Russian Government Prioritizes SMEs Businesses, Offers Long-term Support
Over the years, Small and Medium Scale Businesses (SMEs) have been uttermost focus for the Russian government recognizing the fact that these provide employment and support the overall economy. Despite the coronavirus pandemic, the government has seriously prioritized the sector, urged the support of financial institutions in order the secure, at least, incomes and employment places of the population.
Late October, two significant business events were held in Moscow. The first was the annual gathering of the Valdai Discussion Club and the second was Russia Calling! Investment forum. At both gatherings, President Vladimir Putin gave an overview of the small and medium scale business sector in the changing economy of Russia. Besides this, he has been talking about the importance of strengthening support for businesses during weekly executive meetings with Ministers of State.
But what is interesting is that the Valdai Discussion Club and the Russia Calling participants had the chance to express their views and give assessment of the economy with the Russian leader. On the other hand, Putin had the opportunity, not only to listen to academics and researchers, sometimes even opposing views of the current developments, but also enjoyed interactive exchange of opinions with potential investors, an insight into the mood of business partners both in Russia and abroad. It gave them an idea of government priorities and plans about the economic development.
President Vladimir Putin addressed the plenary session of the 12th VTB Capital Russia Calling! Investment Forum held on October 29 from his office in Novo-Ogaryovo, located in Moscow Region. The main theme of the event was Global Challenges, Local Remedies. As usual, the forum brought together from all over the world, business leaders, investment managers and consultants, as well as international experts in the field of the economy and finance.
Obviously, the key issue here is increasing the income of citizens and increasing their involvement in the Russian economy. The epidemiological situation in the country – the spread of the coronavirus – is affecting businesses, especially small and medium-sized companies involved in retail, transportation and consumer services.
Despite the complicated epidemiological situation, Putin has asked business owners and managers to be socially responsible and to comply with all the working conditions of their employees and workers, while the government also fine-tunes measures for supporting companies and businesspeople in the current conditions. These includes both short-term and long-term measures.
“We are focusing on support for small and medium-sized businesses. We have halved the insurance premiums for these companies, from 30 to 15 percent. This is a permanent decision that does not apply to the current crisis period alone. Small and medium-sized businesses working in the affected sectors can delay tax and insurance premium payments for the first quarter of 2020 by up to six months,” Putin told the gathering.
As these enterprises continue to face problems, the government has decided to extend the moratorium for planned inspections of small businesses until the end of 2021. This becomes necessary to reduce the administrative and tax burdens for tens of thousands of companies employing millions of Russian citizens, thus preserving jobs and people’s incomes.
Despite the difficult year, Russia has maintained macroeconomic stability, prevented an inflation hike and ensured financial market stability. This is a solid basis for taking further steps to consolidate the efforts of the state and the business community, overcome the decline, restore employment and bring the national economy back to the growth trajectory.
“We intend to act and are already taking measures in such key spheres as stimulating investment, promoting exports and ensuring a broad-based introduction of digital technologies. These factors can definitely set the trend for long-term quality growth. I would like to emphasize that joint coordinated action is especially important, when government measures to develop the infrastructure, improve legislation and provide direct support to economic sectors are complemented with business investment in the creation of new, modern and highly paid jobs. Only in this case will we see a combined effect and a real result for the entire economy and for the welfare of the people,” according to the president.
He reiterated that stimulating investment is a priority at the current moment, bearing in mind the goal of long-term future-oriented economic development, and pointed out that reliable and safe mechanisms for investing in new financial instruments are available to both Russian and international investors. The government values every partner who wants to work together with Russia.
That digital transformation is one of Russia’s national goals in the coming decade. It is an extremely important condition for enhancing economic growth and improving the quality of life for the people.
Russia’s leading companies have long been and very successfully investing in these spheres, spreading to new niches and products and actually growing into what is now described as “econsystems” and the development of competition in this sphere will give a powerful impetus to the economy and will help many small and medium-sized companies expand their marketing channels.
