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Chinese Initiative on Jointly Building a Community With a Shared Future in Cyberspace

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The world is experiencing rapid changes unseen in a century. The COVID-19 pandemic has taken heavy losses on countries around the world. The only collective struggle may win the battle between humanity and the virus. In the face of evolving risks and challenges, humankind must augment solidarity and cooperation in cyberspace and uphold fairness and justice for the digital economy’s collective benefits.

During the second World Internet Conference held in 2015, Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward four principles and a five-point plan on the Internet’s global development and governance. He advocated respect for sovereignty in cyberspace and revealed the vision of building a community with a shared future in cyberspace, offering China’s wisdom and methodology to the Internet’s global development and supremacy. In 2019, the World Internet Conference’s Organizing Committee released the perception document entitled Jointly Shaping a Community with a Shared Future in Cyberspace, further explaining this vision. The current pandemic highlights a more significant distinction and urgency to building a community with a shared future in cyberspace. We call on all nations, global organizations, Internet companies, technical societies, social organizations, and individuals to take the attitude to global governance, which is based on extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, uphold the philosophy of “achieving shared development, ensuring common security, realizing joint governance, and enjoying benefits together,” and work together to build cyberspace into a community where we can jointly advance development, safeguard security, participate in governance, and share the benefits. To this end, we would like to propose the following:

Achieving shared development

We should implement more proactive, inclusive, and synchronized policies that benefit all, speed up global information infrastructure building, promote advanced development of the digital economy, and improve public service capacity.

1. Improving Internet access and stimulating connectivity. We should further advance cooperation in communications structures such as optical cable backbone networks and international underwater cables. Based on respecting sovereignty in cyberspace and Internet policies of individual countries, we should explore adequate means of expanding Internet access and linking, and deliver development opportunities brought by the Internet to more developing countries and peoples.

2. Evolving information infrastructure construction. We need to work together to increase cooperation in information infrastructure construction, operation, and service capability. Funding should be given to the structure, application, and development of 5G, Internet of Things, and industrial Internet, to substitute new economic growth drivers and improve economic recovery and development.

3. Enhancing ICT-enabled public serviceability. We should boost experience sharing and cooperation in using digital technologies to respond to such public disasters as epidemics and natural disasters. Digital technologies should be leveraged to improve public service capability in culture and education, environmental protection, urban planning, community management, healthcare, etc.

4. Incorporating digital technologies with industrial development for economic revolution and upgrading. It is essential to integrate digital technologies with outdated industries by further applying digital, network, and intelligent technologies in industries, encouraging economic transformation and upgrading, and enabling the development, utilization, and sharing of data resources.

5. Nurturing an enabling business environment to sustain, stable, and secure global ICT industry and supply chains. We call on countries to arrange for an open, fair, and non-discriminatory business atmosphere and strengthen solidarity and cooperation in times of hardship to enhance the global market’s confidence. Good multilateral digital rules should be developed to promote mutual expectation and win-win cooperation, ensure openness, stability, and security of global ICT industry and supply chains, to encourage the healthy growth of the worldwide economy.

Ensuring common security

We campaign a cybersecurity vision that landscapes openness and cooperation and encourages Internet development while setting equal emphasis on cybersecurity to jointly support peace and security in cyberspace.

6. Strengthening strategic conjoint trust in cyberspace. Cooperation and negotiations at global, regional, multilateral, bilateral, and multi-party levels need to be encouraged to jointly maintain peace and stability in cyberspace and reinforce strategic trust among nations. We should oppose acts of attacks, deterrence, and blackmailing in cyberspace, stand against leading activities that destabilize other countries’ national security and public interests through the use of ICTs, and safeguard against arms race in cyberspace as well as attempts to politicize technical subjects, to create a peaceful atmosphere for development.

7. Stepping up the shield of information infrastructure. We should stride up cooperation in early-warning and prevention, information sharing and emergency response, and aggressively engage in experience exchanges to protect critical information infrastructure. We stand against harming the critical information infrastructure or stealing essential data from other countries through its use.

8. Improving personal information safe and data security management. It is imperative to legalize the practices of collecting, storing, using, processing, transmitting, providing, and disclosing personal information to safeguard personal information security. International exchanges and cooperation should be advanced in data security, personal information protection, and relevant rules and standards, and energies should be made to promote mutual recognition among countries on regulations and standards on personal information protection in line with the commitments of the UN Charter. Companies should not pre-install backdoors or malicious codes in their information technology equipment nor steal users’ data when providing products and services.

