As technological change and automation increasingly disrupt many aspects of daily life, developing economies in Asia and the Pacific must rethink education and training to ensure students have the right skills for the jobs of the future, according to a new book published by the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
Anticipating and Preparing for Emerging Skills and Jobs examines the impacts on society, the economy, and the evolving world of work from phenomena including the emergence of new technology and globalization and their implications for education and training.
“Most education systems around the world were founded 100–150 years ago to meet the needs of the first and second industrial revolutions,” said ADB Education Sector Group Chief Brajesh Panth, co-editor of the book. “Yet, they’re facing serious challenges in meeting emerging labor market needs that relate to 21st century skills and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. While developing Asia has made remarkable progress in enhancing access to education, we must now rethink education itself to ensure learning for all so that students are able to absorb and apply the skills necessary to prosper in the 21st century.”
To ensure that students are equipped with digital skills and soft skills, as well as others beyond reading, writing, and arithmetic, the book advocates a two-pronged strategy for developing countries to go “back to basics” to improve learning outcomes for all students while paving opportunities for leapfrogging.
The book outlines a series of recommendations, including that schools move away from classifying all learners into one category, and the customizing of education to meet the learning needs of all types of learners. Besides laying a solid foundation at school level to leapfrog industrialization, the book recommends that developing countries build high-quality universities to prepare graduates in key areas such as agricultural modernization, biotechnology, and digital skills—drawing lessons from the Republic of Korea, Singapore, and others that have become economic powerhouses by investing in human capital.
Also highlighted in the book is the vital role of technology in transforming future learning outcomes in ways ranging from adaptive learning programs to help students learn at their own pace through personalized learning, to continuous skills enhancement for teachers through online blended courses. Technology has enabled the surge in online learning for the estimated over 1.5 billion children who were out of school worldwide at the peak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, according to UNESCO.
The publication is a collection of 40 articles contributed by eminent policymakers, practitioners, and researchers, and is co-edited by Rupert Maclean from the School of Education at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. It is the latest in the Springer Book Series Education in the Asia Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects, first published in 2002.
Lao PDR: New Project to Protect Landscapes and Enhance Livelihoods
The World Bank’s Board of Executive Directors today approved a US$57 million project to help Lao PDR promote sustainable forest management, improve protected area management, and enhance livelihoods opportunities in eight provinces across the country. Project funding comes from the World Bank’s International Development Association, with contributions from the Global Environment Facility and the Canada-World Bank Clean Energy and Forest Climate Facility.
The Lao Landscapes and Livelihoods Project will support economic recovery in light of the adverse impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic by focusing on preservation of natural capital such as forests, biodiversity, water resources, soil, and land. The Project will help communities in over 600 villages and 25 forest areas to secure livelihoods and jobs from sustainably managed forests, including opportunities in timber and non-timber products, and nature-based tourism.
“This project will be crucial to helping Lao PDR recover from the global coronavirus shock by protecting and enhancing its natural capital, and supporting the creation of green jobs in vulnerable communities,” said the World Bank Lao PDR Country Manager Nicola Pontara.
Despite enjoying sustained periods of high economic growth in the last three decades, Lao PDR has experienced a gradual deterioration of its natural capital, making vulnerable rural people more susceptible to floods and droughts while jeopardizing their access to food, fiber, fresh water and income.
The Government of Lao PDR will implement the project through the Department of Forestry at the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. To create jobs and livelihoods and secure environmental benefits, the project will develop environmentally and socially sustainable partnerships among communities, government, nature-based-tourism companies, and forest plantations.
The Lao Landscapes and Livelihoods Project complements other partnerships between Laos and the World Bank on biodiversity protection, carbon emission reductions and nature-based tourism. It also supports the priorities of the government’s ninth National Socio-Economic Development Plan for 2021-25 and the 2030 National Green Growth Strategy.
Two-Thirds of Poorer Countries Are Cutting Education Budgets Due to COVID-19
Education budgets are not adjusting proportionately to the challenges brought about by COVID-19, especially in poorer countries. Despite additional funding needs, two-thirds of low- and lower-middle-income countries have, in fact, cut their public education budgets since the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic, according to the new joint World Bank – UNESCO Education Finance Watch (EFW).
In comparison, only one-third of upper-middle and high-income countries have reduced their budgets. These budget cuts have been relatively small thus far, but there is a danger that future cuts will be larger, as the pandemic continues to take its economic toll, and fiscal positions worsen. These differing trends imply a significant widening of the already large spending disparities seen between low- and high-income countries.
According to the new report, prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, in 2018-19, high-income countries were spending annually the equivalent of US$8,501 for every child or youth’s education compared to US$48 in low-income countries. COVID-19 is only widening this huge per-capita education spending gap between rich and poor countries.
EFW stresses that the education finance challenge is not only about mobilizing resources, but also about improving the effectiveness of funding. Unfortunately, recent increases in public education spending have been associated with relatively small improvements in education outcomes. Although access to education has improved, the learning poverty rate – the proportion of 10-year-olds unable to read a short, age-appropriate text – was 53 percent in low- and middle-income countries prior to COVID-19, compared to only 9 percent for high-income countries. COVID-19 related school closures are likely to increase this 53 percent share to as much as 63 percent.
