Connect with us

Diplomacy

Korean Power Beyond K-Pop

Published

on

The Republic of Korea (South Korea) is well known for its audio-visual diplomacy that started in the 1980s with the end of the authoritarian regime. In 1999 the blockbuster movie Shiri earned $14million from 1.2 million Japanese cinemagoers alone shaped the South Korean interest to concern their effort to produce movies for foreign audiences.

There is this bond of Confucian values that connect East Asian countries beyond their political and historical differences. Korean soft power is linked with K-Pop which is extremely popular around the world. Two major Korean bands BTS and Exo both have a net worth above one billion dollars and many other K-Pop bands are worth millions of dollars.

South Korea is very well known for its K-Pop but as the majority of people around the world do not speak the Korean language it continues to suffer due to its linguistic barrier. K-Pop program has been organized in Pyongyang but the K-Pop remains a haunting experience for the hermit kingdom as it would destroy the legitimacy of the North Korean (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) regime.  K-Pop is powerful but this also has its limitation.

South Korea is respected for the miracle of the Han river via its ability to transform from an underdeveloped country to a highly industrialized state. The transformation from rags to riches has inspired many developing countries. South Korea’s greatest strength is its economic might as it can fund various activities.

South Korea has been heavily industrialized with companies likes Samsung, Hyundai, and LG that contribute to creating a brand image of South Korea as a reliable technological powerhouse and provide an export revenue of $617 billion in 2018.

Soft Resources could be analyzed using the five sense organs as a medium of diplomacy.
Gastrodiplomacy includes Korean cuisine including Ginseng tea, Gimbap, and Kimchi. These food and drinks are playing a significant role in spreading the fame of Korea with its flavor and aroma of food.

Kimchi is a part of the Korean identity. Kimjang the Kimchi-making process is inscribed in 2013 on Representative List for the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in UNESCO. A culture of seasoning and fermenting food has a deep cultural connection with its members and beyond its national borders.

South Korea in a total has 20 elements inscribed as intangible heritages. This includes audio-based soft resource such as Arirang lyrical folk songs, Gagok lyrical song cycles accompanied by Orchestra, Pansori epic chant and audio-visual soft resources includes Nongak community band music, dance, and rituals, Ganggangsullae where young unmarried girls sing and dance, Yeongsanjae a re-enactment of Buddha delivering the lotus sutra are to name only a few of its intangible heritage that projects Korea to be a culturally rich peninsula.

These soft power resources could attract tourism in a certain period of the year but travelers could always enjoy sight-seeing of tangible heritage which could be photographed and create a strong visual memory that contributes to its visual diplomacy.

South Korea has a large pool of 14 World Heritage Sites with 13 cultural sites and 1 natural site. The World Heritage Site includes tombs of kings, funerary monuments, palaces, artworks, literature, historic villages, fortresses, city, academy, Buddhist, and secular architecture. It provides a blend of very distinct spaces which would allow the travelers and tourist to enjoy various sites of South Korea which will indirectly motivate the visitors to absorb societal norms of Korea.

In 2018, South Korea made $19.86 billion from tourism and is ranked 16th by World Economic Forum for Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019, as a result, there remains a real motivation to preserve and promote its cultural heritage which as a bonus would increase its national prestige.

One of the most powerful tools that connect people beyond borders would be Korean Martial Arts- Taekwondo. South Korea maintains the top spot in Taekwondo with 19 Olympics medals out of its total 337 medals.

In 1962, South Korea had sent trainers to train Taekwondo in South Vietnam which has helped to create a stronger bond between the two militaries and build military diplomacy.

World Taekwondo claims they have less than 1.5 million to 2 million existing members with a yearly income of around 1 million with a net profit of USD 439,570.37 in 2018.

Taekwondo in Korea is promoted in three levels first by the President, second by the three government ministries (Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs), and third-level by various institutions (Kukkiwon, WTF, Korean Sports and Olympic Committee, Korean T’aeg wondo Association). These efforts indicate that the Korean government takes soft power extremely seriously.