During the Q&A session, Putin emphasized that the Government of the Russian Federation has taken a considerable package of measures to support small and medium-size companies, include subsidized loans and grants for maintaining the number of jobs and delayed tax payments, and limiting excessive pressure from administrative bodies. The government has proposed extending the term for cancelling inspections for a fairly long period, for next year.
“We see that generally, as I have said, we are acting effectively, but at the same time, we know that these support measures do not reach every company for many reasons. We are perfectly aware of the fact that today businesses in the food services and other services continue to be in a fairly complicated situation. We will certainly respond to this, just as we did to the situation in large companies, for that matter,” he said with high assurance while adding that small businesses, however, are definitely in the spotlight providing employment to about 20 million people, which is a big number in Russia.
Nevertheless, the small and medium-sized business segment, above all in the high-tech area, is extremely important. There was a suggestion that major companies to generate the need for and establishment of an entire cluster of start-ups around them consisting of small and medium-sized businesses. It is important to create conditions to generate the need for the products and services – this is what is important.
In an earlier videoconference, during the final plenary session of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Valdai International Discussion Club, Putin gave a picture of the state of the economy. “We took a number of serious steps to support the economy. This support amounted to 4.5 percent of the GDP. Some other countries allocated even more funds for this purpose. The point is actually not so much the amount of allocated funds but their effective use. We disposed of these funds quite effectively, in a selective way and using the considerable resources accumulated in the past years, as well as relying on the macroeconomic indicators and all other positive achievements of the past years, to support small and medium-sized businesses, and even large companies and the whole industries,” he explained in his speech to this gathering.
What is needed is to adjust support for certain sectors, for example, for small and medium-sized businesses. Certain parts of this work require additional support, maybe the extension of tax benefits and some other measures that are due to expire shortly, and will get through this difficult period together, with the people’s support and trust.
Putin stressed that technology, of course, online education, telemedicine and other advanced solutions – all the modern digital technologies that have been increasingly penetrating all spheres, forcing politicians, legal professionals, and administrative regulators, to move towards decision-making at a faster pace than they used to. This is definitely changing the world.
Everything we are discussing today will soon become the responsibility of young people. Young people will have to deal with all of the problems discussed today. Speaking about Russia, its young citizens, who are still growing up and gaining experience, will have to do this in the 21st century. They are the ones who will have to confront new and probably even more difficult challenges.
They have their own views on the past, present and future, – that Russian people will always retain their best qualities: patriotism, fortitude, creativity, hard work, team spirit and the capacity to surprise the world by finding solutions to the most difficult and even seemingly insoluble problems. Worthy to note that Vladimir Putin’s role, indeed and in practical terms, to remain in the history of Russia has something completely different – ensuring the interests of the Russian people, the Russian state, strengthening Russia.
Impact of technological advancements on International Trade and Finance
Technological advancements have had a significant impact on international trade and finance in recent years. These advancements have facilitated cross-border transactions, reduced transaction costs, and improved the speed and efficiency of financial transactions.
One major impact of technology on international trade is the emergence of e-commerce, which has revolutionized the way businesses conduct their operations. E-commerce has made it easier for companies to reach customers in foreign markets, allowing them to expand their customer base and increase sales. Additionally, advances in logistics and transportation technology have made it easier and faster to ship goods across borders, reducing shipping times and costs.
In terms of finance, technology has enabled the development of innovative financial instruments and platforms that facilitate cross-border transactions. For example, blockchain technology has the potential to transform international finance by enabling faster and more secure transactions, reducing the need for intermediaries, and lowering transaction costs. Additionally, fintech companies have emerged, providing new financial services and products to consumers and businesses around the world.
However, technological advancements have also raised concerns about the impact on jobs and income inequality. Automation and artificial intelligence (AI) have the potential to replace human labor in certain industries, leading to job losses and potential social unrest. Furthermore, the benefits of technological advancements may not be evenly distributed, leading to greater income inequality between countries and individuals.
