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United States and France In Asia-Pacific

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Authors: Ansa Bint-e-Fayyaz and Nageen Ashraf*

Asia-Pacific region expands over a vast geographical area. As the name indicates, this area encapsulates the states largely contiguous to the western Pacific region. Although the definition of Asia-Pacific region is contested and a consensus is not found, most academicians have included area stretching vertically from Mongolia in the north to New Zealand in the south and horizontally, from Pakistan in the west to the island states of Oceania in the east, in the Asia Pacific region. The region spans over approximately 22% of global land.

This region accounts for more than 50% of global economy. It hosts some of the busiest straits like Malacca, Sunda and Lombok. The region’s characteristic of being the fastest growing region has attracted attention of all major powers and have become a hot zone for major power competition, especially the big three i.e. USA, China and Russia.

Asia Pacific region hosts one of the great powers and essentially the one that is in a fierce competition with the superpower US, i.e. China. While China is in a direct strategic competition with US they are naturally affront in the Asia Pacific region as well. Russia is another great power, parts of which are occasionally included in Asia Pacific region. It is another competitor of US in the region, the alliance of which with China could have serious repercussions for US and indeed it is the most feared and most conceivable possibility.

France, another major power, had relatively been less involved in the region since the Second World War, however the rising economic significance of Asia-Pacific and thereby its territories in the region has brought France onto the competitive chess board, where each state is trying to secure as much as is possible.

USA’s Interests in Asia-Pacific

Unlike the 20th century, where most of the world’s attention was towards Europe and America, the 21st century has proven to be an important century for the Asia Pacific region where we see the new emerging economies. The economic center has shifted from America and Europe to the emerging Asian states like China, and India which attracts USA to the region for multiple reasons. As a global hegemon, USA has always tried to control or at least influence the most important geo strategic areas of the world, and Asia Pacific gives a clear reason to USA to intervene in the region for its interests.

The major focus of USA is to curb the rise of any power that can be a threat to USA in future. In the Asia Pacific, China and North Korea remain a major threat to USA in various regional as well as International affairs. USA is also concerned about China’s support for the North Koreas rogue regime in the region. USA best tries to tackle China in the region but the economic interdependence of states on China will most probably leave USA alone in the effort. China has the best market all over the world and containment of such large market is not only difficult, but almost impossible.  Even most of the European states will not support USA in the containment of China since they know the consequences. These emerging markets serve as a wonderful opportunity for Europe and there are chances that Europe would prefer to be China’s partner instead of being its competitor.

USA already has deployed its naval fleet in all the International waters, 7th fleet being deployed in the Asia-Pacific region. Maintaining an influence in the region is also significant because of the fact that the region includes two major oceans, i.e. Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean, so it plays an important role in commerce and trade through seas. Trump administration aims to deploy more missiles in the Asia-Pacific region. USA tried to engage India in various dialogues to make India become its partner in curbing the China’s rise, but unfortunately, India realizes that there are some issues which cannot be solved without mutual cooperation and consensus of the regional powers. Therefore, India, instead of siding itself with USA, has been trying to cooperate with China on many issues. But, in the recent Sino-Indian Ladakh stand-off, India was successful in making many states including USA to side with it, leaving China almost alone internationally. Mike Pompeo also inculpated China for showing aggression in various parts of the world. USA also has increased the presence of its naval forces in the region, giving China and the rest of the world a strong signal about its naval hegemony. To assert pressure on its competitor, USA currently has deployed 3 aircraft carriers in the Pacific Ocean.

As far as North Korea is concerned, there seems no improvement in the relations of both the states. Trump administration has been trying to bring NK to the negotiation table but the last meeting, held in Vietnam in 2019 failed and had no desirable outcome. As of July 29th, 2020, North Korea showed no interest in continuing the peace talks with the USA and is carrying on the nuclear program because it believes that it’s necessary to prevent any war in the region. Despite the strict sanctions and their even worse impacts because of the pandemic, NK is not considering the option of negotiating things with USA.

French Interests in Asia Pacific

As Asia-Pacific region has become a hotbed for major power competition, France is no exception to the trend. The noticeable presence of France in Asia-pacific region has been as old as the colonial times, however post-second world war era is marked by a relative French dormancy in the region. Paris has pursued a significant revitalization in the region, particularly as the 21st century proceeds.

