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Evaluation model of the performance of the higher education system in developing countries

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Organisational learning

Is governance a method for a good coordination, rather efficient in a structure already preconceived to receive a learning model? One discusses issues more imaginary than realistic in a country in which the idea is already utopian, while knowing that a good governance translated by organisational learning requires a certain pre-established configuration, in other words a knowledge concept with compatible resources and power. According to Bonnet (Bonnet , 2010) and Henri Savall Henri Savall (1978), « the economic and social performance of an organisation depends on the quality of the interaction of the structures of the organisation and of the behaviour of the men who act in the organisation». Our main theoretical setting is the socio-economic theory of management as presented by Savall and Zardet in 1992. The socio-economic theory rests on conflict-cooperation concepts used by sociologists and by the French economist Perroux. It puts into question the implicit hypothesis of neo-classic theories according to which the economic actors are obedient and the scientific observation is erroneous.«Organizational learning is important for all companies, as the creation, retention and transfer of knowledge within the organization will strengthen the organization as a whole.The importance of organizational learning is shown by the various benefits that occur in organizations that develop a learning culture: 1 Increased employee job satisfaction, 2 Lower turnover rates, 3 Increased productivity, profits and efficiency, 4 Developing leaders at all levels and 5 Enhanced adaptability throughout the organization».[1]

A broad literature review has been carried out so as to better understand the theories that apply more specifically to our problem. Experimentation aims to show that there is a need for organisational learning as defined by Argyris to favour individual learning. There is therefore a need, as regards action-research, to activate the concerned stakeholders so that they cooperate more in the undertaking of an educational system.

When a citizen is educated, trained and informed, a civic behaviour becomes a reference for him. It can produce good governance thanks to his modest participation in democratic life, while establishing an inventory of the mechanisms required for good stewardship. (Paquet, 2001)

Organisational learning has become today a major problem, whether in the private or public sector, and often in developing countries. Very few persons are conscious of learning and of what this implies individually or collectively.

We have put the accent on different authors who have their own individual definition, but in general terms learning is a realization and a collection of new knowledge according to (C. Argyris), in other words to learn from our mistakes, whatever our level.

Experience shows that developing countries are not conscious of their past mistakes, mainly in public structures, nor of possible improvements of the activity and the organisation at present. No doubt, they lack foresight. For Chris Argyris, individuals, the group or the organisation are a result of action. According to Argyris and Schön (1978), one needs a process through which the members of an organisation detect ‘errors’ and correct them, while changing the action theory.

According to Dodgson (1993), the process through which corporations and organisations build, develop and organize their knowledge, according to their actions and their cultural characteristics, is very difficult to apply in an uncertain and unstable environment due to a lack of sustainable strategy by the actors of the different stakeholders so as to meet the needs of the ecosystem. When this world is molded in its economy and its technology, one talks of globalisation, but this rhetoric of globalisation really puts the accent on the gap in interference by countries in the various areas of social sciences. It also brings its own contribution to our understanding of the complex range of strengths which reshape the world order (Held, 2000).

Managerial pathologies, which worsen from year to year, are considered, prior to becoming serious, as a problem. Their dangerousness is examined in the light of the complexity of their situation. (M. Crozier, 1989).

Socioeconomic theory of organisations

Thanks to the work of Professor Henri Savall in 1973, socioeconomic analysis rests on two important hypotheses, which allow this research project to undertake an in-depth analysis. «The first experimental research of ISEOR on the hidden costs related to quality go back to 1976 and they were followed by very numerous other deep projects relating to quality in industrial corporations, profitable service companies and organisations of public service.»[2]

The first step is human development, the main factor of corporate efficiency, in the short, medium and long term. The second is independent of their business area and of the size of the organisation and the corporation, which must face social, economic and financial losses, resulting from interactions between leaders and structures which create dysfunctions. Cause of hidden costs and performance, they are often difficult to identify by the organisation, the personnel and/or the corporate leaders. These two elements have led Professor Henri Savall to consider that «the social and economic performance of an organisation depends on the quality of the interaction of the structures and of the organisation and of human behaviour who act inside this organisation.»

According to the socioeconomic theory of Savall and Zardet, 1987, the corporation is a complex whole made up of five types of work structures interacting with five types of human behaviour.(Savall, 2015).

The general model of socioeconomic theory is schematized with the help of a clover

Source:http://theses.univ-lyon2.fr

« The five types of structures (physical, technological, organisational, demographic and mental) are supposedly relatively stable and permanent.

