries been targeted by Muslim extremists for their faith and ethnicity. Historians record that the first massacre of Assyrians in the modern era took place in the 1840s in northern Mesopotamia in the Ottoman Empire. The greatest assault against the community would take place in less than a century later. During the 1915-1923 Assyrian genocide by Ottoman Turkey, approximately300,000 Assyrians were killed and innumerable women abducted.
Many descendants of the genocide’s survivors left Turkey in the 1980s and 1990s due to the violent conflicts between the Turkish military and the Kurdish PKK. An elderly Assyrian couple– Simoni and Hurmuz Diril – who had had to leave Turkey for Europe returned to their ancient village only to be kidnapped last year.
The couple was abducted from the village of Mehr, a historically Assyrian village that has been repeatedly caught in the crosshairs of various conflicts. The mother, Simoni Diril, was found deceased on March 20, 2020. The whereabouts of the father, Hurmuz Diril, remain unknown. Their son, Father Adday Remzi Diril, is a Catholic priest based in Istanbul, known internationally for his pastoral care of 7,000 Iraqi Christian refugees displaced in Turkey.
The Diril family hopes that the Pope’s visit of Iraq would bring their parent’s forced disappearances to the Pope’s attention and therefore to the world’s attention.
What the future might hold for Assyrians in Nineveh
Ashur Sargon Eskrya, the president of Assyrian Aid Society – Iraq, said that Assyrian Christians still live in an unstable situation in Nineveh plains and in villages and towns under the KRI (Kurdistan Region of Iraq) control.
“This situation stems from a lack of security in the Nineveh Plains and a lack of a legal frame to protect our rights as an indigenous people of Iraq, or even as citizens of the country.
“Nineveh plains are currently divided into two parts; the north part is administrated officially by Baghdad and its security is under peshmerga forces and Asayish (Kurdish security force) of the KRI that are trying to illegally seize Assyrian lands. The south part is controlled by the Iraqi government and its security is provided by three local forces. One is the Assyrian NPU (Nineveh Plain Protection Units), which is part of the Iraqi security forces. The other two are Shabak militia, the Babylon brigade and the 30th brigade, which are following orders coming from outside of the country. This makes the region unstable.”
Turkey’s airstrikes against northern Iraq are increasingly ruining the security of the region and making it harder for Assyrians to return, said Eskrya.
“Assyrian Christian villages near Iraqi Turkish borders are suffering from Turkish airstrikes against Kurdish PKK fighters. The PKK have infiltrated Assyrian villages and are using them as a battlefield, in addition to new conflicts which ingress rapidly in the region between two rivalrous Kurdish groups – KDP (Kurdistan Democratic Party) peshmerga and the PKK (Kurdistan Workers’ Party) – after the security agreement on the region of Sinjar between the Iraqi government and the KRG (Kurdistan Regional Government).The Kurdish peshmerga have also started installing more check points and controlling flowing foods into some Assyrian regions like Nahla Valley.”
The unity of all security forces and militias in the Nineveh Plains under the Iraqi government and recognizing the Assyrian right to self-rule would largely solve security problems in the region, said Eskrya.
“Nineveh plains should be neutralized from the conflicts between Kurdish, Sunni and Shia political parties. The next step should be to draw a road map to establish a legal framework based on the article 125 of the Iraqi constitution to guarantee the rights of Assyrian Christians by establishing a new local administration, a Nineveh plains province, for Assyrians.
“Also, in the villages under the KRG control, it is important to stop the land grabs by Kurds of Assyrian villages and lands immediately.”
Eskrya thinks that for Assyrians to survive in their lands, the support of the Pope and the international Christian community is essential.
“The Pope and Holy See should help protect Christian rights in Iraq and to help keep Christianity as part of the future of Iraq. This should include bringing the attention of the international community to the Assyrian plight and putting more diplomatic pressure on the Iraqi government and the KRG to make them democratize their laws in a way that would recognize the rights of Christians as well, for these two administrations still have laws which violate the human rights of Christians and other non-Muslims.”
Eskrya added that aid and support should be provided to the Assyrian Christian community directly as a strong financial and political plan is needed to help Assyrians who are currently in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan seeking asylum there to return back to their homeland. “If stability is provided in Nineveh, we believe that more Assyrians in the diaspora will return to our lands,” he said.
Eskrya also called on the Pope to lead the efforts to unite Christians in Iraq:“Historically, Eastern Christians belong to the same race, heritage and tradition. However, their ecclesiastical divisions have long fueled sectarianism. The Pope has the ability to mediate between these groups by promoting dialogue, partnership, and find common ground.”
Professor Yildiz also said that the international Christian community with the involvement of the highest authority of the Catholic Church could help the Assyrians to preserve their faith in a very complex region. He continued:
“For centuries Assyrians have suffered persecution, massacres, discrimination of all kinds for being different from others in terms of their faith. What makes them the most vulnerable and defenseless victims is their Christian faith. If the international Christian community does not take the protection of these people seriously, their presence in their ancestral territory has its days counted. So it is not enough to feel sorry for their delicate situation but they also have to act at the international political level to guarantee the rights of these people abandoned and forgotten by the whole world. The Pope of Rome has a crucial role in ensuring the survival of the Assyrians in their land. I hope that this trip will do something to help the Assyrians to live in peace so that they can develop in the Nineveh Plain as a people and a nation like any other people.”