9. Strengthening the safeguard of minors in cyberspace. We should promote knowledge sharing on the legislation of minors protection in cyberspace, fight cybercrimes and cyberbullying targeted at children, protect their privacy on the Internet, and cultivate their digital literacy to help them develop vigorous Internet habits.

10. Increasing international cooperation on struggling cybercrimes and cyberterrorism. We should take engagements to crack down upon cybercrimes, especially their eco-system and chains, and other progress mechanism building on combating cybercrimes and cyberterrorism. We should support and take an active part in the negotiations on the global convention against cybercrimes under the United Nations’ outline. Effective coordination on legislations and practices of different countries should be made in a joint effort to tackle the threats of cybercrimes and cyberterrorism.

Realizing joint governance

We should stay dedicated to a multilateral and multi-party approach to cyberspace governance. Dialogues and consultation should be stridden up to foster a more just and impartial governance system in cyberspace.

11. Giving full play to the UN’s main-channel role in global authority in cyberspace. We should exert the UN Open-ended Working Group (OEWG) functions and the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) and support articulating codes, norms, and principles of responsible state conduct in cyberspace that are suitable to all parties under the UN framework.

12. Improving the international authority system that is shared and governed by all. We were backing the roles of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF), the World Internet Conference (WIC), the Mobile World Congress (MWC), the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and other platforms and encourage the participation of governments, international organizations, Internet companies, technical communities, public organizations, and individual citizens in the global governance in cyberspace.

13. Participating in Internet infrastructure resource management on the same footing. The convenience and reliability of Internet infrastructure resources for each country should be guaranteed, and efforts should be made to promote joint management and rational distribution of Internet infrastructure resources for the international community.

14. Cultivating governance on new technologies and applications. We should use expression into laws, regulations, rules, and standards to guide the use of new technologies and applications such as artificial intelligence, the Internet of Things, and the next-generation communications network, and endorse international cooperation in technical standards and moral standards.

15. Promoting capacity building on cyberspace governance. We call on countries to establish multi-channel exchange platforms and launch assistance and training programs on global management in cyberspace under the UN and other multilateral frameworks to help developing countries improve their capacity of participating in global governance.

Enjoying benefits together

We should advocate Tech for Good with a people-centered approach, contracted the digital divide, and achieve collective prosperity.

16. Sharing the paybacks of e-commerce. Countries need to diminish barriers in market access and other fields for charming trade channels. Cross-border e-commerce needs to be further encouraged. Countries need to establish mechanisms for information sharing and mutual trust and recognition. Secure and reliable digital technologies should be encouraged to enable cross-border trade.

17. Generating more opportunities for MSMEs in the digital economy. Policy backing needs to be stepped up to assist MSMEs in exploiting new-generation information technologies for innovation in products, services, processes, and organizational and business modes to generate more jobs and help MSMEs join the global value chains.

18. Strengthening backing and support to the vulnerable groups and leaving no one behindhand. We inspire experience sharing on Internet-enabled targeted poverty eradication to promote international cooperation in poverty reduction. More products and services appropriate for the elderly, the disabled, women, and children should be developed, and more policies, procedures, and technical tools should be employed to improve the digital skills of the vulnerable groups for the advancement and improvement of digital literacy among the public.  

19. Endorsing cyber cultural exchanges and mutual learning. The multiplicity of cyberculture should be respected. We advocate for tapping into adequate cultural resources to promote Internet-related exchanges and cooperation, and mutual knowledge. There is a need to establish inclusive, open, and diverse platforms and instruments for cyber cultural exchanges.

20. Contributing to the enactment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. We request all countries to set great store by developing countries’ apprehensions, bridge the digital divide, and promote sustained, comprehensive, and sustainable economic growth and social development with ICTs as an enabler.

The Internet is a shared home for all humankind. The future of the human race in cyberspace has never been so closely interwoven. To conserve a peaceful, secure, open, cooperative, and orderly cyberspace is to build a better place than we all call home. Going accelerative, we stand ready to work with the global community to seize the opportunities and address the challenges to conjointly build a closer community with a shared future in cyberspace towards a brighter future for humankind.

Prof. Engr. Zamir Ahmed Awan, Sinologist (ex-Diplomat), Non-Resident Fellow of CCG (Center for China and Globalization), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

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First Quantum Computing Guidelines Launched as Investment Booms

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National governments have invested over $25 billion into quantum computing research and over $1 billion in venture capital deals have closed in the past year – more than the past three years combined. Quantum computing promises to disrupt the future of business, science, government, and society itself, but an equitable framework is crucial to address future risks.

