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The Role of Malaysia in ASEAN

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The three important objectives of ASEAN, a. collaboration and cooperation; b. trade and economic growth; and c. peace and stability, have reflected in various initiatives and achievements by Malaysia. 

Regional Governance

Throughout history, regional governance was based on nation-states working together for their mutual security and prosperity. Geographical proximity plays a key factoring such governance.

Although non-interference, respect for territorial integrity and Westphalian understandings of sovereignty have acted as regulatory norms for ASEAN members, this has not prevented the countries from conforming the founding principles of peace and security. The member-States have successfully promoted the interests of one another, by keeping conflicts amongst themselves as well as with other countries, aside. The organization has been able to maintain peace and stability within the region, without the eruption of war among its member-states. Moreover, it has provided a unique framework for regional community-building.

Malaysia even plays a crucial role in the Southeast Asia region and has taken several governance initiatives to maintain peace in the region. Most importantly, Malaysia initiated the idea of ZOPFAN (Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality) in the Foreign Ministers’ Meeting (Kuala Lumpur, 1971). Under the ZOPFAN, the member-states agreed to exclude foreign powers, especially the United States, U.S.S.R and People’s Republic of China from interfering with ASEAN countries and prevent them from using the region as a theatre for conflict.

Additionally, the Communications and Multimedia Minister Datuk Seri Dr Salleh Said Keruak from Malaysia also said, “We are united in ASEAN to solving regional issues such as overlapping territorial claims, the threat of terrorism, cross-border crimes and others.”

Regional Cooperation

Regional cooperation and integration (RCI) is a process by which national economies become more interconnected regionally. It is an effective mechanism for member state countries, mostly from a specific geographical region, to place their common interests in concurrence with their national interests and facilitate mutual cooperation and dialogue.

In furtherance of promoting such cooperation, Malaysia invoked the idea of a regional free trade zone in 1990, the East Asia Economic Group (EAEG). The objectives of EAEG were to boost economic cooperation, to promote and defend free trade, accelerate economic growth, introduce open regionalisms, and contribute to multilateral trading systems. This was a debatable yet innovative move to protect the regional interests and enhance the trade between the countries.

When Malaysia became the Chairman in 2015, it declared “Our People, Our Community, Our Vision” as the theme, which further points out the active participation of Malaysia to bring the people of the community, rather than the country, closer to each other, economically as well as culturally.

Research shows that Malaysia also played a key role in progressively advancing the establishment of the ASEAN Charter, which is a document that confers the legal personality of ASEAN. With the entry into force of the ASEAN Charter, ASEAN will henceforth operate under a new legal framework and establish a number of new organs to boost its community-building process.

The inherent power of the member states to facilitate governance for multiple diverse groups in their country has allowed them to strengthen their decision making. In the Malay language, the term muafakat best captures this strength, which loosely translates to consensus and cooperation but more than that, it is often used in the context of decision-making within societal structures. When such countries form a group, cooperation through mutual dialogue is bound to have a strategic role in regional cooperation. As observed by the grouping’s former Secretary-General, H.E. Ambassador Ong Keng Yong of Singapore, ASEAN continued to notch achievements after achievements based on the four “C’s”: community, Charter, connectivity and centrality. 

Active participation in ASEAN is one way of not giving in to the sway of any one power. ASEAN’s central nature over the years has ensured that it plays a crucial “manager” role in terms of dealing with competing influences in the region.

Another factor adding to the cooperation is the mention of “ASEAN Centrality” in several documents like the Charter. Centrality within ASEAN is defined as the proximity of the ties between ASEAN member states, intra-ASEAN coherence leading to centrality by way of enabling the organization to “gain access to resources, set the agenda, frame debates, and craft policies that benefit its member states.”

The principles of centrality also facilitated mutual dialogue between the states to tackle the COVID 19 issue. Joint statements and special summits were organized to establish collaboration between the states.