Taekwondo allows countries to play with developed countries in equal fields respecting the concept of sovereign equality and it even helps North Korea to open itself up by participating in sport and even collaborate with South Korea.

South Korea even has paid bills of $2.6 million for North Korea for its participation in the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics in 2018. The amount may be a big deal for North Korea but the South Korean bands are much richer than the total expenditure the North Korean authorities received in form of aid.

Taekwondo is one of the soft power resources of South Korea. South Korea has more gold medals in Short Track and Archery than in Taekwondo and in total has won medals in 26 sports.

Traditional Korean Martial Arts-Taekkyeon, and traditional Korean wrestling-Ssireum are both listed as intangible heritages that contributed to building a culture for physical sports.

South Korea’s soft power is generally surrounding the Hallyu also known as the Korean wave. However, South Korea is extremely rich even beyond the well-loved K-Pop, K-Drama, and Taekwondo.

Soft power has been seen as ambiguous, confusing, complicated, and it’s assumed to be difficult to be calculated. However, we could easily look at the net worth of each ingredient by the revenue it could produce.

Power is a very complex idea. The power which can generate revenue and sustain itself will be valued more in the long run.

Soft Power Resources such as Martial Arts can be used for both peaceful purposes such as sports diplomacy or be used even be converted to enhance its military diplomacy.

Public diplomacy should not always be a one-way flow from a viewer to the audience but a two-way flow as communication happen during the feast, martial arts tournaments that create interaction and build connection beyond the state’s borders. 

Kripendra Amatya is a social activist, artist, and writer. He has contributed articles in various national and international outlets that include SABRI magazine, Aperion review, The Diplomat Magazine, He completed his Master in International Relations from Jilin University, China.

Diplomacy

Mega Regions

Published

on

The planet is shrinking

Geopolitics on this diminishing ball in space is not going away. On the contrary, geopolitics is growing to hitherto un-imaginable heights much faster than most people think.

Imagine a possible future world something like this:

· The African Union – the world’s biggest continental free-trade-area AfCFTA – of soon-to-be (2035) 1.8 billion people with Parliament in South Africa.

· The European Union (de-facto incl. EFTA) – small on global scale, but more independent, rich and educated than today

· North America (centered on an at least relatively weakened USA)

· South America (centered on a once-again growing Mercosur)

· China – a strong center in all-growing North and South East Asia

· India – growing

Add to this:

· A hypothetic Mega-Eurasian Region including the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) with Russia. Enlarged with Turkey, Iran and even Pakistan, Afghanistan, Syria, and Iraq, this would fit nicely into the above possible future picture of the world.

Such Mega Regions as above will come to integrate economy (incl. currency), culture, infrastructure, traffic, energy, environment and above all political administration with security within themselves as well as between themselves. Shrinking the planet ever more. Who will need the intruding USA of today in a future world of self-administering and self-securing Mega-Regions? These Mega Regions will not need the “balancing” or “stabilization” which the USA peddles. In this world, the USA will need to define a new role and self-perception for herself over the next 25 years.

In this future there may also be less room for the English – they may end up as losers even within their own broken and disunited “United” Kingdom. The problem for the English is their mid-size: The UK is not big enough to be a relatively self-sustaining market unto herself like the USA and increasingly China. Even these Mega Regions will depend on trade with each other – else they will suffer the fate of the USSR and Mao’s China. The UK depends crucially on open trade access to very big markets. A small (soon to be independent) country like Greenland with 56,000 inhabitants might probably much more easily find satisfying economic niches than Brexit-UK will with 67 million people which have self-detached from the EU-market.

