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New Social Compact

Linguistic Racism in Pakistan

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‘Every word is a preconceived judgment.’-Friedrich Nietzsche, Human All-Too-Human

There are many conflicts one can’t avoid if not on the same linguistic frequency as others. To a common man, language is basically a way to communicate thoughts, opinions, and emotions, however, if we dig deeper into this singularity; we realize that it holds the crux of our identity. It gives us a way to express our feelings, opinions, and sentiments to others. It is through the phenomenon of globalization that linguistic boundaries are crumbling all over the world. 

Language leading to communication are the basic tools necessary in education. The Language Barrier in schools sets up entire generations to live on the metaphorical sidelines. Language barriers are a common issue that all non-Anglophonic countries face. World economic conditions and globalization guarantee that no state can work in isolation which is why this limitation makes an appearance at both inter-state and intra-state interactions. Even something as simple as a change in dialect can cause waves of miscommunication. The language barrier may prove to be detrimental to a country’s progress/ development in the mid to long term. One avenue where it is particularly bothersome is in Governmental institutions. It leads to miscommunication or more often than not ‘incomplete’ communication and it can negatively impact the whole system.

The miscommunication can cause time strain, loss of funds, public scrutiny, etc. Compliance, confidentiality, and security of information are critical to interpretation for government agencies. The language barrier in a case of emergency response may also cost lives. Although Urdu is our national language, however, our colonized tongue rarely strays from English in official dealings. Pakistan itself is a multilingual/ multicultural nation with more than 6 major languages and countless regional influences. There are only two official languages used in government institutions, documentation, etc.

Those two being Urdu and English, they’ve grown to be respected and associated with a higher intellect. However, this has had an adverse effect on the other languages and their use has often been decreed as a sign of an uncultured upbringing or just a lower status in society in general. Linguistic racism in Pakistan is born out of a superiority complex that has hailed from the time of colonization of the subcontinent. It is not just a language that forms the base of such discrimination but it also stems out of the accent, modality, syntax, and variety in vocabulary. It is projected as a threat to the social cohesion of society and is often further pronounced in situations where multi-lingual individuals face multiple socio-cultural issues. This form of racism exists in several contexts, the most prevalent being its presence in the education sector of Pakistan.

A country that houses a minimum of 74 linguistically social groups (Adeel Tayyab 2021) requires more attention to be paid to its inherent multi-lingual character. Only 10% of Pakistan is fluent in Urdu (Adeel Tayyab 2021) despite it being the national language. English stands out as a powerful language and comes out on top whenever put in comparison with national or regional languages, this is mainly because of its heavy influence in our region’s past. It is considered important as the language of employment. Urdu held influence over other provincial languages because it was so wide-spread that it naturally was assumed to be everyone’s first language but in the spirit of staying democratic, it was allowed to use provincial languages where required. In the educational sector, we can easily blame the failing system to a smaller than necessary amount of funds but a major role is played by the disadvantage children have to face in regions where they have to shift from their native language such as Sindhi or Pashto to English and Urdu abruptly. If there is one student amongst forty who stutters or isn’t as assured in English or Urdu then he is marginalized. Linguistic racism is born from such conditions and carves a place in the crux of our existence.

The fate of East Pakistan pays homage to this very point. Granted the unfairness of leaving out Bengali as one of the official languages was not the only reason for dissent but it did light the spark. The issue that the Bengali had with Urdu being the national language of Pakistan was also drawn from the fact that the people who got salaries from the state or the government workers ‘salariat’ faced many challenges because Urdu was used in governmental institutions and positions of a lower level within the administration, military, judiciary, education, etc. In places of a higher power, English had taken over which left the Bengalis hung in between a colonial language take-over and a provincial language dispute. The language barrier soon became stifling. The language became a symbol of Bengali unity and once it was disregarded in the race for the national language the conflict only grew till the annexation in 1971. After the separation of Bangladesh, the Sindhi Movement rose. It gleaned inspiration from the Bengali language movement and G.M Syed brought about the idea of Sindhudesh in 1972. Its main focus was on a separate state that would protect and promote Sindhi identity, culture, and language.

The language movement had roots in provincial conflicts with the Punjabi population encroaching on Sindhi territory and Urdu being the national language, leading to subtle isolation of the Sindhi population and difficulty in societal integration. The emergence of Sindhudesh was from this issue that the presence of Urdu wasn’t as much of a problem on its own but what it represented, which was Punjabi dominion and superiority over the area. UNESCO itself has researched and concluded that Urdu being the only major language taught in all provincial educational institutions till Higher education where there is an abrupt change to English, is damaging the uniformity of a country. 