The five behaviours (individuals, group activity, categorical, affinity groups and collective groups) are characterised by their conjectural nature and their relative instability. Dysfunctionality is classified in six families: work conditions, work organisation, communication-coordination-consultation, time management, integrated training and application of strategy.»[3]

All corporations and organisations, and more particularly public administrations, are increasingly affected by this problem, in other words by hidden costs which often lead to difficulties «From 1973 to 1977, socioeconomic analysis was centered on research methodology to identify and evaluate the hidden costs of dysfunctions.  These costs are called ‘hidden costs’, in opposition to visible costs, inasmuch as they are spread, without specific denomination, without a surveillance system, and because they do not appear in the classic information systems of corporations (budgets, general accounting, etc). They are grouped in five indicators: absenteeism, work accidents, personnel rotation, quality defects of products and direct productivity gaps and in five components: overpay, overtime, overconsumption, non-production and non-realization of potential.»[4]

This hypothesis has been confirmed and validated by the research undertaken by ISEOR. They have also put forward the idea that corporations and organisations not only have hidden costs, but also hidden performance, which do not allow us, for these types of structures, to forecast certain eventualities which could have an impact on their financial activities, on the development of finance, on the development of performance, of competition and/or the services supplied by public administration. «On the basis of this fundamental hypothesis, the ISEOR team studies and elaborates concepts and tools which aim to improve the functioning as well as the level of economic and social performance of corporations and organisations.»[5]

In our research, we will analyse hidden costs, as well as performance based on the socioeconomic theory of organisations. Let us just note that according to the theory all corporations and organisations need a new managerial approach. In fact, according to the complexity of the market and the needs of services, all the structures, public and private, identify hidden costs and attempt to reduce permanent costs which often create problems. On top of the hidden costs, there is often a lack of a long-term vision of development, as per Fayol, considered as the father of specialized management in corporate administration. According to him, the administrative organisation of work (AOW) means to forecast, organise, order, coordinate and control (FOOCC), which would allow every corporation and organisation to position itself in its activities according to its very specific situation.

Theory of education

Today’s organisation of education is a major concern both with regard to its structure and to its quality. Each country, each region, each continent, and more particularly each institution, seeks the best way to reach its qualitative and quantitative objectives as well as a maximum of financial rewards. Certain countries are faced with difficulties in their organisation and in providing access to education for its citizens. Other countries face difficulties in putting in place an educational method able to offer their citizens the best access to employment. In the light of our area of research, it concerns not only the opening of the employment market to future graduates, but rather of the organisation and accessibility of education. Our research studies the different aspects relating to the accessibility and to the organisation of distance higher education.

These last two decades, the entire planet has witnessed a strong growth on the market of distance higher education (DHE). In fact, the needs are not identical for the different actors on the planet. In the developing countries, DHE is not an option but rather a need and an emergency to save a population to which all rights are denied.

Researchers have become increasingly interested in experiments in the field of distance education. The problem, is that they concentrate more on the programme than on theories or controlled experiments. It has allowed the conception of new products for DHE, rather than to the evaluation and experimentation of field programmes so as to better apprehend the accessibility modes as well as the adequate configuration adapted to every specific case. This problem, education in its different forms, has become a concern for national development (Philippe Dessus, 1997).

The work of Yves Bertrand « Théories contemporaines de l’éducation » states that “we live in a period in which the directions to be given to education come from all sides”. Everyone questions the nature of educational changes. Which educational changes one should choose? Starting from this consideration, we continue this questioning by asking ourselves which theories to choose to render education in the world more efficient.»[6]This question of choice is primordial if one wishes to answer the relevant problem, while taking into account the necessary resources, such as time, for change requires time. So as to select the correct theory, or to create a model, one must take into account human capital, the financial resources as well as the environment of change.

Technological theories

The work of Yves Bertrand stresses technologies, and of course this element is essential to ease communication between lecturers, students and all the other parties. This situation exists only in a very limited number of developing countries. The absence of such a development complicates even more the situation for distance learning.

The theory of technology not only eases communication, but also allows the easy use of digital documents and interactivity between the various interest groups. Internet also allows us to use various technological sources, whether with regard to software or to any other technology. Simultaneously, it is a problem for many countries and persons who are not involved in technologies, due a lack of means, and this is particularly true for developing countries.

Results:

Our result shows that the true problem in developing countries, are summarized in four great elements as shown below, in other words, governance, technology, environment, culture and finance. This is shown in more detail in our table.