Paris favors a multipolar, free, stable and multilateral system, based on rule of law to ensure stability. Its major interests in Asia-Pacific involve protection of sovereign interests, French nationals residing in the region, territories and Exclusive Economic zones; promotion of regional stability through military and security cooperation; preservation of free and secure access to sea lines of communications; leveraging multilateral means for promotion of strategic stability; and cooperation to mitigate climate related issues in the region.

French strategy is based on the understanding that interstate competition in international arena cannot be stopped and one must board the same train as the topmost if it wishes to keep the pace equal. In the case of Asia-pacific, however, Paris is not on the same train as the big three i.e. US, China and Russia.

The most important factor that brings France to Asia-Pacific is its territorial possessions in the Pacific, including New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Wallis & Futuna, and therefore a vast Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), which makes her an important player in the region. Her involvement in the region has increased in the recent times, especially a bolder foreign policy has been observed under Emmanuel Macron’s regime.

French foreign policy in Asia-pacific is determined by two sets of inclinations. The first set comprises energy, telecommunication, automobile and wheat that inclines favorable policy towards states like China, while the second set comprise high technology industries, electronics, space and armaments that demand favorable policy towards states like Taiwan, South Korea and ASEAN nations, etc. These competing sets make her foreign policy inconsistent, as is illustrated by 1993 French trade of armaments with Taiwan amidst one-China policy, thereby alienating China.

The inconsistency of policy is also evident in arms sale, where frequent shift of inclinations has been observed owing to short-term opportunities in the market, as is visible in the case of Pakistan and India.

French foreign policy in Asia-Pacific is more aligned with the Quad nations that pursue an anti-China rhetoric. Despite the existence of cultural and economic ties and high trade volume, along with heavy Chinese tourism in France, Paris remains skeptical of Chinese political exceptionalism and its ambitions especially in Africa. Issues of Intellectual Property Rights and trade deficit are other areas of French concerns related to China. Conclusively, France takes a bumpy ride when it comes to China, sometimes accepting; other times criticizing.

Another noticeable French policy trend in Asia-Pacific is the rise in military and defense agreements and negotiations. India, for instance, has signed a Joint Action Plan on Indian Ocean with France, whereby the states will collaborate for better maritime environment using space assets and sharing intelligence. India had also pledged to buy 126 Rafale fighter jets from France, of which three dozen have been bought. Franco-Indian cooperation also span over other domains like space, civil nuclear use, clean energy, and urbanization etc.

France has also widened its defense and strategic partnership with Vietnam. The buildup of ties between a former colony and France accelerated in the past few years. The initial steps included Defence Cooperation Agreement 2009, followed by signature of strategic partnership in 2013; commencement of New Defense Policy Dialogue 2016 and later 2018. A Joint Vision Statement on defence cooperation was signed between the two countries that will last till 2028. Cyberspace, information exchange and people-to-people interaction are other areas of cooperation between Paris and Hanoi. An agreement to solve legacy issues related to Indochina war was also made.

Another defence deal was signed between France and Australia, whereby the later pledged to buy a dozen of French submarines at the cost of 50 billion Australian Dollars.

Japan, a Quad state, in cooperation with France, unveiled a 5 year road-map that was to be built to enhance cooperation in domains ranging from maritime cooperation to infrastructure assistance. This project has been unveiled essentially at a point when tensions in South China Sea are burning up.

Russia presents yet another major player of the Asia-Pacific region however, Franco-Russian ties could not convene partly because of Russo-phobia and partly because of Sino-Russian ties. The relations started to build around defence equipment trade, when France made a deal with Russia to sell amphibious assault ships, it was however scraped later due to Ukrainian crisis in 2014. The French President, Emmanuel Macron made endeavors in the last NATO summit to convince US president, Donald Trump and other allies to redirect the NATO policy, asserting that the Cold War was over and Russia was no longer an enemy. France also played a role in Georgia-Russia crisis and Ukraine-Russia crisis, however constructive engagement in essentially all domains is yet neither achieved, nor planned.

The upcoming decade will see increment of French involvement in Asia-Pacific region, as Paris advances its cooperation with the partner states and build new partnerships with other states in the region.