Technological advancements and international trade:
The development of technology has had a significant impact on international trade in recent decades. Advances in communication technologies, such as the internet and mobile phones, have made it easier for businesses to connect with each other across borders. This has led to an increase in trade by reducing the costs and time associated with communication and travel.
Similarly, advances in transportation technologies, such as cargo ships and airplanes, have made it easier to move goods around the world. This has allowed businesses to source inputs and sell products in global markets, increasing their opportunities for growth and profitability. Additionally, advances in logistics and supply chain management technologies have enabled businesses to streamline their operations, reduce costs, and improve efficiency, further driving international trade.
However, technology has also had some negative impacts on international trade. For example, automation and robotics have led to the displacement of workers in certain industries, particularly in manufacturing. This has resulted in job losses and reduced demand for certain types of goods.
Furthermore, technology has also facilitated the growth of online marketplaces and digital platforms, which have disrupted traditional business models and created new challenges for regulators and policymakers. These platforms often operate across multiple jurisdictions, making it difficult to enforce rules and regulations.
Overall, the impact of technology on international trade has been largely positive, enabling businesses to expand their reach and tap into new markets. However, it has also presented new challenges and risks, requiring policymakers and businesses to adapt to a rapidly changing environment.
Technology has played a crucial role in promoting international trade by facilitating communication, reducing transaction costs, and increasing the speed of transactions. With the advent of the internet, businesses can now connect with potential customers and suppliers from all over the world, regardless of their physical location. E-commerce platforms and online marketplaces have made it easier for small and medium-sized enterprises to reach a global audience and tap into new markets. Additionally, technology has made it easier to track shipments and manage supply chains, improving efficiency and reducing costs. The use of electronic payment systems and digital currencies has also made it easier to conduct cross-border transactions, reducing the need for intermediaries and further lowering costs. Overall, technology has made it easier for businesses to engage in international trade, and its role is only expected to grow in the future.
Technological advancements and international finance:
Technology has had a significant impact on international finance by transforming the way financial transactions are conducted and information is disseminated. The emergence of new technologies such as blockchain, artificial intelligence, and big data analytics has enabled financial institutions to operate more efficiently, reduce costs, and enhance their ability to manage risks. Here are some of the ways technology has impacted international finance:
- Improved efficiency: Technology has made financial transactions faster, cheaper, and more secure. The use of online banking, mobile payments, and electronic transfers has made it possible to transfer money across borders in real-time, reducing the time and cost associated with traditional methods.
- Increased transparency: Technology has made it easier for investors to access information about financial markets and companies. With the advent of big data analytics, investors can now analyze large volumes of financial data and identify trends and patterns that were previously difficult to detect.
- Enhanced risk management: The use of technology has enabled financial institutions to better manage risk by improving their ability to assess creditworthiness, monitor transactions, and detect fraudulent activities.
- Facilitated cross-border transactions: Technology has made it easier for businesses to conduct cross-border transactions by providing secure and efficient payment systems. For example, the use of blockchain technology has enabled businesses to conduct transactions without the need for intermediaries, reducing costs and increasing speed.
- Improved financial inclusion: Technology has played a significant role in promoting financial inclusion by making it possible for people who were previously excluded from the formal financial system to access banking services. For example, mobile banking has enabled people in remote areas to access banking services and conduct financial transactions.
Challenges of regulating and supervising the use of technology in international finance:
Regulating and supervising the use of technology in international finance presents several challenges. Firstly, technology moves at a rapid pace, making it difficult for regulatory bodies to keep up with new developments and their potential impact on the financial sector. This can lead to regulatory frameworks becoming outdated or insufficient, creating loopholes that can be exploited by financial institutions and cybercriminals alike.
Secondly, the global nature of international finance means that regulatory bodies must coordinate their efforts across borders and jurisdictions. This can be difficult due to differences in legal systems, cultural norms, and technological infrastructure. Some countries may have more advanced regulatory frameworks and capabilities than others, making it challenging to establish a level playing field for all market participants.