Conclusion:

Governance and organisational learning are key words, whatever the type of organisation, to avoid hidden costs which impact performance of production. Very often, in developing countries, public institutions are not conscious of past mistakes, which impact present actions. When they encounter financial difficulties, they look at their balance sheet to identify how to reduce certain costs. It is no doubt important to master costs, but above all it is essential to analyse dysfunctionalities or hidden costs that are a threat to organisations or corporations. We have identified that the real problems of educational institutions in the less advanced countries, with regard to higher education, are its organisation, in other words governance, cultural resistance, the lack of technical competence, or the lack of mastery in the use of technologies, as well as financial challenges: they are unable to master their budget, for which they depend on external financial support, such as the World Bank, international organisations or foreign donors.


[1]https://www.valamis.com/hub/organizational-learning

[2]Henri Savall et Véronique Zardet 5e édition, economica , p. 17.

[3] http://theses.univ-lyon2.fr/documents/getpart.php?id=lyon2.2002.moulette_p&part=63669#Noteftn181

[4] http://theses.univ-lyon2.fr/documents/getpart.php?id=lyon2.2002.moulette_p&part=63669#Noteftn181

[5] http://theses.univ-lyon2.fr/documents/getpart.php?id=lyon2.2002.moulette_p&part=63669#Noteftn181

[6] http://dipoueducation.over-blog.com/2014/01/introduction-yves-bertrand-dans-son-ouvrage-th%C3%A9ories-contemporaines-de-l%E2%80%99%C3%A9ducation-constate-que-%C2%AB-nous-vivons-une-p-2

Prof. Dr. Djawed Sangdel, professor of Leadership and Entrepreneurship President of Swiss UMEF UNIVERSITY – GENEVE

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New Social Compact

Prevent gender-based violence in humanitarian emergencies

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Top UN officials met in the margins of the 76th General Assembly on Thursday,  with a strong call to action to stamp out gender-based violence (GBV), amid a rise in forced displacement and other humanitarian emergencies around the globe.

GBV includes acts that inflict physical, sexual or mental harm – or other forms of suffering, coercion and limits on personal freedoms – and has “long-term consequences on the sexual, physical and psychological health of survivors”, according to the UN’s sexual and reproductive health agency (UNFPA).

These are being driven increasingly by conflict, climate change, famine and insecurity, heightening vulnerabilities for girls and women.

‘Willingness to act’

UNFPA Executive Director Natalia Kanem told the meeting on Localizing GBV in humanitarian crises, that peace, justice and dignity are the “birthright of every woman and girl”.

She spoke of the agency’s “clear and ambitious” 2021-2025 Roadmap, which reflects a shared vision and underscored the need to create new pathways to ensure those rights.

Emphasizing the need for accountability “to ourselves and each other”, Ms. Kanem said that as the lead UN agency on the issue, “UNFPA is committed to standing strong”.

She said there was a strong will to act, “to do something about gender-based violence”, she added, stressing the importance of putting the voices of women “at the heart of what we do”

Ms. Kanem pledged to funnel 43 per cent of UNFPA’s humanitarian funding to national and local women’s organizations, saying “now more than ever, they need us”.

Afghanistan: ‘Important reminder’

Emergency Relief Coordinator Martin Griffiths called the situation in Afghanistan “an important reminder of the primary vulnerability of women and girls in crises”.

He highlighted the vital role of women-led local communities, pointing out that they act as first responders to crisis.

Recalling a recent trip to Ethiopia, where he heard first-hand accounts of the traumas suffered by women in Tigray, he said that it was the local communities who first responded to the atrocities, which underscores the “absolute importance” of listening to women, protecting women and girls, and “protecting local communities to do what they naturally want to do”.

The protection of women is one of the least-funded parts of the humanitarian programme, Mr. Griffiths said.

Getting the word out

Henrietta Fore, Executive Director of the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), said to deliver on “the ambitious call to action”, it is important to “get the word out” to the girls and women on the ground about the services available.

“This has not been clear at all”, Ms. Fore stated.

She spoke of the UNICEF report We Must Do Better, which provides a global feminist assessment of the experiences of women and girls, and the organizations they lead, during the COVID-19 pandemic.

The report highlighted that the needs of women and girls are either ignored or treated as an afterthought; and that despite being on the front lines of humanitarian crises, women are not taken seriously enough.

And although the demand for GBV services has increased during COVID, the resources have not, said Ms. Fore, calling for greater support for local women’s groups, including financially.