Way Forward:

 Keeping in view the problems/ shortfalls relating to overcoming ingress of foreign languages and number of local languages in mid to long term following recommendations are proffered:

a. As far as our number of regional languages are concerned these must be optimally used to strengthen our national fiber. These must be merged at lower levels of education and selected specialization. 

b. Above will also help in achieving inter-provincial integration and harmony at the national level, leading international image building of Pakistan as a nation. 

c. In case the ongoing China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is to achieve the desired and optimum results, we must be all set to absorb all foreign languages including Chinese and languages of other members of One Belt One Road (OBOR) as required, alongside our official language. 

Conclusion:

Although linguistic racism is not a rampant issue that needs immediate attention, it is one whose roots have dug deep and taken hold in both national institutions and the human psyche. Pakistan is home to 212.2 million and promises them their safety along with constitutional and human rights. Such a feat is not possible if the language barrier remains in existence without achievable ways to dismantle it.

References:  

  • Bureau Report. 2017. “People Advised to Remove Language Barrier to Benefit from CPEC.” DAWN.COM. DAWN.COM. August 11, 2017. https://www.dawn.com/news/1350934. 
  • Eun, Ellen, Kyoo Kim, and Anna Mattila. n.d. “The Impact of Language Barrier & Cultural Differences on Restaurant Experiences: A Grounded Theory Approach.” https://scholarworks.umass.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1175&context=gradconf_hospitality . 
  • “Language Policy, Multilingualism and Language Vitality in Pakistan.” 2020. Apnaorg.com. 2020. http://apnaorg.com/book-chapters/tariq/. 4 
  • “Linguistic Racism: Its Negative Effects and Why We Need to Contest It.” 2020. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 2020. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13670050.2020.1783638?scroll=top&needAccess =true. 
  • Max de Lotbinière. 2010. “Pakistan Facing Language ‘crisis’ in Schools.” The Guardian. The Guardian. December 7, 2010. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2010/dec/07/pakistanschools-language-crisis-lotbiniere. 
  • Scamman, Kimberly. 2018. “Telelanguage.” Telelanguage. September 7, 2018. https://telelanguage.com/the-impact-of-language-interpretation-for-government-agencies/. 
  • TechGig Correspondent. 2020. “Understanding the Difference between AI, ML, and DL.” TechGig. TechGig. May 3, 2020. https://content.techgig.com/understanding-the-differencebetween-ai-ml-and-dl/articleshow/75493798.cms. 
  • The Nation. 2016. “Language Barrier.” The Nation. The Nation. February 21, 2016. https://nation.com.pk/22-Feb-2016/language-barrier. 
  • VimolanMudaly, and Kajal Singh. 2018. “LANGUAGE: A BARRIER WHEN TEACHING AND LEARNING BUSINESS STUDIES.” ResearchGate. unknown. 2018. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327985564_LANGUAGE_A_BARRIER_WHEN_TE ACHING_AND_LEARNING_BUSINESS_STUDIES. 
  • Zubair Torwali. 2018. “The Lure of Linguicism.” Thenews.com.Pk. The News International. February 22, 2018. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/284470-the-lure-of-linguicism.

Hafsa Ammar is an undergraduate student of Peace and Conflict Studies at National Defense University, Pakistan.

New Social Compact

Demand for Investigation of COVID-19 gained momentum

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Human history is full of natural disasters like Earthquakes, Floods, Fires, Vacanos, Drought, Famine, Pandemic, etc. Some of them were really huge and have been damaged a lot. The outbreak of diseases was also very common in the past, like Spanish Flu, Tuberculosis, Cholera, Ebola, SARS, Middle-East-Virus, etc. However, the most damaging in recent history is COVID-19.

According to Worldometer, the latest data reveal that Coronavirus Cases has reached :

193,422,021, and death toll touched: 4,151,655. However, these are the official data provided by each individual country to Worldometer. The actual data is much more, as some countries have limited resources and could not test their population on a bigger scale, whereas few countries hide the actual data to save face, like India. Prime Minister Modi has mishandled the Pandemic and politicized it. His extremist approach toward minorities and political opponents has worsened the situation. He is afraid, if the public comes to know the actual disasters, he may lose political popularity and have to leave the office. Unofficial sources on groud estimate the actual figures are almost ten times higher. He has taken strict measures to hide the actual data and control media on reporting facts.