ASEAN like all previous regional efforts at community building before it will be expected to show to the world and its people, that it is a viable grouping that could face up to the challenges of consolidating political, security, economic and socio-cultural strengths for the benefit of not only its peoples but more importantly the community of nations outside the region and the world.

Humanitarian Assistance

Cooperation and assistance in humanitarian crisis and emergency is a feature which demarcates diplomacy from genuineness. Along with other member states, Malaysia has played a crucial role through financial and human resources in cases of emergencies. These included providing assistance to Indonesia, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia and the Philippines which were affected by natural disasters like in Aceh (tsunami) and Yogyakarta (earthquake), as well as being the intermediary for peace talks between the Philippine government and the MILF (Moro Islamic Liberation Front).

Malaysia has been regarded as the most vocal country in criticizing and commenting on the issues surrounding the Myanmar-Rohingya crisis and plays a critical role in facilitating humanitarian assistance, both on its own and jointly with other ASEAN countries.

An active stand in such cases lays down the foundation for cooperation between countries. To truly honour the commitments for mutual security, a step in the right direction for human rights plays a key role. Assistance solely based on economic benefits may be beneficial in the short term, but such an alliance shall not survive in the long run.

Harsh Mahaseth is an Assistant Lecturer at Jindal Global Law School, and a Research Analyst at the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Jindal School of International Affairs, O.P. Jindal Global University. He is also the Co-Founder of UPeksha Eduservices and the Director of the UPeksha Mentorship Programme which focuses on enhancing law students' legal research, writing, editing, public speaking skills, and professional development.

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Southeast Asia

Thailand and Kon La Krueng Co-payment Scheme: A Challenge towards Sustainable Consumption

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Image source: bangkokpost.com

The COVID-19 has impacted many people around the world, particularly the poor people who are unable to meet their fundamental needs through self-sufficiency. These hard times of the COVID-19, it has taught us that our world is becoming more complex and that we must be prepared for unexpected events, such as this severe pandemic. From this case, it is evident that many poor people all over the world have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19; as a result, surviving during this adversity is not easy for them.

Since the first outbreak of the COVID in early 2020, Thailand has been on lockdown and un-lockdown alternately. The closure of the country’s borders has not allowed foreigners to enter the country. This is to prevent the COVID-19 infection from spreading throughout Thailand. Nonetheless, the country’s closure has resulted in a slew of issues, including a drop in GDP growth.

According to the World Bank, Thailand’s economy is still suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic and is expected to grow at a low 2.2 per cent in 2021, down from the 3.4 per cent anticipated in March of the same year. It is obvious that due to this pandemic, the country’s growth could be that surprising. Nonetheless, it is not only Thailand that couldn’t achieve its expected growth but also many other countries worldwide. If we focus specifically on the ASEAN countries, most countries are facing the same situation; the GDP growth projection has dropped this year compared to last year’s. Indonesia is one of the countries that have been facing this slow growth because of the pandemic, the GDP Growth Rate Projection of Pre-COVID was 6.0 per cent and has dropped to 3.2 per cent for this year.

Apart from affecting the country’s GDP growth, it is undeniable that it also heavily affects people in the country. There is a wide range of impacts on people, especially vulnerable people, poor people, informal workers, etc. Many Thai people lost their jobs and returned home without money to feed their families. This is a bad thing that happens to them. Poor people have been affected heavily by the COVID-19 pandemic; many could not find work during these times. During the country lockdown, many informal workers such as street vendors were not allowed to go outside of their houses; thus, this badly affected their lives to find money to feed their families.

Moreover, this also led to unemployment issues in the country, not only in Thailand but also in other countries across the world. For Thailand’s case, the unemployment rate of this year was likely to reach 2.5% in the second quarter, representing about 937,500 unemployed workers, up from 1.96% in the first quarter, representing 758,000 unemployed workers. Therefore, it is obvious that the COVID-19 has impacted the country in many ways. Thus, the government should take action to help their people to overcome these hardships during the pandemic.

