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Myanmar’s farmers battle climate and health uncertainty

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For farmers in Myanmar, the COVID-19 pandemic is adding to growing unpredictability, in a sector already struggling to cope with the effects of climate change. The UN is working closely with the country’s government to help them to adapt and thrive.

U Cho, a sixty-one-year-old farmer from the Mandalay region, in central Myanmar, has had to overcome severe difficulties all of his life. At the age of five, he contracted polio, which left him paralyzed in his left leg and put paid to his plans of becoming a monk after completing his primary education. “With no hope of joining public service I did not think I would make it in life,” he says. 

Instead, like so many others in Myanmar, U Cho became a farmer: seven out of ten people in Myanmar’s rural areas rely on farming, fishing, raising animals to earn a living. He was able to make enough to put his children through school, but he is now coping with a host of fresh challenges that are making it harder to survive

Decades of uncertainty

A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), to assess the pandemic’s impact on family farmers in Mandalay and other regions of Myanmar, suggests that the climate has changed significantly over the past few decades. 95 per cent of farmers surveyed said that this has led to lower, or non-existent crop yields. 

Changes in climate patterns make it difficult for smallholder farmers to know when to begin ploughing, sowing, and cultivating crops. And, with low rainfall in the region, it is a challenging environment for those who solely rely on rainwater: this year, U Cho lost five acres of sesame due to drought.

The measures introduced to control the spread of COVID-19, especially those that limit movement, are making matters worse. Many poor people, who were already scraping by on meagre resources before the pandemic, are now facing extra pressure in terms of income sources, livelihoods and purchasing power.   

“Market demand is uncertain in the time of COVID-19: and prices for the main crops we grow have decreased, whilst the price of rice has gone up”, worries U Cho. “I have to lower our daily expenses, and we are now eating more roselle than meat as our main dish,” he added. 

Looking to a more resilient future

In response, the UN and the Myanmar authorities are finding ways to address the lost income and work opportunities, additional expenses, and decreased agricultural production brought about by the pandemic, as well dealing with the ongoing effects of climate change. 

“We cannot lose sight of multiple challenges that farmers face which affects productivity”, says Xiaojie Fan, FAO Representative to Myanmar. “As we respond to the immediate impacts of COVID-19, we need to maintain our support to the government and farmers, to mitigate the risks of the pandemic in terms of food security and nutrition, and help make the country more resilient to future shocks and stresses”. 

A key FAO-backed home gardening programme, set up in response to COVID-19, involves providing varieties of vegetable seeds to more than two thousand families. As one of the beneficiaries, U Cho received five types of vegetable seeds, and was able to harvest the vegetables for home consumption, and sell the surplus.

Staying climate smart

The FAO and agriculture ministry also supports training on climate-smart agriculture, which covers best practice soil, water and nutrient management techniques, and practices to improve crop yields and production. These methods are designed to help smallholders tackle climate-related challenges, improving food security and nutrition, and improving productivity and livelihoods.  

Before the pandemic, U Cho had established a demonstration plot with the knowledge he gained from the programme, and began training other farmers in climate smart agriculture techniques.

In March, however, training sessions in most of the villages involved in the project had to shut down, as makeshift bamboo gates were closed, and visitors refused access, to help slow the spread of the disease.

Since then, FAO has put COVID-19 prevention measures in place, to protect staff and community members, providing COVID-19 informational materials to communities, and provided soap and masks to farmers to instil confidence amongst community members.

U Cho has now managed to train 30 farmers in his own village, and 76 farmers in three adjoining villages, and is hopeful that there are better day to come: “I believe that if everyone plays their part completely, we shall overcome this crisis.”

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UNESCO ‘eDNA’ initiative to ‘unlock’ knowledge for biodiversity protection

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To understand the richness of biodiversity across World Heritage marine sites, the UN scientific organization launched on Monday a project to protect and preserve biodiversity, based on the study of environmental DNA – cellular material released from living things into their surroundings. 

Launching the new programme, the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) said that scientists and local residents would take samples of genetic material from fish waste, mucous membranes or cells, eDNA, to monitor species. 

Marine World Heritage sites play a critical role in protecting marine ecosystems of exceptional universal value and provide opportunities for the public to appreciate and preserve marine environments”, reminded UNESCO Assistant Director-General for Culture, Ernesto Ottone Ramírez. 

Species under threat 

UNESCO said that the two-year initiative would help measure the vulnerability of marine biodiversity to climate change and its impact on the distribution and migration patterns of marine life across World Heritage sites. 

The eDNA project, which involves collecting and analyzing samples from the environment – such as soil, water and air – rather than an individual organism, will also better monitor and protect endangered species included in the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List.  

Climate change is affecting the behaviour and distribution of underwater life and we must understand what is happening so we can adapt our conservation efforts to evolving conditions”, explained the UNESCO official. 

Beneath the waves 

UNESCO’s marine World Heritage sites are recognized for their unique biodiversity, outstanding ecosystems, or for representing major stages in Earth’s history.  

In the context of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030), the project was launched to contribute to the understanding of global trends and knowledge to preserve marine ecosystems. 

Since 1981, when Australia’s Great Barrier Reef was inscribed at UNESCO’s first marine site, a global network of 50 others are now included as “beacons of hope for healing the ocean”, according to the UN agency. 