A new Insight Report released today at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2022 provides a roadmap for these emerging opportunities across public and private sectors. The principles have been co-designed by a global multistakeholder community composed of quantum experts, emerging technology ethics and law experts, decision makers and policy makers, social scientists and academics.

“The critical opportunity at the dawn of this historic transformation is to address ethical, societal and legal concerns well before commercialization,” said Kay Firth-Butterfield, Head of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning at the World Economic Forum. “This report represents an early intervention and the beginning of a multi-disciplinary, global conversation that will guide the development of quantum computing to the benefit of all society.”

“Quantum computing holds the potential to help solve some of society’s greatest challenges, and IBM has been at the forefront of bringing quantum hardware and software to communities of discovery worldwide,” said Dr. Heike Riel, IBM Fellow, Head of Science and Technology and Lead, Quantum, IBM Research Europe. “This report is a key step in initiating the discussion around how quantum computing should be shaped and governed, for the benefit of all.”

Professor Bronwyn Fox, Chief Scientist at CSIRO, Australia’s science national agency said, “the Principles reflect conversations CSIRO’s scientists have had with partners from around the world who share an ambition for a responsible quantum future. Embedding responsible innovation in quantum computing is key to its successful deployment and uptake for generations to come. CSIRO is committed to ensuring these Principles are used to support a strong quantum industry in Australia and generate significant social and public good.”

In adapting to the coming hybrid model of classical, multi-cloud, and soon quantum computing, the Forum’s framework establishes best-practice principles and core values. These guidelines set the foundation and give rise to a new information-processing paradigm while ensuring stakeholder equity, risk mitigation, and consumer benefit.

The governance principles are grouped into nine themes and underpinned by a set of seven core values. Themes and respective goals defining the principles:

1. Transformative capabilities: Harness the transformative capabilities of this technology and the applications for the good of humanity while managing the risks appropriately.

2. Access to hardware infrastructure: Ensure wide access to quantum computing hardware.

3. Open innovation: Encourage collaboration and a precompetitive environment, enabling faster development of the technology and the realization of its applications.

4. Creating awareness: Ensure the general population and quantum computing stakeholders are aware, engaged and sufficiently informed to enable ongoing responsible dialogue and communication; stakeholders with oversight and authority should be able to make informed decisions about quantum computing in their respective domains.

5. Workforce development and capability-building: Build and sustain a quantum-ready workforce.

6. Cybersecurity: Ensure the transition to a quantum-secure digital world.

7. Privacy: Mitigate potential data-privacy violations through theft and processing by quantum computers.

8. Standardization: Promote standards and road-mapping mechanisms to accelerate the development of the technology.

9. Sustainability: Develop a sustainable future with and for quantum computing technology

Quantum computing core values that hold across the themes and principles:

Common good: The transformative capabilities of quantum computing and its applications are harnessed to ensure they will be used to benefit humanity.

Accountability: Use of quantum computing in any context has mechanisms in place to ensure human accountability, both in its design and in its uses and outcomes. All stakeholders in the quantum computing community are responsible for ensuring that the intentional misuse of quantum computing for harmful purposes is not accepted or inadvertently positively sanctioned.

Inclusiveness: In the development of quantum computing, insofar as possible, a broad and truly diverse range of stakeholder perspectives are engaged in meaningful dialogue to avoid narrow definitions of what may be considered a harmful or beneficial use of the technology.

Equitability: Quantum computing developers and users ensure that the technology is equitable by design, and that quantum computing-based technologies are fairly and evenly distributed insofar as possible. Particular consideration is given to any specific needs of vulnerable populations to ensure equitability.

Non-maleficence: All stakeholders use quantum computing in a safe, ethical and responsible manner. Furthermore, all stakeholders ensure quantum computing does not put humans at risk of harm, either in the intended or unintended outcomes of its use, and that it is not used for nefarious purposes.

Accessibility: Quantum computing technology and knowledge are actively made widely accessible. This includes the development, deployment and use of the technology. The aim is to cultivate a general ability among the population, societal actors, corporations and governments to understand the main principles of quantum computing, the ways in which it differs from classical computing and the potential it brings.

Transparency: Users, developers and regulators are transparent about their purpose and intentions with regard to quantum computing.

“Governments and industries are accelerating their investments in quantum computing research and development worldwide,” said Derek O’Halloran, Head of Digital Economy, World Economic Forum. “This report starts the conversation that will help us understand the opportunities, set the premise for ethical guidelines, and pre-empt socioeconomic, political and legal risks well ahead of global deployment.”