Thailand has shown a satisfying solution for this issue. The Thai government has come and played a critical role in helping people who have been suffering from this pandemic’s negative impacts. There are some financial schemes or programmes that were released by the Thai government to help the Thai people. One of those is the Kon La Krueng (Half-Half) co-payment scheme which is a project that the Government expects to stimulate domestic consumption and boost the economy by giving pocket money to Thai successful registrants.

The first phase of this project began on October 16, 2020, with payment beginning on October 23 – December 31, 2020. Registration for the second phase began on December 16, 2020, and payments were accepted from January 1 – March 31, 2021. While the third phase, round 1, opened for registration on June 14, 2021, the payment period ran from July 1 – December 31, and the second round’s phase 3 registration ran from October 16 – December 31, 2021, the payment period ran from October 4, 2021, to December 31, 2021.

For eligible and successful registrants above the age of 18 who are not state welfare or other financial scheme cardholders, the government provides 8,000 Baht. The length of time it takes to pay varies. If she or he had fully registered for the first phase, she or he will earn 3,000 Baht and an additional 500 Baht for the second phase without having to re-register. As a result, the total cost is 3,500 Baht. In phase 2, new registrants will receive a total of 3,500 Baht right away. And for phase 3, everyone will earn an additional 4,5000 Baht, with the first 1,500 Baht being given out during round 1’s phase 3 and the remaining 3,000 Baht being given out at round 2’s phase 3 on October 1 and November 1.

There are roughly 43 million registrants for all three phases of this financial scheme, which allows both sellers and buyers to register and take a critical benefit from this financial support from the government. Only food, beverages, general items, and service charges (massage, spa, manicure and pedicure, public transportation) are permitted to be sold under this scheme. Every purchase will be subsidized by the government to the tune of 50%. A successful registrant is permitted to spend the scheme subsidy at a rate of not more than 150 Baht per day or no more than 300 Baht for the shared cost. Every payment will be made through the Pautang G Wallet application.

Kon La Krueng (Half-Half) Co-payment Scheme has helped both consumers and local vendors positively across the country. Local businesses are growing as the money is spent in the local community which is positively affecting the local economic growth. Many vendors are also benefiting from this project; it grows local business and higher the consumption of local businesses. Moreover, it is promoting a cashless society as those involved with this scheme will have to pay online through G Wallet in the Pautang application. So, this is a change in people’s behaviour and adaptability toward a cashless society. From all this, it is undeniable that the government spending through this half-half scheme has grown the local consumption across the region and the nation positively.  The government spending on the half-half scheme for phase 3, round 2 (October – November) has increased the country’s GDP to 0.24 per cent. This means that this financial scheme has increased national consumption which positively affects GDP growth.

The spending behaviour of Thai people through this scheme during this pandemic is increasing, particularly local consumption across the country. This has a beneficial impact on overall national consumption. Local companies are flourishing, and local vendors can generate more income. Nevertheless, this consumption behaviour leads to some concerns about sustainable consumption. People are delighted while spending their money on common necessities, which can lead to rapid consumption both locally and nationally. As a result, the government may need to consider sustainable consumption so that people are more conscious of it, particularly their rapid consumption during this scheme, which may influence their negative money-spending behaviour and less sustainable daily consumption.

To conclude, the Kon La Krueng co-payment scheme provided by the Thai government has helped Thai people to consume more which is benefiting most Thai people in the country during the COVID-19 pandemic. Also, it helps increase the GDP growth, particularly from national consumption and government spending. Nevertheless, this rapid consumption of Thai people during this pandemic has arisen some concerns, particularly sustainability in which the government should promote this awareness so that people will be more aware of their daily consumption behaviour.