Process to draft Syria constitution begins this week
The process of drafting a new constitution for Syria will begin this week, the UN Special Envoy for the country, Geir Pedersen, said on Sunday at a press conference in Geneva.
Mr. Pedersen was speaking following a meeting with the government and opposition co-chairs of the Syrian Constitutional Committee, who have agreed to start the process for constitutional reform.
The members of its so-called “small body”, tasked with preparing and drafting the Constitution, are in the Swiss city for their sixth round of talks in two years, which begin on Monday.
Their last meeting, held in January, ended without progress, and the UN envoy has been negotiating between the parties on a way forward.
“The two Co-Chairs now agree that we will not only prepare for constitutional reform, but we will prepare and start drafting for constitutional reform,” Mr. Pedersen told journalists.
“So, the new thing this week is that we will actually be starting a drafting process for constitutional reform in Syria.”
The UN continues to support efforts towards a Syrian-owned and led political solution to end more than a decade of war that has killed upwards of 350,000 people and left 13 million in need of humanitarian aid.
An important contribution
The Syrian Constitutional Committee was formed in 2019, comprising 150 men and women, with the Government, the opposition and civil society each nominating 50 people.
This larger group established the 45-member small body, which consists of 15 representatives from each of the three sectors.
For the first time ever, committee co-chairs Ahmad Kuzbari, the Syrian government representative, and Hadi al-Bahra, from the opposition side, met together with Mr. Pedersen on Sunday morning.
He described it as “a substantial and frank discussion on how we are to proceed with the constitutional reform and indeed in detail how we are planning for the week ahead of us.”
Mr. Pedersen told journalists that while the Syrian Constitutional Committee is an important contribution to the political process, “the committee in itself will not be able to solve the Syrian crisis, so we need to come together, with serious work, on the Constitutional Committee, but also address the other aspects of the Syrian crisis.”
North Africa: Is Algeria Weaponizing Airspace and Natural Gas?
In a series of shocking and unintelligible decisions, the Algerian Government closed its airspace to Moroccan military and civilian aircraft on September 22, 2021, banned French military planes from using its airspace on October 3rd, and decided not to renew the contract relative to the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline, which goes through Morocco and has been up and running since 1996–a contract that comes to end on October 31.
In the case of Morocco, Algeria advanced ‘provocations and hostile’ actions as a reason to shut airspace and end the pipeline contract, a claim that has yet to be substantiated with evidence. Whereas in the case of France, Algeria got angry regarding visa restrictions and comments by French President Emmanuel Macron on the Algerian military grip on power and whether the North African country was a nation prior to French colonization in 1830.
Algeria has had continued tensions with Morocco for decades, over border issues and over the Western Sahara, a territory claimed by Morocco as part of its historical territorial unity, but contested by Algeria which supports an alleged liberation movement that desperately fights for independence since the 1970s.
With France, the relation is even more complex and plagued with memories of colonial exactions and liberation and post-colonial traumas, passions and injuries. France and Algeria have therefore developed, over the post-independence decades, a love-hate attitude that quite often mars otherwise strong economic and social relations.
Algeria has often reacted to the two countries’ alleged ‘misbehavior’ by closing borders –as is the case with Morocco since 1994—or calling its ambassadors for consultations, or even cutting diplomatic relations, as just happened in August when it cut ties with its western neighbor.
But it is the first-time Algeria resorts to the weaponization of energy and airspace. “Weaponization” is a term used in geostrategy to mean the use of goods and commodities, that are mainly destined for civilian use and are beneficial for international trade and the welfare of nations, for geostrategic, political and even military gains. As such “weaponization” is contrary to the spirit of free trade, open borders, and solidarity among nations, values that are at the core of common international action and positive globalization.
Some observers advance continued domestic political and social unrest in Algeria, whereby thousands of Algerians have been taking to the streets for years to demand regime-change and profound political and economic reforms. Instead of positively responding to the demands of Algerians, the government is probably looking for desperate ways to divert attention and cerate foreign enemies as sources of domestic woes. Morocco and France qualify perfectly for the role of national scapegoats.
It may be true also that in the case of Morocco, Algeria is getting nervous at its seeing its Western neighbor become a main trade and investment partner in Africa, a role it can levy to develop diplomatic clout regarding the Western Sahara issue. Algeria has been looking for ways to curb Morocco’s growing influence in Africa for years. A pro-Algerian German expert, by the name of Isabelle Werenfels, a senior fellow in the German Institute for International and Security Affairs, even recommended to the EU to put a halt to Morocco’s pace and economic clout so that Algeria could catch up. Weaponization may be a desperate attempt to hurt the Moroccan economy and curb its dynamism, especially in Africa.
The impact of Algeria’s weaponization of energy and airspace on the Moroccan economy is minimal and on French military presence in Mali is close to insignificant; however, it shows how far a country that has failed to administer the right reforms and to transfer power to democratically elected civilians can go.