Whatever the actual data, even the official data shows a big disaster. Almost all nations became the victim of it and suffered heavily. The loss of human lives and the economic loss have made the whole World think seriously.

It is time to investigate the origin of COVID-19. There are many theories, and some are part of the blame game and politics, without proper investigations and reliable evidence. The World is so much polarized that it is very difficult to believe any side of the views and blames. Under this scenario, it is the World Health Organization (WHO) responsibility to conduct a transparent investigation and reach the source of COVID-19. It is believed that the whole World may trust WHO.

Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman Zhao Lijian demanded on Wednesday that the United States show transparency and conduct a thorough investigation into its Fort Detrick laboratory and other biological labs overseas over the origins of COVID-19 in response to appeals from people in China and around the World. By Wednesday afternoon, an open letter published on Saturday asking the World Health Organization to probe Fort Detrick had garnered nearly 5 million signatures from Chinese netizens.

“The soaring number reflects the Chinese people’s demands and anger at some people in the US who manipulate the origin-tracing issue for political reasons,” Zhao said at a regular news briefing in Beijing.

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a “cease and desist order” in July 2019 to halt research at Fort Detrick that involved dangerous organisms like the Ebola virus. The same month, a “respiratory outbreak” of unknown cause saw more than 60 residents in a Northern Virginia retirement community become ill. Later that year, Maryland, where Fort Detrick is based, witnessed a doubling of the number of residents who developed a respiratory illness related to vaping.

But the CDC never released information about the shutdown of the lab’s deadly germ research operations, citing “national security reasons”. “An investigation into Fort Detrick is long-overdue, but the US has not done it yet, so the mystery remains unsolved,” Zhao said, adding that was a question the US must answer regarding the tracing of the origins of COVID-19.

There are 630,000 of its citizens lost to the Pandemic. The US should take concrete measures to investigate the origins of the virus at home thoroughly, discover the reason for its inadequate response to the Pandemic, and punish those who should be held accountable. Especially in the initial days, the mishandling of the Pandemic by then-President Trump was a significant cause of the rapidly spreading of the virus, which must be addressed adequately. Washington remains silent whenever Fort Detrick is mentioned. It seeks to stigmatize and demonize China under the pretext of origin-tracing.

It appealed that the WHO may come forward and conduct through research and investigation in a professional, scientific, and transparent manner to satisfy the whole World.

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New Social Compact

How to eliminate Learning Poverty

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Children learn more and are more likely to stay in school if they are first taught in a language that they speak and understand. Yet, an estimated 37 percent of students in low- and middle-income countries are required to learn in a different language, putting them at a significant disadvantage throughout their school life and limiting their learning potential. According to a new World Bank report Loud and Clear: Effective Language of Instruction Policies for Learning, effective language of instruction (LoI) policies are central to reducing Learning Poverty and improving other learning outcomes, equity, and inclusion.

Instruction unfolds through language – written and spoken – and children learning to read and write is foundational to learning all other academic subjects.  The Loud and Clear report puts it simply: too many children are taught in a language they don’t understand, which is one of the most important reasons why many countries have very low learning levels.

Children most impacted by such policies and choices are often disadvantaged in other ways – they are in the bottom 40 percent of the socioeconomic scale and live in more remote areas.  They also lack the family resources to address the effects of ineffective language policies on their learning. This contributes to higher dropout rates, repetition rates, higher Learning Poverty, and lower learning overall.

“The devastating impacts of COVID-19 on learning is placing an entire generation at risk,” says Mamta Murthi, World Bank Vice President for Human Development. “Even before the pandemic, many education systems put their students at a disadvantage by requiring children to learn in languages they do not know well – and, in far too many cases, in languages they do not know at all. Teaching children in a language they understand is essential to recover and accelerate learning, improve human capital outcomes, and build back more effective and equitable education systems.”

The new LoI report notes that when children are first taught in a language that they speak and understand, they learn more, are better placed to learn other languages, are able to learn other subjects such as math and science, are more likely to stay in school, and enjoy a school experience appropriate to their culture and local circumstances. Moreover, this lays the strongest foundation for learning in a second language later on in school. As effective LoI policies improve learning and school progression, they reduce country costs per student and, thus, enables more efficient use of public funds to enhance more access and quality of education for all children.

“The language diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa is one of its main features – while the region has 5 official languages, there are 940 minority languages spoken in Western and Central Africa and more than 1,500 in Sub-Saharan Africa, which makes education challenges even more pronounced,” says Ousmane Diagana, World Bank Regional Vice President for Western and Central Africa. “By adopting better language-of-instruction policies, countries will enable children to have a much better start in school and get on the right path to build the human capital they need to sustain long-term productivity and growth of their economies.” 