In such a possible world of Mega Regions – do Russians want to be losers like the English today increasingly look like? Or does Russia want to continue to be a great world leader – one of the leading leaders – in a mega-club, for instance with Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan? As Russia holds on to influence in as much geographic room as possible of what the Soviet Union influenced, the answer to that question is already given. Russia wants to be a winner in today’s real-politics of nascent Mega Regions – not a loser like the English in their dreamed-up replay of the pre-previous century. Russia’s conundrum now like since 300 years is to match her external club-making with her own internal growth. The French and the Germans have learned the joy of sharing power. With possible resourceful partners like Turkey (educated, one of G20), Iran (well-educated), Pakistan (well-educated), subject to re-established partnership with the EU, Russia may not again need to exhaust herself as she did once or twice before in history – Russia herself can grow in this process.

And what about South America? The majority of Latin American countries are all culturally wary enough of US meddling (Monroe doctrine) and have for a century resisted “dependencia”. Seeing how successfully Africa now unites, South America may be ripe for a similar development – and the Mercosur with its own Parliament (in Montevideo) is already there for South American governance expansion in their own Mega Region.

A New World Map

The result of Mega Regions might be something like this (see illustration 1).

Instead of Huntington’s miscarried idea of civilizations “clashing” we might see the opposite – that civilizations, cultures, religions, and ethnicities grow together across borders. The illustration above is a map of such plausible governance integration.

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is depicted on the map, because the EAEU (though formally an economic union) is in reality a regional political governance aiming at further integration. In contrast, the NAFTA as a shallow pure free-trade area is not included on this map of political Mega Regions, because the USA (incl. US “liberals”) consistently cut Mexico and even Canada off from continental governance. There is no “NAFTA Parliament” underway. And the US may in future even lose some of sometimes high-handed control which the USA today has over her two neighbors.

Similarly, ASEAN is only lightly drafted as part of the light area around a future Chinese influence, because the ASEAN has decided not to pursue closer political regional governance like the European Union (EU), the African Union (AU), the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), and the MERCOSUR do. When looking at East Asia on the map (illustration 1), please bear in mind that we here look a little into the future at a time, when the US 7th Pacific Fleet has been pushed out by the fast growing Chinese PLAN Fleet in all waters around China (incl. Taiwan). As China grows (and US 7th Fleet influence wanes), the ASEAN might in future choose a closer political integration, inspired by the EU and African model, but there is no sign of that happening yet.

The EAEU (5 members as of today) will for year 2020 achieve a GDP of USD 1,700 billion – only 11% of the EU and China respectively (both of which now have GDPs of USD 15,000 billion). More tellingly, the EAEU is today only two-thirds of India (with a GDP of USD 2,600 billion). The hypothesized enlarged EAEU (15 members, the two blue areas on map) would considerably catapult the EAEU up on the global economic ladder with a combined GDP of near USD 3,600 billion (2020 data, for Syria latest available statistics from before the war). On the top-of-world economic list, an enlarged EAEU would aspire to be 140% of India – nearly half-bigger than India. Politically, the enlarged EAEU’s human and natural resources with geo-strategic control could become much more pivotal than the economic data suggest. (GDP figures from IMF WEO 2020/10)

Mega Region to Mega Region Governance

It is just like in corporate business – apart from a few niche states, states are pressed to merge or form cooperative cartels to achieve critical mass in the world competition. These upcoming country Mega cooperations will as a general tendency increasingly be of multiple partners coming together for common governance (like for example the African Union) and less of the “hub-and-spoke” type. Please bear in mind that the world is fractal, meaning that types of social structures are repeated at different levels – commune, substate, state, Mega Region and even Mega-mega Region. Thus, even Mega Regions may come together in structures of multiple partners of common governance. For instance, you might in this future see the establishment of a joint Mega-mega governance of neighboring Mega Regions EU-AU-EAEU-China-India. Mega Region to Mega Region relations must be managed carefully by all for mutual success. No Mega Region will be enough in itself. Integrating Mega Regions with each other must thus be a careful undertaking.