In a region, that is beleaguered by threats and challenges of terrorism, organized crime, youth bulge, illegal migration and climate change, you would expect countries like Algeria, with its geographic extension and oil wealth, to be a beacon of peace and cooperation. Weaponization in international relations is inacceptable as it reminds us of an age when bullying and blackmail between nations, was the norm. The people of the two countries, which share the same history, language and ethnic fabric, will need natural gas and unrestricted travel to prosper and grow and overcome adversity; using energy and airspace as weapons is at odds with the dreams of millions of young people in Algeria and Morocco that aspire for a brighter future in an otherwise gloomy economic landscape. Please don’t shatter those dreams!
Breaking The Line of the Israel-Palestine Conflict
The conflict between Israel-Palestine is a prolonged conflict and has become a major problem, especially in the Middle East region.
A series of ceasefires and peace negotiations between Israel and Palestine that occurred repeatedly did not really “normalize” the relationship between the two parties.
In order to end the conflict, a number of parties consider that the two-state solution is the best approach to create two independent and coexistent states. Although a number of other parties disagreed with the proposal, and instead proposed a one-state solution, combining Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip into one big state.
Throughout the period of stalemate reaching an ideal solution, the construction and expansion of settlements carried out illegally by Israel in the Palestinian territories, especially the West Bank and East Jerusalem, also continued without stopping and actually made the prospect of resolving the Israeli-Palestinian crisis increasingly eroded, and this could jeopardize any solutions.
The attempted forced eviction in the Sheikh Jarrah district, which became one of the sources of the conflict in May 2021, for example, is an example of how Israel has designed a system to be able to change the demographics of its territory by continuing to annex or “occupy” extensively in the East Jerusalem area. This is also done in other areas, including the West Bank.
In fact, Israel’s “occupation” of the eastern part of Jerusalem which began at the end of the 1967 war, is an act that has never received international recognition.
This is also confirmed in a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council Numbers 242, 252, 267, 298, 476, 478, 672, 681, 692, 726, 799, 2334 and also United Nations General Assembly Resolutions Number 2253, 55/130, 60/104, 70/89, 71/96, A/72/L.11 and A/ES-10/L.22 and supported by the Advisory Opinion issued by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2004 on Legal Consequences of The Construction of A Wall in The Occupied Palestine Territory which states that East Jerusalem is part of the Palestinian territories under Israeli “occupation”.
1 or 2 country solution
Back to the issue of the two-state solution or the one-state solution that the author mentioned earlier. The author considers that the one-state solution does not seem to be the right choice.
Facts on the ground show how Israel has implemented a policy of “apartheid” that is so harsh against Palestinians. so that the one-state solution will further legitimize the policy and make Israel more dominant. In addition, there is another consideration that cannot be ignored that Israel and Palestine are 2 parties with very different and conflicting political and cultural identities that are difficult to reconcile.
Meanwhile, the idea of a two-state solution is an idea that is also difficult to implement. Because the idea still seems too abstract, especially on one thing that is very fundamental and becomes the core of the Israel-Palestine conflict, namely the “division” of territory between Israel and Palestine.
This is also what makes it difficult for Israel-Palestine to be able to break the line of conflict between them and repeatedly put them back into the status quo which is not a solution to the Israel-Palestine conflict.
The status quo, is in fact a way for Israel to continue to “annex” more Palestinian territories by establishing widespread and systematic illegal settlements in the West Bank and East Jerusalem. Today, more than 600,000 Israeli settlers now live in the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
In fact, a number of resolutions issued by the UN Security Council have explicitly and explicitly called for Israel to end the expansion of Israeli settlement construction in the occupied territory and require recognition of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of the region.
Thus, all efforts and actions of Israel both legislatively and administratively that can cause changes in the status and demographic composition in East Jerusalem and the West Bank must continue to be condemned. Because this is a violation of the provisions of international law.
To find a solution to the conflict, it is necessary to look back at the core of the conflict that the author has mentioned earlier, and the best way to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is to encourage Israel to immediately end the “occupation” that it began in 1967, and return the settlements to the pre-Islamic borders 1967 In accordance with UN Security Council resolution No. 242.
But the question is, who can stop the illegal Israeli settlements in the East Jerusalem and West Bank areas that violate the Palestinian territories?
In this condition, international political will is needed from countries in the world, to continue to urge Israel to comply with the provisions of international law, international humanitarian law, international human rights law and also the UN Security Council Resolutions.
At the same time, the international community must be able to encourage the United Nations, especially the United Nations Security Council, as the organ that has the main responsibility for maintaining and creating world peace and security based on Article 24 of the United Nations Charter to take constructive and effective steps in order to enforce all United Nations Resolutions, and dare to sanction violations committed by Israel, and also ensure that Palestinian rights are important to protect.
So, do not let this weak enforcement of international law become an external factor that also “perpetuates” the cycle of the Israel-Palestine conflict. It will demonstrate that John Austin was correct when he stated that international law is only positive morality and not real law.
And in the end, the most fundamental thing is that the blockade, illegal development, violence, and violations of international law must end. Because the ceasefire in the Israel-Palestine conflict is only a temporary solution to the conflict.
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