The Republic of Korea (South Korea) is well known for its audio-visual diplomacy that started in the 1980s with the end of the authoritarian regime. In 1999 the blockbuster movie Shiri earned $14million from 1.2 million Japanese cinemagoers alone shaped the South Korean interest to concern their effort to produce movies for foreign audiences.
There is this bond of Confucian values that connect East Asian countries beyond their political and historical differences. Korean soft power is linked with K-Pop which is extremely popular around the world. Two major Korean bands BTS and Exo both have a net worth above one billion dollars and many other K-Pop bands are worth millions of dollars.
South Korea is very well known for its K-Pop but as the majority of people around the world do not speak the Korean language it continues to suffer due to its linguistic barrier. K-Pop program has been organized in Pyongyang but the K-Pop remains a haunting experience for the hermit kingdom as it would destroy the legitimacy of the North Korean (Democratic People’s Republic of Korea) regime. K-Pop is powerful but this also has its limitation.
South Korea is respected for the miracle of the Han river via its ability to transform from an underdeveloped country to a highly industrialized state. The transformation from rags to riches has inspired many developing countries. South Korea’s greatest strength is its economic might as it can fund various activities.
South Korea has been heavily industrialized with companies likes Samsung, Hyundai, and LG that contribute to creating a brand image of South Korea as a reliable technological powerhouse and provide an export revenue of $617 billion in 2018.
Soft Resources could be analyzed using the five sense organs as a medium of diplomacy.
Gastrodiplomacy includes Korean cuisine including Ginseng tea, Gimbap, and Kimchi. These food and drinks are playing a significant role in spreading the fame of Korea with its flavor and aroma of food.
Kimchi is a part of the Korean identity. Kimjang the Kimchi-making process is inscribed in 2013 on Representative List for the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in UNESCO. A culture of seasoning and fermenting food has a deep cultural connection with its members and beyond its national borders.
South Korea in a total has 20 elements inscribed as intangible heritages. This includes audio-based soft resource such as Arirang lyrical folk songs, Gagok lyrical song cycles accompanied by Orchestra, Pansori epic chant and audio-visual soft resources includes Nongak community band music, dance, and rituals, Ganggangsullae where young unmarried girls sing and dance, Yeongsanjae a re-enactment of Buddha delivering the lotus sutra are to name only a few of its intangible heritage that projects Korea to be a culturally rich peninsula.
These soft power resources could attract tourism in a certain period of the year but travelers could always enjoy sight-seeing of tangible heritage which could be photographed and create a strong visual memory that contributes to its visual diplomacy.
South Korea has a large pool of 14 World Heritage Sites with 13 cultural sites and 1 natural site. The World Heritage Site includes tombs of kings, funerary monuments, palaces, artworks, literature, historic villages, fortresses, city, academy, Buddhist, and secular architecture. It provides a blend of very distinct spaces which would allow the travelers and tourist to enjoy various sites of South Korea which will indirectly motivate the visitors to absorb societal norms of Korea.
In 2018, South Korea made $19.86 billion from tourism and is ranked 16th by World Economic Forum for Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019, as a result, there remains a real motivation to preserve and promote its cultural heritage which as a bonus would increase its national prestige.
One of the most powerful tools that connect people beyond borders would be Korean Martial Arts- Taekwondo. South Korea maintains the top spot in Taekwondo with 19 Olympics medals out of its total 337 medals.
In 1962, South Korea had sent trainers to train Taekwondo in South Vietnam which has helped to create a stronger bond between the two militaries and build military diplomacy.
World Taekwondo claims they have less than 1.5 million to 2 million existing members with a yearly income of around 1 million with a net profit of USD 439,570.37 in 2018.
Taekwondo in Korea is promoted in three levels first by the President, second by the three government ministries (Ministry of Defense, Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs), and third-level by various institutions (Kukkiwon, WTF, Korean Sports and Olympic Committee, Korean T’aeg wondo Association). These efforts indicate that the Korean government takes soft power extremely seriously.
Taekwondo allows countries to play with developed countries in equal fields respecting the concept of sovereign equality and it even helps North Korea to open itself up by participating in sport and even collaborate with South Korea.