For instance, Turkey is a member of the EU Customs Union With the political changes in Belarus which are underway, Belarus might soon be offered a Free-Trade or EU Customs Union with the EU, similar to the EU trade-advantages which the Ukraine and Turkey already enjoy. These countries Turkey, the Ukraine and Belarus are clever – they will not be so foolish as the UK to throw away their EU trade privileges. There is here a conundrum to solve, because as East-West bridges, we need Belarus, Turkey and the Ukraine to be able to enjoy the best of East and West: EU privileges in combination with the future Mega Region advantages of EAEU affiliation.

To prosper, the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and the African Union (AU) need an extended free trade area with the EU. We simply need an EU + AU + EAEU Mega Free-Trade Area. The EU has a self-interest in both cases, the African Union as well as Russia and a future Mega EAEU all the way to Pakistan, in granting such trade privileges.

The African Union covers a staggering 30 million km2 (the Soviet Union was 23 million km2) with already 1.4 billion people, and the enlarged EAEU would be 26 million km2 with 700 million people. The EU is here comparatively small – only 4 million km2 and 445 million people. The EU cannot itself handle the administration of any more geographic space. With the issues of Brexit-chaos, the West Balkans, the Ukraine and Belarus, the EU is already critically overextended.

Next Step

The EU has enormous strategic interests in a politically stronger and economically prosperous united Africa to handle Africa’s own problems before these problems (including refugees and terrorists) spill devastatingly over into the EU.

The EU also has got enormous strategic interests in letting Russia and Turkey carry the helm of a hypothetical new Mega EAEU political Project for peace, prosperity and political improvement of common governance in the conflict-troubled Eurasian space. Furthermore, an enlarged EAEU Mega Region, as I hypothesize here, will connect the EU not only with the strategic pivots of China and India, but also with the global pivot of the Middle East and in this way with Africa. To achieve this, Kashmir must and will find a peaceful solution.

The EU can do a lot – but the EU’s meagre 5,000 tricolore soldiers in Africa for an area 10 times Afghanistan, plus a handful of aid-projects, will not save Africa. Exports, trade, industrialization, advanced services and high-speed economic growth is what Africa needs. A strong African Union is needed to raise Africa above her own problems, and to do this, the African Union needs support by free-trade with the EU (and the EAEU of course).

In the exceedingly troubled Central Asian and Middle Eastern geographic space, Russia has proven to move so well forward. The EU itself would just be hapless or even break porcelain if going alone in Central Asia and the Middle East. France has shown able to achieve just about nothing in Lebanon. And EU countries’ military part-taking in porcelain-breaking US ventures in Iraq and Afghanistan (longest US war in history, and little US “peace with honor”) illustrates my point. The recent Armenian-Azerbaijani situation further underscores the point that an overarching political Mega Region EAEU is a needed solution – a solution which only Russia and Turkey are capable to initiate.

This planet is shrinking fast. The EU cannot afford to not-care about its own Mega neighborhoods, including all of Africa, Russia, Central Asia, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and the Middle East.

As the EU does not have the needed strategic capabilities to “fix” its own Mega neighborhoods, the EU must support those who can and should be empowered – meaning the EU neighbor partners themselves: The African Union, Russia, Central Asian countries, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and all others involved.

From our partner RIAC

Continue Reading

Diplomacy

Bye Diego … (Geopolitics of Sports)

Published

on

The news of Diego Maradona’s death plunged the football world into grief and deprived football fans of the existence of a unique star. If we want to express this issue with the language of a geopolitician, it will be a different perception and analysis by others.

The geopolitical orientation of sport is one of the geopolitical tendencies with an artificial nature. Because sport acts as a source of power in the relationship between actors and shapes their strategies, and because this source of power has no geographical basis, when we want to discuss it in the form of geopolitics, it means a tendency with an artificial nature. The geopolitics of sport is thus conceptualized as the knowledge, acquisition, productivity, and preservation of sport as a (geographical) source of power in local, national, regional, and global relations. In other words, the use of sport and related issues as a new (geographical) source of power to achieve goals in local, national, regional and global relations is called the geopolitics of sport.