The report explains that while pre-COVID-19, the world had made tremendous progress in getting children to school, the near-universal enrollment in primary education did not lead to near-universal learning. In fact, before the outbreak of the pandemic, 53 percent of children in low- and middle-income countries were living in Learning Poverty, that is, were unable to read and understand an age-appropriate text by age 10. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the figure was closer to 90 percent. Today, the unprecedented twin shocks of extended school closures and deep economic recession associated with the pandemic are threatening to make the crisis even more dire, with early estimates suggesting that Learning Poverty could rise to a record 63 percent. These poor learning outcomes are, in many cases, a reflection of inadequate language of instruction policies.

“The message is loud and clear.  Children learn best when taught in a language they understand, and this offers the best foundation for learning in a second language,” stressed Jaime Saavedra, World Bank Global Director for Education. “This deep and unjust learning crisis requires action. Investments in education systems around the world will not yield significant learning improvements if students do not understand the language in which they are taught. Substantial improvements in Learning Poverty are possible by teaching children in the language they speak at home.”

The new World Bank policy approach to language of instruction is guided by 5 principles:

1. Teach children in their first language starting with Early Childhood Education and Care services through at least the first six years of primary schooling.

2. Use a student’s first language for instruction in academic subjects beyond reading and writing.

3.  If students are to learn a second language in primary school, introduce it as a foreign language with an initial focus on oral language skills.

4. Continue first language instruction even after a second language becomes the principal language of instruction.

5. Continuously plan, develop, adapt, and improve the implementation of language of instruction policies, in line with country contexts and educational goals.

Of course, these language of instruction policies need to be well integrated within a larger package of policies to ensure alignment with the political commitment and the instructional coherence of the system.

This approach will guide the World Bank’s financing and advisory support for countries to provide high-quality early childhood and basic education to all their students. The World Bank is the largest source of external financing for education in developing countries – in fiscal year 2021, it broke another record and committed $5.5 billion of IBRD and IDA resources in new operations and, in addition, committed $0.8 billion of new grants with GPE financing, across a total of 60 new education projects in 45 countries.

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New Social Compact

World leaders must fully fund education in emergencies and protracted crises

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Many schools in Afghanistan have suffered the effects of long-term conflict. ©UNICEF/Marko Kokic

During June’s UN Security Council High-Level Open Debate on Children and Armed Conflict, leaders from across the world stood up to call for expanded support for education in emergencies to protect vulnerable children and youth enduring armed conflicts, climate change-related disasters, forced displacement and protracted crises.

In our collective race to leave no child behind and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals in just nine short years, now is the time to translate these universal values and human rights into action.

The will is there. Nations across the globe, UN leaders and other key stakeholders stood up to address the horrific attacks on education happening on a daily basis and called for increased funding for organizations working to ensure crisis-affected children have access to safe, quality education.

Irish President Michael Higgins focused on education, protection and accountability in his address.

“I am sure that we can all agree that it is morally reprehensible that 1 in every 3 children living in countries affected by conflict or disaster is out of school. Schools should be protected, be a safe shelter and space for learning and development,” said Higgins. “Ireland prioritizes access to education in emergencies. We have committed to spend €250 million on global education by 2024. That is why we are launching the Girls Fund to support grassroots groups led by girls, advancing gender equality in their own communities.”

Nicolas de Rivière, Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations, highlighted support from France to Education Cannot Wait, as well as the importance of protection for children caught in emergencies.

“The socio-economic consequences of the pandemic and school closures put children at greater risk: inequalities are increasing in all regions of the world. Acts of domestic violence, rape and other forms of sexual violence, and school dropout have increased,” said de Rivière. “School closures increase recruitment by armed groups as well as child labor. Here, as everywhere, girls also have specific vulnerabilities. I am thinking in particular of the risk of early and forced marriage. For its part, France will continue to play an active role and promote the universal endorsement of the Paris Principles and Commitments. In the field, we support projects that guarantee access to education in emergency situations, notably the Education Cannot Wait Fund.”

Children under attack

The number of grave violations against children rose to 19,000 in 2020 according to the UN Secretary-General’s Report on Children in Armed Conflict, released in May 2021. To put this number in context, that’s over 50 girls and boys every day that are killed or maimed, recruited and used as soldiers, abducted, sexually violated, attacked in a school or hospitals, or denied their humanitarian access to things like food and water. 