South Korea even has paid bills of $2.6 million for North Korea for its participation in the Pyeongchang Winter Olympics in 2018. The amount may be a big deal for North Korea but the South Korean bands are much richer than the total expenditure the North Korean authorities received in form of aid.
Taekwondo is one of the soft power resources of South Korea. South Korea has more gold medals in Short Track and Archery than in Taekwondo and in total has won medals in 26 sports.
South Korea’s soft power is generally surrounding the Hallyu also known as the Korean wave. However, South Korea is extremely rich even beyond the well-loved K-Pop, K-Drama, and Taekwondo.
Soft power has been seen as ambiguous, confusing, complicated, and it’s assumed to be difficult to be calculated. However, we could easily look at the net worth of each ingredient by the revenue it could produce.
Power is a very complex idea. The power which can generate revenue and sustain itself will be valued more in the long run.
Soft Power Resources such as Martial Arts can be used for both peaceful purposes such as sports diplomacy or be used even be converted to enhance its military diplomacy.
Public diplomacy should not always be a one-way flow from a viewer to the audience but a two-way flow as communication happen during the feast, martial arts tournaments that create interaction and build connection beyond the state’s borders.
Cutting Distances with a Cricket Stump
Sports are the common threads that bind people and countries together. The interlocking rings of the Olympics rings symbolize the coming together of all nations. The former US President Nixon successfully used “ping-pong diplomacy” to open the US-China relationship leading the US to lift embargo against China on June 10, 1971. Cricket has been used in a similar manner to bring together the people of different countries, especially South Asians. Sport in South Asia is a significant part of culture. For South Asians, it is not only a sport but part of their collective identity. Some legends of Cricket in South Asia like Imran Khan, Sachin Tendulkar, Waseem Akram, Sunil Gavaskar, Kumar Sangakkara, Shahid Afridi, Shakaib Al Hasan, Shoaib Akhtar and Virat Kohli are the household names. Though, Pakistan is known as the manufacturer of the official FIFA World Cup ball, football is not popular in Pakistan. Pakistan has remained world champions in Squash, Hockey, Cricket, Snookers, Kabaddi and many other individual events of athletics, yet cricket is the most sought-after sport in Pakistan despite bottlenecks like terrorism and COVID-19.
While the overall sports spectrum went down, Pakistani cricket maintained its presence in cricketing world. Since last few years, Pakistani cricket team has been able to revive and reinvent itself internationally. I remember one of the slogans during Independence Cup 2017 in Lahore that said “It is not Pakistan vs. World, it is Pakistan vs. Terrorism”. In Pakistan, cricket is also a measure of national strength. Pakistan’s cricket teams take part in domestic competitions such as the Quaid-e-Azam Trophy, the Patron’s Trophy, ABN-AMRO Twenty-20 Cup, and the ABN-AMRO Champions Trophy. In 2015, Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) organized a franchise based T20 cricket league known as the Pakistan Super League (PSL). The two seasons of PSL, 2020 and 2021 are held entirely by PCB. Additionally, Mr. Imran Khan, incumbent Prime Minister of Pakistan has conceived the new basic structure of the game in country.
Pakistan has won international cricket events, which include the 1992 Cricket World Cup, the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 and the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy besides finishing as runner-up in the 1999 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. Women’s cricket is also very popular, with KiranBaluch holding the current record of the highest score in a women’s test match with her innings of 242. Mr. Imran Khan has the honour of leading Pakistan national cricket team which won the 1992 Cricket World Cup. In 2010, he was also inducted into International Cricket Council’s Hall of Fame.
Hitting Balls not Borders
In South Asia, cricket and politics are interwoven. Wars have been fought and conflicts have been de-escalated alongside the bat hitting ball. The history of India-Pakistan relations did not inspire confidence in rebuilding relations through non-political means. However, the cricket matches between them are loaded with deeper political and diplomatic meaning.