By that definition, Maradona was a (geographical) source of power for Argentina. The geographical source of power that since the game between Argentina and England with the goal later known as “Hand of God, the goal of the century” was able to provide a new and different representation of relations between the two countries after the defeat in the Falkland War for Argentina and turn a nation sadness into happiness.

Since then, Maradona has acted as a (geographical) source of power for his country and has been able to influence power relations in designing and representing his country’s strategies. On the relations between Argentina and England; Traditional rival of Argentina-Brazil (Pele); In the internal relations of the country; Introducing his country by showing the Argentine flag and so on.

In general, it can be said that sometimes people with importance and position that they can gain in various fields of science, sports, art, etc. can become (geographical) sources of power and be effective in the relationship between actors and the design of strategies. Losing people like Maradona can deprive an actor from a valuable source of power.

Continue Reading

Diplomacy

Soft Power Policies of East Asian Titans

Published

on

Soft Power is a widely discussed and equally disputed concept as various scholars have their personal interpretation upon the power of attraction.

Joseph Nye has associated soft power with i) culture, ii) political values, and iii) foreign policies of a country.

China, Japan, and (Republic of) Korea rank the highest in the list of Intangible Heritages indicating their rich cultural identity.

The cultural identity like Confucian values gets interwoven with political ideas of respect and help build working morality that influences their foreign policies.

Japanese Anime such as Doraemon and Pokémon are extremely famous and Korean K-Pop such as Gangnam Style became the most liked video on YouTube. TikTok has brought China into the race of audio-visual diplomacy.

National identity and political views are promoted through audio-visual instruments such as movies, paintings, songs while some of them are despised as political propaganda.

The countries which have higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Per Capita are accepted to have a good political structure and other countries are likely to endorse a similar system. The three countries have become the symbol of success while many developing countries get inspired to adopt their style to improve their present condition.

Foreign policies depend upon the economic capability of countries and their ability to engage through trade and aid.

Trade is conducted to benefit one’s own country which may include importing unprocessed goods and exporting processed products like Japan import iron worth $7.18 billion and export cars and spare parts worth $139.3 billion.

Countries intend to import security instruments, basic goods like oil and gasoline while limiting luxury items by adding a large amount of taxes that shape foreign relations between countries.

The Asian Titans belong to the top ten product exporter as a result they get involved in nation branding and use corporate brands like Honda, Samsung, and Xiaomi to be perceived as a reliable household name. 

The aid includes humanitarian aid, military aid, economic assistance, technical and vocational training which help in establishing bilateral relations and all three countries have become active in this genre.

There is an additional component for socialization such as gastrodiplomacy which remains very strong in East Asian Titans which is proven with their many Michelin 3-star Restaurants. The culinary diplomacy is also conducted between government to government level as hosting country invites foreign heads of states in banquets or provide scholarship for elite foreign students.

The events conducted around elites such as tours, banquets, scholarships would transform their social paradigm which may cause policy change leading to norms that would transform the foreign policy of a recipient country in favor of a host country.

The public simply looks at the ranks, scores, and formulate opinions about a country without looking at the bigger picture. This could be efficiently be studied by looking at a single chart.