Bureaucratizing assistance

Fighting GBV is an important priority for the UN refugee agency (UNHCR), High Commissioner Filippo Grandi assured participants, especially in situations of forced displacements, which are “rife” with opportunities.

He acknowledged that during humanitarian crises as everyone is moving quickly, too often the critical role of local women’s organizations are overlooked.

The top UNHCR official said that providing “substantive, flexible, direct and rapid” resources to women-led, community-based organizations without undue red tape is “one of the most important” ways to empower them.

He conceded however, “this is a difficult call” as humanitarian funding is follow the trend of being “bureaucratized”.

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The Death News of Sidharth Shukla: In the remembrance of Sidnaaz

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For most individuals, the death news of Sidharth Shukla seems implausible. Sidharth Shukla, popular actor, and 13 winner Bigg Boss died on Thursday 2 September suffering a severe cardiac arrest at Cooper Hospital in Mumbai.  Actor Sidharth constantly challenged the odds in his profession. For many in the TV and movie sector, it is a last-ditch and sometimes fruitless effort to stop a slide into irrelevance in the popular reality program Bigg Boss. But Shukla was the household name that became a feather reality TV sensation for himself who won the 13th show edition in 2019. For the first time, Shukla entered the television limelight, working on BalikaVadhu (2012), in which he tried the part of District Collector Shivraj Shekhar. Shukla portrayed the character throughout the space of three years and won several accolades. A few whiles later, in Humpty Sharma Ki Dulhania (2014), he was reputed to a costar, once again receiving acclaim. Born and reared up in Mumbai, Shukla began as a model by taking a position as a leader in the Manhunt and Mega model Gladrags contests and then starred in Bajaj and ICICI Banking television commercial campaigns. Shortly thereafter, he premiered on Babul Ka Aangann Chootey Na, followed by a range of dramatic TV shows such as CID and Aahat, which include criminal dramas. In 2016 Khatron Ke Khiladi won Fear Factor as well. Shukla has also been a popular television host with such series as Savdhaan India and the Got Talent 6 of India. His death caused a shock to the television and film industries.

Police authorities in Mumbai claimed that at around 9 a.m. before death, Shukla complained about cardiac pressure in his home in Oshivara, Mumbai.  At that time, his sister, his mother, and brother-in-law were in the house. A physician who came to the house found that he was pulseless. “The family went to Dr. RN Cooper hospital and requested an ambulance. They reached about 9.45 am and before admission he had been proclaimed dead.” The Forensic department leader, Dr. R Sukhdev, verified that on Thursday morning, Shukla was brought dead. The afternoon postmortem exam was performed. No external damage on his body was detected before the autopsy by physicians and police. The Dean of Dr. RN Cooper Hospital, Dr. Sailesh Mohite, refused to comment on the autopsy findings.

Many Celebertities Condolences

“Siddharth, gone too soon. You’ll be missed…” said Actor Salman Khan, who gave him the trophy of Bigg Boss. Kapil Sharma TV comedy host tweeted, “Oh god, it is truly shocking, my condolences to the family, and prayers for the the departed soul” Several TV and film fraternity members, like Rajkummar Rao, came to Mumbai to pay their final honors in Shukla Residence. On Friday his last rites will be conducted.

Shehnaaz Gill on Sidharth Shukla death

Sources close to the actor and individuals who went to his house and told Sidharth Shukla’s family that Shehnaaz is in a condition of shock and cannot cope with his loss today. Source further stated Shehnaaz was deeply impacted by the untimely death of the Balika Vadhu actor. Shehnaaz was very near to Sidharth, and she frequently publicly demonstrated her affection for him. Her compassion and caring for him never shied away. She said she was even in love with him openly. Fans liked their duo much after BB 13, and invented their moniker with affection, Sidnaaz. In two recent programs, Back-to-Back Bigg Boss OTT and Dances Deewane 3, the reported couple had featured.

Sidharth Shukla breathed his last in Shehnaaz Gill’s arms

Sidharth was still complaining of discomfort, and Shehnaaz and his mother begged him to relax. Sidharth was unable to sleep, on the other hand; thus Shehnaaz was requested to remain with him and pat on his back. Sidharth lay on the lap of Shehnhaaz at 1:00 a.m., and the latter walked away gently. She slept, too, and when she woke up at 7am, she found Sidharth sleeping in the same position without moving, and he didn’t stir when she tried to wake him up. From the 12th story to the fifth level, where his family resided, Shehnaaz was terrified and hurried. She notified Sidharth’s sister and phoned their doctor of the family, who told Sidharth that he hadn’t been there anymore.