Conclusion

As the economic and strategic essentiality of Asia-Pacific region deepens, so does the interests of international competitors in the region. The race of states to seek partnerships with the regional states, rooted in the desire to increase influence in the region, has turned it into a hotbed for strategic and economic competition between the major powers. The major power competition in the region is not limited to trade and economic domain, but has increasingly shifted to military and defense domain, especially in the last decade. The rising tensions, particularly those between China and US in the South China Sea, makes it a potential conflict zone, however an all-out war between the major powers seems inconceivable because of extensive economic interdependence. France, as of late 20th century and the present century, is also expanding its footprint in the Asia-pacific region owing to intertwinement of its interests with this region’s development.

As the time proceeds, French and American presence in the region is expected to increase owing to incremental economic rise of the region vis a vis other regions around the world.

*Nageen Ashraf, student of Bachelor in “Defense and Diplomatic studies” at Fatima Jinnah Women University.

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Southeast Asia

Community Empowerment During Covid-19 Pandemic

Viggo Pratama Putra

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During the covid-19 pandemic has resulted in the economic condition of the world community becoming destroyed, social empowerment of the community is said to be the right improvement step for now. And the most basic way and form of concretization is to build human capital as an initial means of empowering human capital (Social Capital) so as to establish the status of empowerment of a quality society and able to reap the results in a transitional era. But in the process of implementation and regulatory certainty about it has not gotten a fresh wind so the government is forced to turn the brain to analyze the problem again, one of which is by means of optimizing communication and policy advocacy, especially in the midst of a pandemic.

Community empowerment itself is a strategy in national development oriented towards giving opportunities to every member of the community to be able to participate in the development process by getting the same opportunities and can enjoy the results of development proportionately, concerning all aspects of life both in the economic, socio-cultural and political fields. As a strategy that is considered important for the progress of the wider community, human capital development in Indonesia is considered not maximal or even stunting in its development. The authors argue that the direction or controlling of human resources capabilities has not been well directed and the container for human capital development in Indonesia itself is still minimal with awareness of the advocacy of the capabilities of the community.

One of the indications of the unrealized consequences of the design or concept of community empowerment through Human Capital is the problem of development (facilities and infrastructure) through the uneven dissemination of expert human resources and accompanied by the unresponsiveness of the government reading the needs of the community so that most policies issued by the government have not been able to realize the durability in the community. For example, social assistance in the form of BLT kepad community affected by covid-19 is uneven and even many reports mention the number of people who have not received any assistance at all. This kind of unresponsiveness causes problems in the community such as prolonged economic inequality, especially the psbb policy that restricts the movement of the community.

Poverty and economic inequality that we see a lot in the wider community can be seen from several factors, such as the fulfillment of needs that have not been adequate or still lack like the quality of life of the people. Retardation, such as low productivity, weak and unformidable human resources facing changes for change, limited access to land even though dependence on the agricultural sector is still very strong, weakening local markets and MSMEs because it tends to be used to supply international trade needs. Our country has long interpreted itself as a country of considerable exporters of raw goods in the world, this if seen from another point of view proves that our country is still less innovating in utilizing raw goods that can be much utilized higher selling value to then be distributed or supplied again to local markets and even global markets. But again the quality of human resources that have not been qualified to achieve such access makes Indonesia can not take advantage of the existing transition era by utilizing the sophistication of artificial intelligence and qualified HR qualifications.

In fact, the state is obliged to empower people through concrete measures that have a direct effect on society. The purpose of community empowerment itself is to enable and established society, especially from poverty and retardation, inequality to helplessness in society. In principle, community empowerment requires community participation by proof of inclusion or even implemented by the directly targeted community. Community empowerment must also have a targeted purpose and real awareness that is actually intended only for the benefit of the community. Enabling people in self-reliance (Human Capital) as well as forms of self-help by utilizing all forms of potential that exist will foster fertile return to the power of society in the face of every change that occurs. Towards the government’s policy that will target directly to the community, the public should also be given the opportunity to be able to know all kinds of information about planning (input), implementation (procces), as well as supervision (output) such as supervision of the proper management of state finances on the objectives and indicators of the main welfare of the community so as to produce the results that the country needs in the era of development as it is today.

An author of Sukarno’s Book of Economic Didikari, Amiruddin Al-Rahab once suggested that jargon or the idea of self-reliance in the economy had been called even made into a political orientation in development. Sukarno’s version of the economic idea is actually ideal if aligned with the current state of the Indonesian nation, unfortunately Sukarno was deposed before having time to implement the whole idea of his brilliance. His desire for the Indonesian nation to be able to stand on its own feet and regardless of foreign intervention of the country’s major capitals is a proclamation that no longer exists for the current government because most socioeconomic circumstances are now inherited from the former colonial economy which has been renewed a little more elite. An elite style that is still suffocating if it continues to be left without any buzz that can paddle the competition of today’s industrial revolution era.