 ChinaJapanSouth Korea
A. Senses as Soft Resources   
i) Physical Diplomacy   
a) Sports/ActivityCuppings, Tai chiKarate, JudoTaekwondo
b) Olympics Medals608 Rank:8498 Rank:15337 Rank:19
ii) Audio-visual diplomacy   
a) Film Production     (2018)1082
Rank:2
613
Rank:3
454
Rank:5
b) Box Office Revenue
(2019)
$ 9.3 billion Rank:2$2.4 billion Rank:3$1.6 billion Rank:5
c) Additional ToolsTiktokAnime, MangaK-pop
iii) Gastrodiplomacy   
a) Popular FoodNoodles, DumplingsSushi, WasabiGimbap, Kimchi
b) Michelin 3-star Restaurants     (2017)5
Rank:5
28
Rank:1
2
Rank:10
B. Resources and Tourism   
a) World Heritage Sites
   (2020)
55
Rank:1
23 Rank:1214 Rank:21
b) Intangible Cultural Heritage
   (2020)
40 Rank:121 Rank:220 Rank:3
c) WEF, Travel & Tourism Competitive (2019)Score:4.9 Rank:13Score:5.4 Rank:4Score:4.8 Rank:16
d) Revenue by Tourism
   (2018)
$32.617 billion
Rank:10
$34.054 billion Rank:9$13.427 billion Rank:24
C. Nation Branding   
a) Corporate BrandsXiaomi, AlibabaToyota, HondaSamsung, Hyundai
b) Products Exports     (2018)$2.59 trillion Rank:1$713 billion Rank:4$617 billion Rank:5
c) GDP Per Capita
   (2018)
$9,771
Rank:78
$39,290
Rank:27
$31,363
Rank:34
D. Noble Prizes Laureates
     (2019)
6
Rank:24
28
Rank:7
1
Rank:51
E.The Soft Power 30     (2019)Score:51.25 Rank:27Score:75.71 Rank:8Score:63.00 Rank:19

The factors such as Noble Prize Laureates play a role in projecting Japan as a superior power but countries such as South Korea and China have risen to global prominence recently, this may have resulted in less money for research and development and caused fewer Noble Prize Laureates.

The rapid development of Asian countries has made it attractive and serves as the master of affective resources (culture richness, technology, competitive economy) while they suffer a bitter relationship with one another creating a space for western countries to enforce their normative resources (a third-party capability to arbitrate international dispute) to mitigate the crisis.

The Asian Titans have been growing their institutions to enhance their human resources to produce better publications that would further strengthen their strategic communication and media.

The soft power has helped generate a sense of national cohesion by protecting their ancient culture while promoting their vibrant economic growth. The countries intend to build a reliable economy and to be perceived as a trustworthy power.

Each Asian country has different objectives while promoting their culture. Japanese list of intangible heritage portrays its polytheistic tradition while China showcases itself as a culturally diverse country while it suffers accusation for human rights violations against minorities. Both China and Japan avoid its militaristic knowledge (the image coincide with hard power)even when they have a very interesting history with Martial Arts but South Korea seems to be enthusiastic to showcase its Ssireum(wrestling) and Taekkyeon (a traditional Korean Martial Arts) as intangible heritage.

Soft Power Policies of East Asian Titans maintain a variety within the unity. The region shares historic relations but still maintains its distinct identities creating an aesthetic composition for an external observer. The East Asian Titans are a unique case with tremendous soft power.

Continue Reading

Publications

Latest

Africa2 hours ago

Africa: A Rising Star in the New Economic Order

The African continent has been on top of the agenda of the policymakers in all periods. From the historical aspect,...

International Law4 hours ago

The Relevance of International Relations Theory in Community Policing

Community policing in general refers to adopting such measures by law enforcement agencies specifically police where closer ties between the...

Middle East6 hours ago

Biden’s Opportunity To Reset Relatons With The Muslim World Begins In Istanbul

When President Obama delivered his famous speech at Cairo University in June of 2009, it was an historic moment. The...

South Asia8 hours ago

Critical India: The Real Story

In recent months, there has been an unprecedented barrage of criticism, innuendos and verbal onslaught on the Modi-led Indian government....

Eastern Europe10 hours ago

The State of Civil Society in Belarus and Armenia: Challenges and Opportunities

 A vibrant civil society has long been thought to be a crucial instrument for political change in countries in transition...

Health & Wellness10 hours ago

UN commission reclassifies cannabis, no longer considered risky narcotic

The UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND) took a number of decisions on Wednesday, leading to changes in the way...

Americas12 hours ago

Fakhrizadeh’s Assassination Could Endangers Biden’s Diplomacy

The international political situation heats up, especially in the Middle East, after the killing of Iran’s leading nuclear scientist, Mohsen...

Trending