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Five million Yemenis ‘one step away from famine’

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A two-month-old baby suffering from servere malnutrition is weighed and measured by a nurse in a hospital in Aden, Yemen. UNOCHA/Giles Clarke

Malnutrition rates in Yemen are at “record highs” as the country is “speeding towards the worst famine the world has seen in decades”, the UN Emergency Relief Coordinator told the Security Council on Thursday, citing newly released data. 

 “We are running out of time”, said Mark Lowcock, who also heads UN humanitarian affairs, noting that across Yemen, more than 16 million people are going hungry, five million of whom are “just one step away from famine”. 

He painted a picture of children starving to death – with distended bellies, emaciated limbs and blank stares, pointing to some 400,000 under-age-five girls and boys who are so severely malnourished that they are in “their last weeks and months”. 

Important opportunity 

Over fears of the devastating impact it could have on Yemen’s food supply, last week the United States reversed its designation of Ansar Allah as a foreign terrorist organization.  

“US officials have made clear, and we agree, that the concerns around this issue are strictly humanitarian”, said Mr. Lowcock, adding that the US also reaffirmed its intention to prioritize diplomacy in ending the war and dealing with the humanitarian crisis.  

He warned that if Yemen “tips into a massive famine”, an opportunity towards lasting peace would be lost. 

Preventing famine 

To prevent a further catastrophe, the Humanitarian Coordinator called for urgent action on five points, beginning with the protection of civilians. 

As front lines reportedly move closer to civilian areas – with attacks sparking a dangerous escalation – Mr. Lowcock worried that “hundreds of thousands of people” may again be sent “running for their lives at a time when everyone should be doing everything possible to stop famine”. 

On his second point, humanitarian access, he reminded that international humanitarian law required “rapid, unimpeded humanitarian access” and emphasized that despite many challenges, aid operations are still delivering. 

Turning to funding, his third point, the Humanitarian chief said that in 2020, aid operation received half of what it had the previous year, which resulted in millions of people in need. 

“On 1 March, the Secretary-General will convene a virtual high-level pledging event for the Yemen crisis”, he said, calling for everyone to “show they are serious about seizing the opportunity for peace”.  

On the fourth issue, supporting the economy, he advised, among other things, to bring the exchange rate down “to more sustainable levels”.  

And on his final point, making progress towards peace, Mr. Lowcock stressed that “first, the violence must stop” and called for a mediated nationwide ceasefire and the resumption of the political process.  

“The only way to end the crisis in Yemen is to end the war”, concluded the UN Humanitarian Coordinator.  

Situation spiraling downward

While fresh violence and a worsening humanitarian situation continues to unfold, Special Envoy Martin Griffiths said the situation had taken “a sharp escalatory turn” with Ansar Allah’s most recent offensive on Marib Governorate.   

Reiterating calls that the attack on Marib must stop, because “it puts millions of civilians at risk…especially with the fighting reaching camps for internally displaced persons”, he upheld that forceful quests for territorial gain threaten peace prospects as looming famine, fuel shortages and other grave challenges prevail.  

Political moves  

Although the situation on the ground is deteriorating, Mr. Griffiths welcomed the US’ renewed focus on the conflict, saying the move offers a new opportunity to “reopen space for a negotiated solution” and that revived international momentum is “indispensable” to finding a peaceful resolution. 

He highlighted elements for a mutually acceptable end to the war and a path towards peace that included political participation, accountable governance, equal citizenship and economic justice.   

“The only way to realize these aspirations…is through a genuinely inclusive, Yemeni-led political process under United Nations auspices and supported by the international community”, the UN envoy spelled out.   

Back to the negotiating table 

Emphasizing what is at stake, Mr. Griffiths said that the military situation is “extremely tense” and underscored that civilians are bearing the brunt of “shocking violations of international humanitarian law”, worrying spikes of violence and continuing hostilities in Hudaydah and Taïz Governorates, as well as cross-border attacks.   

However, recalling that the parties had successfully negotiated a large-scale release of prisoners and detainees in 2020, he maintained that “the negotiating table can produce win-win results”. 

The UN official informed the Council that negotiations for more releases were underway. 

He also called for the “immediate and unconditional release of all sick, wounded, elderly and children detainees, as well as all arbitrarily detained civilians, including women and journalists”.  

“As a mediator, I seek common grounds for agreements”, he said.  “But there is nothing anybody can do to force the warring parties into peace unless they choose to put down the guns and talk to each other.  The responsibility to end the war, first and foremost, lies with the parties to the conflict.  I hope they will not miss this chance.” 