From 1947 to 1965 only three test series were played between India and Pakistan. The 1965 and 1971 wars led to complete stoppage of cricket exchanges between two countries and there was a very little window to use cricket as a tool to maintain goodwill. After a gap of 17 years, cricket was resumed between them in 1978. The first instance of cricket diplomacy was in 1987 when General Zia-Ul-Haq visited India to attend a test match in Jaipur, and the resulting diplomatic dialogue cooled relations. In 2004, Prime Minister of India, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, went to Pakistan to attend the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) summit. He also allowed Indian cricket team to visit Pakistan to play and advised the cricketers to not only win the matches, but also the hearts of Pakistani public. Over the next three years, the two countries played each other three times. Cricket diplomacy again emerged when then-Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh and his Pakistani counterpart, Yousuf Raza Gilani, met each other for the World Cup 2011 semifinal between India and Pakistan. Peace talks started again and Pakistan toured India in December 2012 for a T20 and three One Day Internationals (ODIs). The efficacy of cricket diplomacy in Indo-Pak relations can also be gauged from the fact that it brought both states to the negotiating table to manage the issue of Jammu & Kashmir (J&K).
All for One and One for All
Any major international sporting event like a World Cup gives one a sense of belonging to a larger global community. Sportsmen have always been successful goodwill ambassadors for any country and have admirers across borders. Fans’ love for cricket break all barriers that is why the peacekeepers see cricket as a tool to bind people together. Despite tensions, Pakistani fans recently celebrated India’s historic win over Australia. Nelson Mandela also believed that “Sport can create hope where once there was only despair. It is more powerful than government in breaking down racial barriers.”In short, a link between international cricket’s revival and national resilience need to be established. Restarting international cricket in South Asia would enhance the opportunity to establish aspired will of peace and prosperity.
Can diplomats be proactive online without becoming “wolf-warrior”?
With the increasingly important digital world, traditional, offline tools and approaches are becoming less and less sufficient and effective in shaping the public conversation, influencing the global or national public opinion, and obtaining trust.
As a part of reform that veers towards revolution in a domain well known for its adherence to norms, today’s diplomacy is also experiencing functional changes in terms of what strategic communications means in the digital environment. As we are witnessing lately, the emerging diplomatic virtual presence has become a significant part of public diplomacy and policy.
Today, the undeniable power of social media lies in its fundamental role of linking the public and political sphere as part of a worldwide conversation. It is notable that the general reason behind its effectiveness and the steep rise of adoption lie in the power of this environment of building strong brands and credibility. This certainly is today’s Zeitgeist and involves the systematic cultivation of the attempt to influence the public opinion with every single action and to boost social legitimacy, in a more and more interconnected world that seeks to turn individual gestures and actions into symbols.
However, does this fully explain why social media is becoming an emerging playground for sarcasm and open battlefield for a digital war of accusations and threats?
One of founders of today’s Twiplomacy phenomenon is the former US president, Donald Trump, who proved to be, for better or worse, one of the most vigorous and captivating presences on social media among world leaders. What is striking in this is the gradual increase in the adoption of the new diplomatic style, known as the Wolf-warrior approach, which gained prominence in the context of the COVID-19 crisis and Chinese presence in the social media. This approach, which originated from a Chinese patriotic movie, in which the main mission of the warrior is fighting back foreigners, is characterized by a more aggressive and assertive style of conducting foreign policy.
It is argued by some that this approach is not being adopted in order to display authoritarian tendencies and to project but rather it is more often adopted by Chinese diplomats as a defense response to the repeated attacks and accusations. It seemed to be the straw that broke the camel’s back. Drastic times call for drastic measures?
Either way, the US-China digital war leads to questioning the adequate behavioral approaches to addressing the continuous global power competition and diplomatic tensions. Assertive and offensive or proactive? What makes a wolf-warrior and where do we draw the line?
When credibility and national identity are under threat, assertive approaches seem to come in handy when defending one’s stance and strengthening confidence. We know it very well from the Chinese ancient wisdom: project strength when you are weak. This general principle applies to political stances and authority in advancing agendas, as well as preserving independence in hegemonic environments. However, when increased assertiveness is taken down the wrong road, the world ends up being divided into conflicting blocs. While proactiveness is certainly the adequate modus operandi to overcome such blockages and prevent escalating disputes from bouncing back, the line is certainly crossed when it reaches bullying and propaganda levels.