Thirdly, financial institutions and other market participants may resist regulation and attempt to circumvent it through the use of offshore entities or other tactics. This can create a regulatory “race to the bottom” as countries compete to attract business by offering lax regulatory environments.
Case study 1: Impact of technology on the global supply chain
The impact of technology on the global supply chain has been profound and far-reaching, transforming the way businesses operate and the way goods are produced, distributed, and consumed.
One major impact of technology on the global supply chain is the increased efficiency and speed of communication and data sharing. Technologies such as the Internet, cloud computing, and real-time tracking systems have made it possible for businesses to communicate and collaborate more effectively with their suppliers, manufacturers, and customers, enabling them to respond quickly to changing market conditions and customer demands.
Another important impact of technology on the global supply chain is the rise of automation and robotics in manufacturing and distribution. Advanced robotics and artificial intelligence (AI) technologies are increasingly being used to streamline and optimize manufacturing processes, reduce labor costs, and improve the quality and consistency of finished products. This has also led to the creation of “smart” factories, which are highly automated and connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) to optimize production and supply chain processes.
Technology has also enabled the development of new supply chain models, such as “just-in-time” and “lean” manufacturing, which are designed to minimize waste, reduce costs, and improve efficiency. These models rely on real-time data and advanced analytics to optimize inventory levels, improve logistics planning, and reduce the time and cost of delivery.
Finally, technology has enabled businesses to track and monitor every aspect of the supply chain, from raw materials to finished products, enabling them to identify and address issues such as delays, quality problems, and bottlenecks in real-time. This has helped businesses to improve the transparency and traceability of their supply chains, which is becoming increasingly important to consumers and regulators concerned about issues such as sustainability, ethical sourcing, and product safety.
Case study 2: The impact of fintech on international finance
Fintech has revolutionized the world of international finance, offering innovative solutions to longstanding problems in the industry. One of the most significant impacts of fintech on international finance is its ability to facilitate cross-border transactions. With the use of block chain technology and digital currencies, fintech has made it possible for individuals and businesses to conduct international transactions quickly, securely, and at a lower cost than traditional methods. Fintech has also led to the development of new financial products and services, such as peer-to-peer lending and mobile payment solutions, which have increased access to financial services for people around the world. However, fintech also presents new challenges in terms of regulation and cyber security, and it remains to be seen how these issues will be addressed as the industry continues to grow and evolve.
Case study 3: The impact of block chain technology on international trade and finance
Block chain technology has the potential to significantly impact international trade and finance. By enabling secure, transparent and tamper-proof transactions, block chain can improve trust and efficiency in global trade. Smart contracts on a block chain network can automate many aspects of trade finance, such as verifying documents and tracking shipments, reducing processing time and costs. Additionally, block chain can enable new forms of financing, such as peer-to-peer lending and crowd funding, which can benefit smaller businesses that may struggle to obtain traditional financing. The use of block chain can also reduce the risk of fraud and errors in international trade, which can result in substantial savings for businesses. As block chain technology continues to mature and gain widespread adoption, it has the potential to revolutionize the way international trade and finance are conducted, providing greater security, transparency, and efficiency.
Future prospects and challenges:
The future of technology in international trade and finance appears bright, with numerous opportunities to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and increase transparency. Emerging technologies such as block chain, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things are already being used to enhance supply chain management, streamline payment systems, and improve risk management.
However, with these opportunities come challenges and risks. One challenge is the need to ensure interoperability between different technologies and systems used in different countries, which requires international standards and cooperation. Another challenge is the potential for disruption to existing industries and business models, which could lead to job losses and economic inequality.
In addition, technological advancements also bring risks such as cyber security threats, fraud, and the potential for manipulation and abuse of data. There is a need to develop robust regulatory frameworks that balance innovation with protection of consumers and investors.