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Vietnam’s President Phuc visit to Switzerland and Russia

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Image source: chinhphu.vn

Vietnam’s President Nguyen Xuan Phuc visited Switzerland and Russia(November25-December 2) to promote his country’s bilateral ties with the two countries. During the visit to Switzerland, the Vietnamese president initiated a link between the Swiss state and Vietnam. For Vietnam, which has already ordered and administered eight different vaccines in its country to protect its citizens from the COVID-19 pandemic, the need is to procure more vaccines. The immediate urgency is to get medical equipment and to import resuscitation supporting machines so that critically ill patients should be saved. In terms of medical equipment and diagnostics procedures, Switzerland is one of the foremost countries for research in fields of diagnostics, pharmacy, lifesaving medicines and new kinds of vaccine development. Vietnam has been facing immense threat from the new variants of COVID-19 and related complications. The country is looking for conclusion of free trade agreement with European free trade association. The European Free Trade Association comprises of Norway, Switzerland, and Lichtenstein, There are also immense possibilities of improving the trade basket between the two trade partners. Vietnam is slowly emerging as an alternate manufacturing destination too.

The total volume of trade between Vietnam and Switzerland is more than 3.5 billion U.S. dollars. Vietnam which was the permanent member of the UN Security Council for the year 2020-21 is looking for developing better understanding and greater participation in international institutions such as United Nations, its affiliate organizations and the World Trade Organization(WTO).

Switzerland is also one of the enticing destinations for Vietnamese travelers and it is expected that there might be possibility of more flights between the two countries. During the visit to Switzerland discussions were held also with regard to promoting defence relations, interaction between the legal bodies of the two countries, promoting science and technology interactions between different institutions, encouraging investment from Switzerland to Vietnam, and also celebrating five decades of establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries. President Phuc concluded his visit to Switzerland on November 29th and went to Moscow to hold meetings with its counterpart Vladimir Putin. 

During the visit to Russia, the two sides discussed areas to promote further cooperation in realizing the true potential of comprehensive strategic partnership and developing coordination in areas such as humanitarian and disaster relief. One of the important milestones during the visit of President Phuc has been the signing of bilateral agreement on vaccine production so that Sputnik V could be produced in Vietnam. The agreement which was signed between Vabiotech and Russian Direct Investment Fund(RDIF) would promote development of Sputnik V vaccine research in Vietnam, and developing resilient supply chains within Vietnam so that the vaccine can be produced in that country. One of the interesting aspects of this agreement is development of a Research Center and a small lab to look into efficacy of the vaccine and develop new formulations to counter the new variants of Coronavirus. Other prominent areas include developing cyber security architecture, exchange of cultural troupes, research in renewable energy and promoting sports between the two countries. Vietnam is emerging as one of the important sources for iron ore and therefore Vietnam now wants to diversify its vehicle manufacturing facility.

In fact, that Vietnam is increasingly reliant on Russia for its defence imports and in the past have imported sophisticated frigates, Sukhoi 30 aircraft, and Kilo class submarines. The growing defence relationship between the two sides is also expected to further expand in terms of sonar systems, supersonic missiles, air defence equipment, and training of sailors and technicians. 

Vietnam and Russia have a long-standing relationship even after the disintegration of the USSR. Russia has been very supportive of Vietnam efforts with regard to countering the three major powers which included France, the US, and China. The three Vietnam wars and the valor of the Vietnamese soldiers were much appreciated in erstwhile Soviet Union and thereafter by Russia. The historic ties  between the two countries was much appreciated and there has been much research which has been done with regard to cultural, historical, and political interactions between the two sides.

 The visit of President Phuc is seen as a new addition to the relationship as the president stated in one of the business interactions that the two sides should lift their trade by 15 times and also facilitate investment in each other’s countries. During one of these interactions, he clearly stated that Vietnam has emerged as one of the top 20 priority countries and therefore Russian investors should look forward for investing in Vietnam. He urged the Russian companies to capitalize on the free trade agreements that Vietnam has signed with Eurasian Economic Union and also understand the liberalization measures that Vietnam has undertaken in the recent past.