The numbers are staggering. Last year, more than 8,400 children and youth were killed or maimed in ongoing wars in Afghanistan, Somalia, Syria and Yemen. Another 7,000 were recruited and used as fighters, mainly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Myanmar, Somalia and Syria. With COVID-19 straining budgets and humanitarian support for child protection, abductions rose by 90 per cent last year, while rape and other forms of sexual violence shot up 70 per cent.

UN Secretary-General António Guterres underscored the need to support the Safe Schools Declaration and the Children in Armed Conflict mandate in his address to the UN Security Council.

“We are also seeing schools and hospitals constantly attacked, looted, destroyed, or used for military purposes, with girls’ education and health facilities targeted disproportionately. As we mark the 25th anniversary of the creation of the Children in Armed Conflict mandate, its continued relevance is sadly clear and it remains a proven tool for protecting the world’s children,” said Guterres. 

This is a vast human tragedy playing out across the globe. And despite efforts to support the Safe Schools Declaration, to re-imagine education during the COVID-19 pandemic and to align forces to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals, we seem to be backsliding on our commitments.

Just imagine being a mother and learning that your daughter will not be coming home from school today. That she was abducted, along with 150 other students at their school in Nigeria. Imagine seeing your son, Sabir, lose his leg after being shot by armed gunmen in South Sudan. Imagine being a Rohingya girl like Janet Ara, who hid in forests, forged rivers and is now seeking a better life and opportunity through an education in the refugee camps of Bangladesh.

Imagine the trauma and terror … now imagine the opportunity.

A wake-up call

If we can come together to give every girl and boy on the planet access to a quality education, we can build a more peaceful, secure, humane and prosperous world.

Before COVID-19 hit, we calculated that at least 75 million children and youth caught in crisis and emergencies were being denied their right to an education. But with schools closed and many children at risk of never returning to the classroom, that number has jumped to around 128 million. That’s more than the total population of the United Kingdom. That’s more than the total populations of Canada, Denmark and Norway combined.

Denying these children their right to a quality education perpetuates cycles of poverty, violence, displacement and chaos.

As the United Nations global fund for education in emergencies and protracted crises, Education Cannot Wait (ECW) offers a new approach to break these negative cycles for good.

This means embracing a New Way of Working that brings in actors from across all sectors – national governments, donors, development, humanitarian response and education actors, national and local civil society, the private sector and more – to break down silos and work together to deliver whole-of-child solutions for whole-of-society problems.

In doing so we are bridging the humanitarian-development-peace nexus. Through ground-breaking collective action with partners across the globe, ECW has already launched multi-year resilience programmes and first emergency responses across more than 30 countries and crisis contexts and is on track to do more.

By doing so we can replace the cycle of poverty, violence, displacement and chaos with a cycle of education, empowerment, economic development, peace and new opportunities for future generations.

Delivering on our promise for universal, equitable education

The ECW model has proven to work. 

In just a few short years of operation, ECW has already provided 4.6 million crisis-affected girls and boys with access to a quality education. We’ve worked with national governments, donors, UN agencies and NGOs to reach 29.2 million girls and boys with our education in emergency response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

In Bangladesh, girls like Janet Ara are returning to school, children with disabilities like Yasmina are accessing the support they need to learn, grow and thrive, and organizations like BRAC are receiving the support they need to build back better from the fires.

In Afghanistan, girls like Bibi Nahida are attending school for the first time, remote learning is helping children to continue their education during the pandemic, and female teachers are being recruited to teach biology, science and empower an entire generation of girls.

In Colombia and Ecuador, refugee children fleeing violence, hunger and poverty in Venezuela are being brought into schools, provided with laptops and cellular plans, and the psychosocial support they need to recover from the anxiety and stress of displacement.

Our call to action

An investment in education is an investment in the present and the future.

Recent analysis indicates that the likelihood of violence and conflict drops by 37% when girls and boys have equal access to education. Incomes go up by as much as 10% for each year of additional learning, while an estimated $15 to $30 trillion could be generated if every girl everywhere were able to complete 12 years of education.

We are making important headway with partners across the globe. The amount of humanitarian funding for education increased five times between 2015 and 2019 – and accounted for 5.1% of humanitarian funding in 2019.

Nevertheless, just 43.5% of humanitarian appeals for education were mobilized that same year.

That means girls like Bibi and Janet Ara may be pushed out of school, boys like Sabir might be recruited into armed groups. And children with disabilities like Yasmina will be pushed to the sidelines.

We have the will. Now it’s time to turn that will into action.

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