Guided by expert support, the eDNA project will engage local citizens to gather material, so samples such as particles gathered through water filtering, can be genetically sequenced in specialized laboratories, without having to disturb animals themselves.   

Implemented by UNESCO’s Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) and World Heritage Centre, IOC chief Vladimir Ryabinin described the project as “a step toward the Ocean Decade’s vision of unlocking the knowledge we need to create the ocean we want by 2030”. 

Breaking new ground 

The use of eDNA in ocean monitoring and data collection is still in its infancy and standard protocols for sampling and data management will be streamlined in UNESCO’s groundbreaking eDNA project.  

For the first time, it will apply a consistent methodology across multiple marine protected areas simultaneously, helping establish global standards, data monitoring and management practices while making that information available to the public. 

All data will be processed and published by the Ocean Biodiversity Information System (OBIS), the world’s largest open-access data system on the distribution and diversity of marine species, maintained and collectively supported by a worldwide network of scientists, data managers and users.  

Sustainability goal 

The project works to advance the world’s understanding of life in the ocean, and establish conservation and management policies indicators.   

“eDNA sampling can provide an innovative, affordable, and long-awaited capacity to better understand the ocean ecosystems, their composition and behaviour, and to start managing ocean resources more sustainably”, said Mr. Ryabinin. 

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Act Urgently to Preserve Biodiversity for Sustainable Future — ADB President

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The world must act urgently to preserve ecosystems and biodiversity for the sake of a sustainable future and prosperity, Asian Development Bank (ADB) President Masatsugu Asakawa said at the opening of a global event on biodiversity here today.

“The world is at a critical turning point. If we are to reverse the alarming decline in nature, we must respond with urgency and coordinated action,” Mr. Asakawa said. “These efforts are needed to ensure the survival of our ecosystems, and for the sake of our shared future and prosperity.”  

Asia and the Pacific is one of the most biodiverse regions in the world—home to 17 of the 36 global biodiversity hotspots, 7 of the 17 megadiverse countries, and the greatest marine diversity. “If restored and well-managed, these natural capital assets can help to mitigate global climate change and biodiversity loss in a cost-effective and impactful manner,” Mr. Asakawa said in his opening remarks at the Ecological Civilization Forum at the 15th Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP15) in Kunming, the People’s Republic of China (PRC).  

The event is cohosted by the PRC’s Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Yunnan provincial government, and the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Participants include high-level representatives from governments, the private sector, development agencies including ADB, and civil society. 

ADB is committed to helping accelerate and increase nature-positive investments in Asia and the Pacific. “Through our ADB Nature-Positive Investment Roadmap, we are working with partners to scale up finance, develop knowledge of natural capital, and generate financially sustainable projects that deliver on biodiversity and healthy ecosystems,” Mr. Asakawa said.

At COP15, ADB is launching a new publication, Greening Development in the People’s Republic of China, which outlines how ADB and the PRC have successfully partnered to promote green development and ecological restoration in a way that complements economic and social priorities. 

In partnership with the Chinese Academy of Science and Stanford University, ADB is sharing progress on its new Natural Capital Lab due for launch in 2022. This will be a digital platform for sharing methods for valuing biodiversity and ecosystems, and for building knowledge, capacities, and alliances across the region.  

In addition, ADB with partners will be launching the Regional Flyway Initiative that will conserve ecosystem services that support people and critical habitats for more than 50 million migratory waterbirds.

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Greenpeace Africa reacts to DRC President’s decision to suspend illegal logging concessions

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forest

The President of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Félix Tshisekedi, ordered on Friday, October 15th, the suspension of all dubious logging concessions, including the 6 granted in September 2020. Greenpeace Africa, one of the civil society organizations that denounced these concessions, applauds the decision taken by the Head of State and encourages him to remain vigilant and ensure its effective execution by Deputy Prime Minister Ms. Eve Bazaiba.

Greenpeace Africa reiterates its call for maintaining the moratorium on new industrial logging concessions to prevent a human rights and climate catastrophe. This logging sector, characterized by bad governance, favors corruption and remains out of touch with the socio-economic needs of the Congolese people and the climate crisis we live in.

Irène Wabiwa Betoko, Head of the International Congo Basin Forest Project of Greenpeace: “The decision of H.E. President Tshisekedi against the illegal actions of former Minister Nyamugabo sends an important message to the Congolese people and their government. It is also a red light for the plans of Ms. Ève Bazaiba, current Minister of the Environment, to open a highway to deforestation by multinational logging companies through lifting the moratorium on new industrial concessions.”

The President asks to “Suspend all questionable contracts pending the outcome of an audit and report them to the government at the next cabinet meeting.” Greenpeace Africa maintains that the review of illegalities in the forest sector must be transparent, independent, and open to comments from civil society organizations.

Ms. Wabiwa adds that “Both the protection of the rights of Congolese peoples and the success of COP26 require that the moratorium on granting new forest titles be strengthened. We again call on President Tshisekedi to strengthen the 2005 presidential decree to extend the moratorium.”

Ms. Wabiwa concludes that “instead of allowing new avenues of destruction, the DRC needs a permanent forest protection plan, taking into account the management by the local and indigenous populations who live there and depend on them for their survival.”

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