Furthermore, there are concerns over the digital divide between developed and developing countries, with the latter potentially being left behind in the race to adopt new technologies. Therefore, it is crucial to promote technology transfer and capacity-building initiatives to bridge this gap.
Technological advancements have had a significant impact on international trade and finance, facilitating faster and more efficient cross-border transactions, enabling the emergence of new business models and trade patterns, and expanding access to global markets. However, these advancements have also brought challenges and risks that policymakers must address to ensure a fair, transparent, and stable international trade and finance system.
One of the main challenges posed by technological advancements is the potential for increased inequality and exclusion, as some countries and firms may be better equipped to take advantage of these advancements than others. This could lead to a concentration of power and wealth, creating a more uneven playing field in international trade and finance.
Another challenge is the risk of cyber threats and security breaches, which could undermine the integrity and stability of the international financial system. This risk is particularly acute given the growing reliance on digital technologies and platforms for conducting financial transactions.
In addition, there is the need to address issues related to data privacy, intellectual property rights, and regulatory harmonization, which could affect the competitiveness of firms in different countries and regions.
To address these challenges and risks, policymakers must take a proactive approach that balances the benefits of technological advancements with the need to mitigate their potential negative effects. This could involve developing international standards and regulations to ensure the fair and secure use of digital technologies in international trade and finance, investing in digital infrastructure and skills development in less advanced countries, and promoting greater collaboration and information-sharing among stakeholders in the global financial system.
Overall, technological advancements have the potential to drive greater prosperity and inclusion in international trade and finance, but policymakers must remain vigilant to ensure that these advancements are harnessed for the benefit of all.
Price hike in Pakistan: the worst of all worries
The most serious issue Pakistan’s economy is currently dealing with is price increases or inflation. Life has become miserable for the average person as a result of the ongoing increase in the cost of necessities like food, fuel, and medicine. The general public’s standard of living is not the only thing this phenomenon is affecting; it is also fueling social unrest across the nation.
There are numerous factors contributing to the price increase. The rise in the price of oil on the global market comes first. Pakistan relies heavily on imported oil, and when the price of crude oil increases globally, it has a negative impact on the regional economy. The issue has also been exacerbated by Pakistan’s struggling economy, high-interest rates, and currency devaluation.
However, several causes can be identified for Pakistan’s dollar exchange rate’s ongoing rise. One of the main causes is the nation’s substantial import bill, which raises the demand for dollars. Energy and other necessities must be imported into Pakistan, and the pressure on its foreign exchange reserves is increased by the high demand for dollars to pay for these imports. Further weakening Pakistan’s currency is the fact that its exports have not been able to keep up with its imports, resulting in a trade deficit. Due to investors’ reluctance to invest in a nation with an unstable economy, political unrest, and economic ambiguity have also boosted the dollar rate.
Similarly, the debt incurred by Pakistan is a sizable additional factor in raising the dollar rate in that country. Pakistan has one of the highest debt-to-GDP ratios in the world and has borrowed a significant amount of money from international financial institutions to meet its financial needs. The pressure from this borrowing has reduced the nation’s foreign exchange reserves and devalued its currency. The country’s economy has been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, necessitating a significant fiscal stimulus on the part of the government. This has further aggravated the situation. In Pakistan, the dollar rate has been rising steadily as a result of all these factors working together.
Simultaneously, inflation and price increases affect Pakistan’s politics as well as its economy. The opposition parties are using the government’s inability to control the price increase as a major issue to attack it and win over the public. The opposition parties are protesting and demonstrating against the government, accusing it of being responsible for the price increase. They contend that the general populace is suffering because the government’s policies have failed to control inflation. The price increase controversy is being manipulated by the opposition to advance their own political goals and turn the public against the ruling party.
The government, on the other hand, is making an effort to address the issue by implementing a variety of measures, including raising subsidies for necessities and lowering import taxes. However, the opposition parties are utilizing this failure to their advantage because these measures have failed to contain inflation. Similarly, the price increase has important political repercussions. Public support for the opposition parties is growing, while support for the government is eroding. If the government is unable to control the price increase, it may trigger more political unrest, demonstrations, and even violence.