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Human Rights

First international treaty to address violence and harassment comes into force

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The first international treaty on violence and harassment in the world of work comes into force on June 25th 2021 – two years after it was adopted by the ILO’s International Labour Conference (ILC).

To date, six countries have ratified the Violence and Harassment Convention, 2019 (No. 190)  – Argentina, Ecuador, Fiji, Namibia, Somalia and Uruguay. Ratifying countries are legally bound by the provisions of the Convention a year after ratification.

Together with Recommendation No. 206 , Convention No. 190 recognizes the right of everyone to a world of work free from violence and harassment and provides a common framework for action.

It provides the first international definition of violence and harassment in the world of work, including gender-based violence and harassment.

Violence and harassment at work takes a range of forms and leads to physical, psychological, sexual and economic harm. Since the adoption of the Convention, the COVID-19 pandemic  has further highlighted the issue, with many forms of work-related violence and harassment being reported across countries since the outbreak began, particularly against women and vulnerable groups.

To mark its entering into force the ILO will launch a global campaign to promote its ratification and implementation. The campaign aims to explain in simple terms what the Convention is, the issues it covers and how it seeks to address violence and harassment in the world of work.

“A better future of work is free of violence and harassment,” said Guy Ryder, the ILO Director-General in his message to launch the global campaign.

“Convention 190 calls on all ILO Member States to eradicate violence and harassment in all its forms from the world of work. I urge countries to ratify the Convention and help build, together with employers and workers and their organizations, a dignified, safe and healthy working life for all.”

The global campaign will be launched during the ILO Action Week on Convention No. 190 , which takes place 21-25 June 2021.

The Action Week calls for renewed commitment from countries to ratify and implement the Convention.

The Action Week begins on 21 June with a virtual high-level dialogue . The speakers will include the ILO Director-General, Ministers of Labour from Argentina and Madagascar, and representatives of the International Organisation of Employers (IOE), the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) and the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU).

Following the Action Week, the ILO will launch a guide aimed at helping constituents and other stakeholders promote and implement the Convention and Recommendation. The guide covers core principles and measures that countries can take to prevent, address and eliminate violence and harassment in the world of work, including examples of national laws, regulations and policies.

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Human Rights

Famine risk spikes amid conflict, COVID-19 and funding gaps

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Mobile health clinics are distributing nutritional supplements to children in Yemen. WFP/Saleh Bin Haiyan

The impact of conflicts old and new, climate shocks and COVID-19, in addition to a lack of funding, have left millions more on the verge of famine than six months ago, the World Food Programme (WFP) said on Friday.

In an appeal for $5 billion “to avoid famine” and support the “biggest operation in its history”, WFP spokesperson Phiri Tomson said that millions of refugees faced “uncertainty and hunger” as the impact of the pandemic on emergency aid budgets became clearer.

“The number of people teetering on the brink of famine has risen from 34 million projected at the beginning of the year, to 41 million projected as of June”, he said. “Without immediate emergency food assistance, they too face starvation, as the slightest shock will push them over the cliff into famine conditions.”

From bad to worse

According to the latest IPC food insecurity assessments – which humanitarians use to assess needs on a scale of one to five – the 41 million “are people who are in IPC phase 4 – emergency”, the WFP spokesperson explained.

New refugee influxes linked to conflict and drought have increased needs for people in “IPC phase 5 – catastrophe” and “that number stands at 584,000 people”, Mr. Phiri continued. “These are people in Ethiopia’s Tigray region, Madagascar, particularly the southern part; South Sudan, especially as we are now at the height of the lean season in that country, and Yemen.”

‘Brutal choices’

Launching its Global Operational Response Plan, the UN agency highlighted operations in no less than eight countries and regions where it has had to make “brutal choices” because of significant funding shortfalls.

In practice, this has meant reduced rations “across east and southern Africa, as well as the Middle East…among some of the world’s most vulnerable people who rely on WFP to survive”, said Mr. Phiri.

“In some cases it’s 40 per cent, in some cases it’s 25 per cent, in some cases it’s 60 per cent…The fact is, the assistance we provide is a basic need, the assistance we provide is just enough to help people get by.”

West and Central Africa in crisis

For many vulnerable aid recipients in West and Central Africa, the COVID-19 pandemic has left them without the opportunity to work to supplement their rations and unable to pay for increasingly expensive staple foods. “Countries like Chad, Niger and Burkina, Mauritania; these are all countries of concern, including Sierra Leone as well,” said Mr. Phiri, after a warning by the UN agency that the world was no longer moving towards Zero Hunger.

“Progress has stalled, reversed, and today, more than 270 million people are estimated to be acutely food insecure or at high risk in 2021,” it said in a statement.