Ye ‘Dil’ hai Muskil

Why are young people suffering from heart attacks? The death of Siddharth Shukla, 40 years old, has stunned everyone. Initial stories indicating that a heart attack is the reason for Thursday’s death were killed, along with the big boss winner Season-13. In recent times, heart disease has been a worry for health professionals among young Indian people. The question is why in very young age groups in India there has been an increase in cardiac attack.

Concluding Remarks

The greatest way I can escape the trap of thinking that you have anything to lose is to remember that you will die. No excuse to not follow your heart. Nobody wants to die. Nobody wants to die. Such people don’t even want to die to go to paradise to get there. And yet death is our common destination. Nobody has ever avoided it and this is why death is perhaps the finest invention of existence. Life is the agent of transformation. The old one is clearing way for the new one.

Death is, however tragic, probably God’s most beautiful creation. Death is merely another trip; birth and life will never take place without death. It’s unavoidable to lose somebody. Bill Watterson, the creator of Calvin and Hobbes, illustrates this wonders: Death is transitory and the meaning of life and death. Death is temporary. Death is a normal part of life, we have to realize. Death gives life its full significance. Let life be like summer flowers, let life be lovely and death be like fall leaves. But would it not be much easier to face our own mortality, rather than being unhappy, knowing that our life has been fully and without regret? Even if we don’t want to go to die, it’s just as unavoidable for the sun at night. In conclusion, when your time comes, you don’t have to die happy but you need to die satisfied, since from start to finish you have lived your life.

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4.1 billion lack social safety net

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More than four billion people live without any welfare protection today to cushion them from crisis, the UN International Labour Organization (ILO) said on Wednesday, while highlighting how the COVID-19 crisis has pushed up government spending by some 30 per cent.

Leading the call for countries to extend social safety nets far more widely than they do now, ILO Director-General Guy Ryder insisted that such a move would help future-proof workers and businesses in the face of new challenges.

“This is a pivotal moment to harness the pandemic response to build a new generation of rights-based social protection systems,” said Mr. Ryder.

“These can cushion people from future crises and give workers and businesses the security to tackle the multiple transitions ahead with confidence and with hope. We must recognize that effective and comprehensive social protection is not just essential for social justice and decent work but for creating a sustainable and resilient future too.”

In a new report the UN body acknowledged that the COVID-19 crisis had led to greater social protections worldwide, albeit mainly in wealthy countries.

It noted that only 47 per cent of the global population are covered by at least one social protection benefit, while only one in four children has access to national welfare safety nets.

Newborns’ needs unmet

Further research indicated that only 45 per cent of women with newborns worldwide receive a cash benefit, while only one in three people with severe disabilities receive a disability benefit.

Coverage of unemployment benefits is even lower, ILO said, with only 18.6 per cent of jobless workers effectively covered globally.

On retirement welfare, the UN body found that although nearly eight in 10 people receive some form of pension, major disparities remain across regions, between rural and urban areas and women and men.

Regional imbalances

The ILO report underscores the significant regional inequalities in social protection.

Europe and Central Asia have the highest rates of coverage, with 84 per cent of people having access to at least one benefit.

Countries in the Americas are also above the global average (64.3 per cent), in stark contrast to welfare roll-out in Asia and the Pacific (44 per cent), the Arab States (40 per cent) and Africa (17.4 per cent).

Highlighting differences in government spending on social protection, ILO said that high-income countries spend 16.4 per cent of national turnover (above the 13 per cent global average, excluding health), while low-income countries budget just 1.1 per cent.

Billions more needed

The UN body noted that since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, governments have had to increase spending massively to ensure minimum social protection for all, by around 30 per cent.

And it maintained that to guarantee basic social protection coverage, low-income countries would need to invest an additional $77.9 billion per year, lower-middle-income countries an additional $362.9 billion and upper-middle-income countries a further $750.8 billion annually. That’s equivalent to 15.9 per cent, 5.1 per cent and 3.1 per cent of their GDP, respectively.

“There is an enormous push for countries to move to fiscal consolidation, after the massive public expenditure of their crisis response measures, but it would be seriously damaging to cut back on social protection; investment is required here and now,” said Shahra Razavi, Director, ILO Social Protection Department.

Underscoring the multiple benefits of social welfare protection, Ms. Razavi insisted that it could promoted “better health and education, greater equality, more sustainable economic systems, better managed migration and the observance of core rights…The benefits of success will reach beyond national borders to benefit us all”.

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