What is the smart and well-balanced dose of actions when interests and sovereignty come first? Assertiveness or smart power?
Proactiveness and high reliance on social media can also be channeled into advancing one’s objectives and consolidating strategic gains through smart use of power or through soft power. One of the best examples of this strategy is India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who’s presence on Twitter proves that, most of the time, the tone defines the effectiveness of the message and that balance is to be preferred to unhinged assertiveness. In the end, the art of persuasion is not limited to the right choice of words and actions here and now but also includes the challenging task of building trust in the long run.
China-India Vaccine Diplomacy – Will Pakistan Learn From Neighbors?
Modern infectious diseases and viruses have stimulated anew war and conflict along with poverty, counterurbanization (deurbanization), and climate change that need freshassessment in international relation arena. International cooperation for objective of infectiousdisease control goes back to atleast the 14th century, and to the later date of 1851, when Europe held its first International Sanitary Conference for multilateral cooperation to prevent the spread of cholera and yellow fever. Beginning in 2000, vaccine became cohesive as key tools in helping developing countries to achieve MDGs. In 2007, foreign ministers from seven countries issued the landmark “Oslo Ministerial Declaration” that formally linked health to foreign policy. Yet,in the past, there have been very few moments, as CoVID19, that assimilated such a huge number and variety of the world’s state actors at diplomatic front. The coronavirus vaccine – one of the world’s most in-demand commodities – has become a new currency for “Vaccine Diplomacy”. Vaccine diplomacy is not only the use of vaccine to increase diplomatic relationship and influence other countries but also, from a strategic perspective, vaccine access opens the door to expand long-term health security provisions.
China, one of the first countries to make a diplomatic vaccine push, promised to help developed and developing countries.Since the start of the pandemic, China used medical supplies to pursue foreign policy gains, sent masks and protective equipment to hard-hit territories,at present distributing vaccine.The vaccine diplomacy is a expansion of China’s endeavors to frame itself as the solution to the pandemic. Since the early days of the CoVID19 outbreak, China’s President Xi Jinping has focused on publicizing Chinese efforts to supply medical aid worldwide. China’s planeloads of CoVID19 donations including hospital gowns, nasal swabs, and surgical masks etc. – were regardedoptimistically, especially in developing countries. In addition, Chinese government sent experts to support medical personnel across the continent.Correspondingly, the Serum Institute of India, one of the world’s largest vaccine producers,produced Covishield, developed by Oxford-AstraZeneca. India’s Foreign Minister S. Jaishankar said it plans to supply CoVID19 vaccine to 49 countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean. So far, the country has been distributed 22.9 million doses under its “Vaccine Maitri” (Vaccine Friendship)initiative. Mr. Jaishankar also announced a gift of 2 lakh vaccine doses for about 90,000 U.N. peacekeepers serving in numerous hotspots around the world.
The vaccine race has become a new domain for China-India strategic competition. China’s whole state apparatus is behind the drive and Beijing sprang into action “Health Silk Road” through the cooperation channels of its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). Moritz Rudolf (German Institute for International and Security Affairs) says, “Health was one of the many subtopics of the BRI. With the pandemic, it has become the main focus”. On the other hand, C. Raja Mohan, (Director, Institute of South Asian Studies at the National University of Singapore) said, “There is no way India can match China on a lot of issues, but in this particular case, because of India’s pharmaceutical infrastructure, India is in a good position”.In reality, both countries arecontemplating vaccine diplomacy as a matter of national pride and soft-power projection.
In Pakistan, the power of vaccine diplomacy has been underexplored despite the successful facts that included promoting peace between the Cold War powers of the 1950s and 1960s.The historical and modern-day track records of vaccine diplomacy are impressive. But, it has not yet led to an overarching framework for its expanded role in foreign policy of Pakistan. At the moment, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordination, and National Command and Operation Center should establish vaccine diplomacy framework and play an imperative role in promoting international health agreements between Pakistan and governments throughout the world. Vaccine diplomacy will not only enhance Pakistan’s reputation in international arena but also blunt the propaganda of anti-Pakistan forces within boarder and abroad. Consequently, vaccine diplomacy activities should integrated into the foreign policy of Pakistan.
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