“This is a critical moment where countries need to recover the learning losses the pandemic is generating, invest in remedial education, and use this window of opportunity to build more effective, equitable, and resilient systems,” said Mamta Murthi, World Bank Vice President for Human Development. “The learning poverty crisis that existed before COVID-19 is becoming even more severe, and we are also concerned about how unequal the impact is. Countries and the international development community must invest more and invest better in education systems and strengthen the link between spending and learning and other human capital outcomes.”
EFW notes that global spending on education has increased over the last 10 years, but the signs are that the pandemic may interrupt this upward trend. Funding for education has grown most rapidly in low- and lower-middle-income countries, where the gaps between the funding needed to achieve the SDGs and current allocations are the widest. The deterioration in government finances over the medium-term suggests that without concerted efforts to prioritize education, the outlook for mobilizing the domestic resources required for education will worsen.
Aid for education has increased by 21 percent over the last 10 years. Disbursements had increased rapidly in the 2000s and fell between 2010 and 2014 in the aftermath of the great financial crisis. However, since 2014, aid to education has increased by 30 percent, reaching its highest recorded level of US$ 15.9 billion in 2019. However, fiscal constraints, other sectoral needs, and changes in student mobility patterns, suggest that external aid for education might fall at a time when it is needed most.
“External financing is key to support the education opportunities of the world’s poorest,” said Stefania Giannini, Assistant Director-General at UNESCO. “Yet donor countries are likely – and some have already begun – to shift their budget away from aid to domestic priorities. Health and other emergencies are also competing for funds. We foresee a challenging environment for countries reliant on education aid. UNESCO estimates that it may fall by US$ 2 billion from its peak in 2020 and not return to 2018 levels for another six years.”
The EFW is a collaborative effort between the World Bank and the UNESCO Global Education Monitoring Report team. It will be produced annually following the main release of spending data by UNESCO’s Institute of Statistics. The EFW aims to draw together the best data available on all sources of education funding and monitor efforts to improve information on the levels and use of education funding. However, good quality and timely information on government, household, and aid spending in education is not readily available in all countries. This hinders planning and monitoring at a time when countries cannot afford any missteps.
Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency
Bringing together governments and relevant networks and organizations, the Global Alliance on Circular Economy and Resource Efficiency (GACERE) aims to provide a global impetus to initiatives related to the circular economy transition, resource efficiency, sustainable consumption and production patterns, and inclusive and sustainable industrialization.
GACERE is being established by the European Commission on behalf of the European Union (EU), and by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), in coordination with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).
GACERE will be launched on Monday 22 February 2021 from 12:00 until 13:15 CET on the margins of the first segment of the fifth meeting of the United Nations Environment Assembly.
The event will be hosted by Virginijus Sinkevičius, EU Commissioner for Environment, Oceans and Fisheries; Inger Andersen, United Nations Under-Secretary-General and UNEP’s Executive Director; and LI Yong, UNIDO’s Director General.
Ministers of countries which have joined GACERE and other stakeholders will provide their perspectives on the Alliance’s intended role in supporting a global just transition to circular and resource-efficient economies and the achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
A little acknowledged clause may be main obstacle to revival of Iran nuclear accord
A little acknowledged provision of the 2015 international agreement that curbed Iran’s nuclear program explains jockeying by the United States...
Climate politics and the future of carbon emissions
Climate change is no longer a far-off problem, it is happening here, it is happening now and if it is...
Ancestral Lineage of Hazaras: from Afghanistan to Pakistan
While the origins of Hazaras are much debated, opinions differ when it comes to the ancestral lineage of Hazara community....
U.S. Climate Policy Could Break the Ice with Russia
“In the midst of every crisis, lies great opportunity” — Albert Einstein Within the climate crisis lies strategic opportunity for the United...
Brighter Future Waits Ahead
Our footprints on the sands of time are about to be washed up by the next wave. We need to...
Will the New Interim Government Lead Libya Out Of A Long-Standing Crisis?
Last week, February 17, Libyans celebrated the 10th anniversary of the revolution that ousted the long time leader Colonel Muammar...
Kickstarting the U.S. Economy: A Rebound or Further Inequity?
The global economy has seen its fair share of peculiarity in recent years; much attributed to the developing economies rather...
Americas2 days ago
Secretly, Biden’s Foreign Policies Are Trump’s Foreign Policies
Energy3 days ago
Jordan, Israel, and Palestine in Quest of Solving the Energy Conundrum
Eastern Europe3 days ago
As Georgians Fight Each Other, Russia Gleefully Looks On
Development3 days ago
Lao PDR: New Project to Protect Landscapes and Enhance Livelihoods
Reports3 days ago
Sea transport is primary route for counterfeiters
Environment2 days ago
Public-private partnerships could play key role in combatting deforestation
Southeast Asia2 days ago
Myanmar: Exploiting lessons learnt in the Middle East
Energy2 days ago
The hydrogen revolution: A new development model that starts with the sea, the sun and the wind