The Quantum Computing Governance Principles is an initiative of the World Economic Forum’s Quantum Computing Network, a multi-stakeholder initiative focused on accelerating responsible quantum computing.

Next steps for the Quantum Computing Governance Initiative will be to work with wider stakeholder groups to adopt these principles as part of broader governance frameworks and policy approaches. With this framework, business and investment communities along with policy makers and academia will be better equipped to adopt to the coming paradigm shift. Ultimately, everyone will be better prepared to harness the transformative capabilities of quantum sciences – perhaps the most exciting emergent technologies of the 21st Century.

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Closing the Cyber Gap: Business and Security Leaders at Crossroads as Cybercrime Spikes

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The global digital economy has surged off the back of the COVID-19 pandemic, but so has cybercrime – ransomware attacks rose 151% in 2021. There were on average 270 cyberattacks per organization during 2021, a 31% increase on 2020, with each successful cyber breach costing a company $3.6m. After a breach becomes public, the average share price of the hacked company underperforms the NASDAQ by -3% even six months after the event.

According to the World Economic Forum’s new annual report, The Global Cybersecurity Outlook 2022, 80% of cyber leaders now consider ransomware a “danger” and “threat” to public safety and there is a large perception gap between business executives who think their companies are secure and security leaders who disagree.

Some 92% of business executives surveyed agree that cyber resilience is integrated into enterprise risk-management strategies, only 55% of cyber leaders surveyed agree. This gap between leaders can leave firms vulnerable to attacks as a direct result of incongruous security priorities and policies.

Even after a threat is detected, our survey, written in collaboration with Accenture, found nearly two-thirds would find it challenging to respond to a cybersecurity incident due to the shortage of skills within their team. Perhaps even more troubling is the growing trend that companies need 280 days on average to identify and respond to a cyberattack. To put this into perspective, an incident which occurs on 1 January may not be fully contained until 8 October.

“Companies must now embrace cyber resilience – not only defending against cyberattacks but also preparing for swift and timely incident response and recovery when an attack does occur,” said Jeremy Jurgens, Managing Director at the World Economic Forum.

“Organizations need to work more closely with ecosystem partners and other third parties to make cybersecurity part of an organization’s ecosystem DNA, so they can be resilient and promote customer trust,” said Julie Sweet, Chair and CEO, Accenture. “This report underscores key challenges leaders face – collaborating with ecosystem partners and retaining and recruiting talent. We are proud to work with the World Economic Forum on this important topic because cybersecurity impacts every organization at all levels.”

Chief Cybersecurity Officers kept up at night by three things

Less than one-fifth of cyber leaders feel confident their organizations are cyber resilient. Three major concerns keep them awake at night:

– They don’t feel consulted on business decisions, and they struggle to gain the support of decision-makers in prioritizing cyber risks – 7 in 10 see cyber resilience featuring prominently in corporate risk management

– Recruiting and retaining the right talent is their greatest concern – 6 in 10 think it would be challenging to respond to a cybersecurity incident because they lack the skills within their team

– Nearly 9 in 10 see SMEs as the weakest link in the supply chain – 40% of respondents have been negatively affected by a supply chain cybersecurity incident

Training and closing the cyber gap are key solutions

Solutions include employee cyber training, offline backups, cyber insurance and platform-based cybersecurity solutions that stop known ransomware threats across all attack vectors.

Above all, there is an urgent need to close the gap of understanding between business and security leaders. It is impossible to attain complete cybersecurity, so the key objective must be to reinforce cyber resilience.

Including cyber leaders into the corporate governance process will help close this gap.

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Ethical aspects relating to cyberspace: Self-regulation and codes of conduct

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Virtual interaction processes must be controlled in one way or another. But how, within what limits and, above all, on the basis of what principles? The proponents of the official viewpoint – supported by the strength of state structures – argue that since the Internet has a significant and not always positive impact not only on its users, but also on society as a whole, all areas of virtual interaction need to be clearly regulated through the enactment of appropriate legislation.

In practice, however, the various attempts to legislate on virtual communication face great difficulties due to the imperfection of modern information law. Moreover, considering that the Internet community is based on an internal “anarchist” ideology, it shows significant resistance to government regulations, believing that in a cross-border environment – which is the global network – the only effective regulator can be the voluntarily and consciously accepted intranet ethics based on the awareness of the individual person’s moral responsibility for what happens in cyberspace.