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Human Rights

Forced displacement at record level, despite COVID shutdowns

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Congolese asylum-seekers line up to undergo security and health screening in Zombo, near the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. © UNHCR/Rocco Nuri

The number of people fleeing wars, violence, persecution, and human rights violations, rose last year to nearly 82.4 million people, a further four percent increase on top of the already record-high of 79.5 million, recorded at the end of 2019.

According to the UN Refugee Agency flagship Global Trends Report published on Friday, the restrictive COVID-19 pandemic did not slow forced displacement around the world, and instead could have left thousands of refugees and asylum seekers stranded and vulnerable.

The new ‘one percent’

Despite COVID-related movement restrictions and pleas from the international community for a concerted global ceasefire, displacement continued to occur – and to grow. As a result, more than one percent of the world’s population – or 1 in 95 people – is now forcibly displaced. This compares with 1 in 159 in 2010.

The agency explains that while the full impact of the pandemic on wider cross-border migration and displacement globally is not yet clear, data shows that arrivals of new refugees and asylum-seekers were sharply down in most regions – about 1.5 million fewer people than would have been expected in non-COVID circumstances, reflecting how many of those seeking international protection in 2020 became stranded.

New and old crises

According to UNHCR, several crises – some new, some longstanding and some resurfacing after years – forced 11.2 million people to flee in 2020, compared to 11.0 million in 2019.

The figure includes people displaced for the first time as well as people displaced repeatedly, both within and beyond countries’ borders.

By the end of 2020, there were 20.7 million refugees under UNHCR’s mandate. Another 48 million people were internally displaced (IDPs) within their own countries.

Driven mostly by crises in Ethiopia, Sudan, Sahel countries, Mozambique, Yemen, Afghanistan and Colombia, the number of internally displaced people rose by more than 2.3 million.

When considering only international displacement situations, Syria topped the list with 6.8 million people, followed by Venezuela with 4.9 million. Afghanistan and South Sudan came next, with 2.8 and 2.2 million respectively.

Turkey continued to host the largest number of refugees with just under 4 million, most of whom were Syrian refugees (92%). Colombia followed, hosting over 1.7 million displaced Venezuelans.

Germany hosted the third-largest population – almost 1.5 million, with Syrian refugees and asylum-seekers as the largest group (44%). Pakistan and Uganda completed the top-5 hosting countries, with about 1.4 million each.

The COVID-19 crisis also hit the forcibly displaced hard, who faced increased food and economic insecurity as well as challenges to access health and protection services.

At the peak of the last year, over 160 countries had closed their borders, with 99 States making no exception for people seeking protection.

According to UNHCR, the dynamics of poverty, food insecurity, climate change, conflict and displacement are increasingly interconnected and mutually reinforcing, driving more and more people to search for safety and security.

A call to end the suffering

UNHCR is urging world leaders to step up their efforts to foster peace, stability and cooperation in order to halt and begin reversing nearly a decade-long trend of surging displacement driven by violence and persecution.

“Behind each number is a person forced from their home and a story of displacement, dispossession and suffering. They merit our attention and support not just with humanitarian aid, but in finding solutions to their plight”, reminded the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, Filippo Grandi.

In a statement, Mr. Grandi underscored that while the 1951 Refugee Convention and the Global Compact on Refugees provide the legal framework and tools to respond to displacement, a much greater political will is needed to address conflicts and persecution that force people to flee.

“The tragedy of so many children being born into exile should be reason enough to make far greater efforts to prevent and end conflict and violence,” he added.

Girls and boys under the age of 18 account for 42 percent of all forcibly displaced. They are particularly vulnerable, especially when crises continue for years.

New UNHCR estimates show that almost one million children were born as refugees between 2018 and 2020. Many of them may remain refugees for years to come.

Low rate of return

The agency emphasized that over the course of 2020, some 3.2 million internally displaced and just 251,000 refugees returned to their homes –a 40 and 21 percent drop, respectively, compared to 2019. Another 33,800 refugees were naturalized by their countries of asylum.

Refugee resettlement registered a drastic plunge with just 34,400 refugees resettled, the lowest level in 20 years – a consequence of a reduced number of resettlement places and COVID-19.

“Solutions require global leaders and those with influence to put aside their differences, end an egoistic approach to politics, and instead focus on preventing and solving conflict and ensuring respect for human rights,” urged Grandi.

The UN Refugee agency reminded that 2020 is the ninth year of uninterrupted rise in forced displacement worldwide. There are twice as many forcibly displaced people than in 2011 when the total was just under 40 million.

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