Therefore, a price increase has far-reaching effects. The groups with lower incomes are most negatively impacted because they cannot afford the necessities of life. They are compelled to reduce their food intake as well as their health and education spending. The middle class is also suffering. After all, they must second-guess any major purchases because their purchasing power has significantly dropped.
In addition to economic issues, the price increase is also creating social ones. As they struggle to meet their basic needs, people are growing agitated and desperate. Riots, demonstrations, and protests against the government are being sparked by this annoyance. As people struggle more to make ends meet, inflation also causes a rise in the crime rate.
The government must act swiftly and effectively to stop the price increase. Controlling the hoarding and smuggling of essential commodities is the first step. Second, to lessen their reliance on imports, they must make investments in regional industries. Additionally, the government should prioritize economic expansion because it can result in more job opportunities and, ultimately, greater purchasing power for the average citizen.
The government needs to pay attention to it right away and take action. The stability of the nation’s social and economic systems is in jeopardy, and if the issue is not quickly resolved, it might fuel more unrest and instability. This issue requires both political and economic solutions. The public must see that the government is acting practically to control inflation by effectively communicating its policies to them. Furthermore, the opposition parties should cooperate with the government to find a solution rather than use the price increase issue for political purposes.
To address the issue, the government must take a comprehensive approach that includes both immediate and long-term actions. The private sector and civil society can both be crucial players in finding solutions to the issue. The only way the nation can hope to overcome the problem of price increases and guarantee a higher standard of living for its citizens is through collective effort.
The opposition parties should work with the government to find a solution to this issue, as the government must act quickly and effectively to control inflation. The common people’s lives are being impacted by the price increase, and resolving it will require a collaborative effort from all parties involved. The federal government ought to prioritize long-term economic plans that can boost employment opportunities, reduce reliance on imports, and promote sustainable economic growth. To encourage trade and commerce, the government ought to work on enhancing the infrastructure, such as the roads and communication systems.
Additionally, the government needs to take strict action against anyone hoarding, smuggling, or profiting from the situation in order to make extra money. In order to boost production and lessen reliance on imports, the government should also support local industries by offering incentives and support.
Vietnam’s macroeconomic policy and post COVID recovery
As per the latest IMF reports real Gross Domestic Product(GDP) of Vietnam in 2023 is estimated at 6.2 percent. This clearly shows that Vietnam has been avoiding the usual recessionary trends across the Asian markets and is showing better than average growth .With inflation rate being less than 4 per cent, it clearly shows that Vietnam is likely to emerge as a promising economy in Asia. According to the regional economic outlook which has been released by the IMF , it clearly projects that there are high expectations of uncharacteristic slow down in China benefitting competitors such as Vietnam, Philippines and Indonesia .
Asian Development Bank(ADB) has forecasted that Vietnam’s GDP was expected to grow by 6.5% in 2022 and nearly 6.7% forecasted for the year 2023. If one looks into the comparative forecast for countries in Southeast Asia it is stated that Philippines will grow by 6.3 per cent ,Cambodia 6.2 per cent ,Indonesia 5 per cent, Thailand 4.2 per cent , Laos 3.5 per cent ,and so on. If one looks into the core fundamentals of Vietnam following the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been clearly stated that Vietnam’s annual economic growth rate hovered between 6.3 per cent to 6.5 per cent for the decade preceding the current one.
One of the major aspects of this better than average economic growth was high foreign direct investment, increased domestic consumption, sizeable increase in the middle class, and Vietnam’s focus on promoting its manufacturing to be export oriented. In terms of other critical aspects Vietnam has been securing loans from many other international agencies over the past few years. With funding and grants from different international economic agencies ,Vietnam has been able to upgrade its road, rail transport and border connectivity infrastructure along with promoting social economic growth of nearly 243,000 people across the provinces.