At the same time, the significance of moral self-regulation lies not only in the fact that it makes it possible to control the areas that are insufficiently covered, but also in other regulatory provisions at political, legal, technical or economic levels. It is up to ethics to check the meaning, lawfulness and legitimacy of the remaining regulatory means. The legal provisions themselves, supported by the force of state influence, are developed or – at least, ideally – should be implemented on the basis of moral rules. It should be noted that, although compliance with law provisions is regarded as the minimum requirement of morality, in reality this is not always the case – at least until an “ideal” legislation is devised that does not contradict morality in any way. Therefore, an ethical justification and an equal scrutiny of legislative and disciplinary acts in relation to both IT and computer technology are necessary.

In accordance with the deontological approach to justifying web ethics, the ethical foundation of information law is based on the human rights of information. Although these rights are enshrined in various national and international legal instruments, in practice their protection is often not guaranteed by anyone. This enables several state structures to introduce various restrictions on information, justifying them with noble aims such as the need to implement the concept of national security.

It should be stressed that information legislation (like any other in general) is of a conventional nature, i.e. it is a sort of temporary compromise reached by the representatives of the various social groups. Therefore, there are no unshakable principles in this sphere: legality and illegality are defined by a dynamic balance between the desire for freedom of information, on the one hand, and the attempts at restricting this freedom in one way or another.

Therefore, several subjects have extremely contradictory requirements with regard to modern information law, which are not so easy to reconcile. Information law should simultaneously protect the right to free reception of information and the right to information security, as well as ensure privacy and prevent cybercrime. It should also promote again the public accessibility of the information created, and protect copyright – even if this impinges on the universal principle of knowledge sharing.

The principle of a reasonable balance of these often diametrically opposed aspirations, with unconditional respect for fundamental human rights, should be the basis of the international information law system.

Various national and international public organisations, professionals and voluntary users’ associations define their own operation principles in a virtual environment. These principles are very often formalised in codes of conduct, aimed at minimising the potentially dangerous moral and social consequences of the use of information technologies and thus at achieving a certain degree of web community’s autonomy, at least when it comes to purely internal problematic issues. The names of these codes do not always hint at ethics, but this does not change their essence. After all, they have not the status of law provisions, which means that they cannot serve as a basis for imposing disciplinary, administrative or any other liability measures on offenders. They are therefore enforced by the community members who have adopted them solely with goodwill, as a result of free expression based on recognition and sharing of the values and rules enshrined in them. These codes therefore act as one of the moral self-regulating mechanisms of the web community.

The cyberspace codes of ethics provide the basic moral guidelines that should guide information activities. They specify the principles of general theoretical ethics and are reflected in a virtual environment. They contain criteria enabling to recognise a given act as ethical or unethical. They finally provide specific recommendations on how to behave in certain situations. The rules enshrined in the codes of ethics under the form of provisions, authorisations, bans, etc., represent in many respects the formalisation and systematisation of unwritten rules and requirements that have developed spontaneously in the process of virtual interaction over the last thirty years of the Internet.

Conversely, the provisions of codes of ethics must be thoroughly considered and judged – by their very nature, code of ethics are conventional and hence they are always the result of a mutual agreement of the relevant members of a given social group – as otherwise they are simply reduced to a formal and sectorial statement, divorced from life and not rule-bound.

Despite their multidirectionality due to the variety of net functional abilities and the heterogeneity of its audience, a comparison of the most significant codes of ethics on the Internet shows a number of common principles. Apparently, these principles are in one way or another shared by all the Internet community members. This means that they underpin the ethos of cyberspace. They include the principle of accessibility, confidentiality and quality of information; the principle of inviolability of intellectual property; the principle of no harm, and the principle of limiting the excessive use of net resources. As can be seen, this list echoes the four deontological principles of information ethics (“PAPA: Privacy, Accuracy, Property and Accessibility”) formulated by Richard Mason in his article Four Ethical Issues of the Information Age. (“MIS Quarterly”, March 1986).

The presence of a very well-written code of ethics cannot obviously ensure that all group members will act in accordance with it, because – for a person – the most reliable guarantees against unethical behaviour are his/her conscience and duties, which are not always respected. The importance of codes should therefore not be overestimated: the principles and actual morals proclaimed by codes may diverge decisively from one another. The codes of ethics, however, perform a number of extremely important functions on the Internet: firstly, they can induce Internet users to moral reflection by instilling the idea of the need to evaluate their actions accordingly (in this case, it is not so much a ready-made code that is useful, but the very experience of its development and discussion). Secondly, they can form a healthy public in a virtual environment, and also provide it with uniform and reasonable criteria for moral evaluation. Thirdly they can  become the basis for the future creation of international information law, adapted to the realities of the electronic age.

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