In the joint statement, which was released between the two sides it was clearly articulated that there is mutual respect and friendship between the two countries. The foundation of this relationship has been through mutual trust, territorial integrity, right to self-determination, and no use or threat of force against each other. The joint statement clearly stated that the two countries will work together in the field of security, military interaction, defence, and developing new technologies in defence sector. In the joint statement it was also stated that the two sides should work on capability planning, training, developing better science and technology cooperation, and forge strategic partnership in areas such as international law and promote interactions in UN agencies. The joint statement also alluded to the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea(UNCLOS) and it was particularly important in the context of developing issues in South China Sea. 

President Phuc used his diplomatic acumen to issue a joint statement in which there was clear reference with regard to developments in South China Sea. Russia supported Vietnam’s endeavor for full and effective implementation of the Declaration of the Code of Conduct of the South China Sea parties (DOC) under the 2002 agreement. Another important aspect was looking into sectors for promoting ASEAN Russia relationship and realize the potential of the comprehensive action plan between the two sides. The visit to Switzerland and Russia was effective and it met the objectives which were laid out in terms of achievements and new ideas which would be put into practice for the future. 

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Local Wisdom Brings Everybody Towards Sustainability

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Me and the Bajo kids posing with clamshell powder. Source: Author’s Collection

Climate change, carbon emission, zero waste, circular economy, and sustainability. If you are anywhere on the internet just like 62% of the world’s population, chances are you must be familiar, have understood, or at least have heard of these 21st century buzzwords. If you Google search the word ‘sustainable’, it would give you more results than if you search for ‘Titanic’, ‘globalization’, even ‘BTS’. Clearly, people all around the world has been putting more and more attention towards the concept of sustainability.

The question is, how well do we understand sustainability? What is being sustainable in development, business, and life in general entail?

Sustainability concepts were built on the foundation of protecting the resources of the Earth and the wellbeing of humankind which are negatively impacted by our abusive patterns of production and consumption. The Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) in its highly-cited Brundtland Report, also called Our Common Future, formally defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own need. The Triple Bottom Line (TBL) first coined by John Elkington in 1994 is the fundamental concept in business to balance Profit, People, and Planet[1]. The concept really gained its momentum when the United Nations (UN) in 2015 set out 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be adopted and achieved through global partnership by its Member States in 2030.

As a way of thinking, however, balancing wealth, society, and the environment has actually been a part of traditional belief systems, religious teachings, medieval philosophies, and communal ways of living for centuries. Indigenous people all over the world for years have developed and for the most part maintained cultural knowledge, norms, and rules that stem from the adaptation process to the environment, commonly referred to as the local wisdom. Long before the natural, organic, free-this-and-that-synthetic skincare boom, People of Bajo or the Sea Gypsies community have been harnessing the ingredients provided by Earth as their recipe to having healthy and firm skin despite being out in the sea under the sun for most of the time. They would make use of the clams’ shells or rice grain mixed with herbs like turmeric to make powder that would protect their skin from the scorching sun.

Local wisdom is also at the heart of many customary rules, including activities to manage their natural resources. For instance, many indigenous coastal communities in Eastern Indonesia implement Sasi Laut that would only allow fishing in certain areas for around two weeks to three months and close for one to two years. This local wisdom embodies the concept of marine conservation and has been passed down from generation to generation. Globally, indigenous people that constitutes less than 5% of the world’s population is protecting around 80% of the planet’s biodiversity.

Moreover, economic, environmental and social issues come in different form and intensity in different countries and communities. It might be pollution for urban area, declining water quality for tourism destination, or the non-existence of proper waste management system for rural area. Thus, achieving sustainability would require a bottom-up approach in identifying the most pressing problem in a particular country or community. The integration of local wisdom would contextualize the existing varied frameworks, concepts, tools, and innovations on sustainability to be positively perceived, better understood, and well implemented. It is the bridge to include the less represented voice, common people, and indigenous communities to be parts of climate and sustainability conversation; making sure to leave no one behind.


[1] Elkington, J. (1998). Cannibals with forks: The triple bottom line of 21st century business. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.

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