One of the mainstays of Vietnam economy has been small and medium enterprises along with active participation of women.These enterprises have been getting bank credit and technical assistance through different initiatives such as public private partnerships, promotion of private sector development, and extensive reforms in state owned enterprises. Vietnam has been preparing well for facing the severity of climate change and also undertaking pilot projects for post disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation. It has institutional arrangements with World bank and Netherlands to develop resilience for the coastal areas particularly Mekong delta to undertake comprehensive efforts in mitigating the climate change effects.
Over a period of time Vietnam has been making serious efforts in emerging as a knowledge network society. This includes improving policy applications, enhancing capacities of stakeholders and providing information to the communities on a regular basis. Vietnam has also received more than USD $ 2 million grant for climate resilient inclusive infrastructure through high technology fund from ADB. In terms of meeting UN sustainable development goals, Vietnam has successfully provided electricity to its cent percent population.
It has been stated that Vietnam is one of the economies which is going to benefit from Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership(RCEP) given the reduction in tariffs during the period 2020 to 2035 and because of these reductions the export of electrical equipment and machinery from Vietnam is going to grow to the level of 12.1% while the main stay of its exports primarily textiles and apparels are going to grow by nearly 10%. Given the fact that RCEP would facilitate Vietnam’s entry into high end markets such as Japan, Australia and New Zealand might translate into better trade revenues.
In fact better integration with regional economies would promote its sectors such as tourism, entertainment, education, agriculture, automobile telecommunication, and IT. Two different aspects have gained international attention because of Vietnam ranked 70th out of 190 countries in terms of ease of doing business, and its major strength has been the young population as nearly 70 per cent of its population is aged between 15 to 64. This large working population reduces social security liabilities to the aging population. Major work which has been done by the current Vietnamese government is its national strategy for Environmental Protection 2030 with a comprehensive plan under Vision 2050.
It is expected that Vietnam’s construction sector is going to grow because of increase spending on infrastructure projects along with improvement in regional connectivity through rail, road, and air transport infrastructure. There are high expectations that Vietnam tourism sector will post impressive recovery, and last year the country witnessed an increase of tourist arrivals by more than 185 per cent in the first four months of 2022. The tourism sector is going to increase further given the fact that Vietnam has signed a comprehensive agreement in boosting sustainable tourism and post COVID recovery at the national level. During the period 2022 to 2025 it is expected that the cumulative average growth rate of tourism would be 13.5% average each year .
As per the global data set and the General Statistical Office of Vietnam, the industrial production is also going to increase substantially and export orders as well as internal domestic demand is going to bring about remarkable improvement in production as well as exports. Last year, the G7 countries have agreed to grant a loan of US $5.5 billion for helping Vietnam transition from coal to other sources for power generation. This was based on the promise that Vietnam should make plans for shifting to nearly 50 per cent of its power requirements from renewable energy by the year 2030. It is also expected that foreign direct investment in Vietnam is going to be steady with high tech industries, knowledge based service industries, and education gaining the maximum investments. The real estate and construction sector are other sectors which are going to gain international attention.
This year it is expected that public investment would be helpful in post pandemic recovery and under the Socio Economic Recovery and Development Programme nearly US $15.4 billion has been approved for accelerating the economic growth. Furthermore, commodity exports is likely to see a remarkable two digit jump and the FTAs that Vietnam has signed with various partners will help in building the capacities of Vietnamese manufacturing sector in product transformation, exploring diversified markets, better restructuring, and skill development at different levels. The transformation is also happening in terms of fiscal and monetary prudence as well as undertaking reforms within banking system and financial governance. The anti corruption drive that the Vietnam has undertaken in the last few years have built the investor confidence and it is expected that Vietnam will reap the dividends of better business environment, market connectivity, and relatively comparative advantage among other competitors in Southeast Asia. As expected the fundamentals are getting stronger, and therefore Vietnam can witness a stronger economic growth and better macroeconomic stability in the year 2023.
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