A little wasting feels if all policy inputs are then processed or implemented if only using conditional standardization with the subject matter. The government’s indisciplined public policy design is seen as a result of accountability or accountability that tends to indicate uncertainty about regulation. This is certainly due to several factors and mainly perhaps the authors analyze according to the current condition is the result of diseases that come from the bureaucracy so as to cause a lack of education towards the community of positive progressivity that should be able to be built independently through the government of the people, the government that has the full support for the participation of its people.

Through proactive participatory and comprehensive support from the community towards programs that empower the community is expected to support the community to be more prosperous in the face of the covid-19 pandemic. Self-processing will rebuild the resilience of a society that is able to compete and create new development innovations relevant to the changing times. The nation’s vibrant societal social climate should not be a barrier to the country’s progress, but instead enrich the culture and circumference that blends with indicators of a country’s progress. In terms of the economy, an independent economy supported by the principle of flexibility will also support a conducive economy that is resilient to all forms of change. From the beginning, the state and citizens are a unit that is inseparable from the index of optimization of the welfare of the nation and the state, so that the future principles of the government through human capital development programs can be directed to maximize empowerment programs for the lower middle class so that the future of the economy that is sluggish due to the covid-19 pandemic period is immediately normal.

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Reflection of Indonesia’s National Farmer’s Day

Viggo Pratama Putra

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September has been a memorable and recorded month in the nation’s development process. One important event that should not be underestimated, that is the momentum of National Farmers Day. Indonesia’s fertile country has become both a flattering and a slap in the face to the current state of national agriculture. Various problems unravel clearly and painfully if we match the title of agrarian country in Indonesia

Referencing data from The Economist Intelligence Unit, from year to year Indonesia’s position has never shifted far from positions 4 and 5 in ASEAN sphere in terms of food security. While in the world, in the Global Food Security Index (GFSI) Indonesia ranks 61st out of a total of 113 countries. This shows how weak Indonesia’s bargaining position is in terms of agricultural management that leads to food security.

If you take the example of the above data, it can be seen clearly that over the past few years until now there has been a stagnation in terms of agriculture in Indonesia. Political economist Ichsanudin Noorsy in some of his discussions said that Indonesia never really thought of building social relations in structurally dismantling the agricultural and livestock problems that have occurred so far, ranging from upstream to downstream. All flows from resources, production, distribution to retribution and regulation.

As a result of the unpacking of social relations structurally, many farmers are even dependent on the third person, although actually there is now Internet Communication and Technology (ICT). That means Indonesian farmers do not have a good life expectancy in that case, this is similar to Clifford Geertz’s thesis that says society cannot rely on the agricultural sector due to poor food security problems. If looking back at resources and production sectors that are inputs from agriculture is problematic, that means food security or automatic food security will also be problematic.

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) itself says there are 4 indicators that affect food security, namely food availability adequacy, food availability stability, accessibility and quality/food safety. Of these four factors, it can be compared that Indonesia now faces problems ranging from the conversion of agricultural land, irrigation, the availability of seeds/seeds and fertilizers, as well as guaranteed life expectancy in farmers. On land issues, Indonesia is still not able to equally national agricultural development to the regions.

It is difficult to talk about land problems, meaning there must be an even distribution of the population to spread a more adequate map of farmland in each area. In the field of irrigation, there are still many agricultural waterways in remote areas that are inadequate. While subsudi seeds, seeds and fertilizers are even stripped one by one, not even a few are manipulated procurement. This led to the absence of guarantees and life expectancy in the majority of smallholders, so the agricultural sector tended to be controlled by large companies.

If we haven’t spread the population evenly, it means that we’re still failing to see the resources that indicate that we’re still failing in production (input). It was this failure in the production sector that led to Indonesia still relying heavily on foreign parties. This dependency interferes with the available aspects or availability of domestic food which also results in our country needing dollars (world currency) in holding imports, this is what ultimately affects the growth of further inflation.

The problems that the authors describe indicate that Indonesia is currently facing “Structural Problematic” syndrome in the national agricultural sector. In the past Suharto once said that “a strong economy is supported by strong industry and agriculture”. But when viewed again, the agricultural sector is even left behind, and besides that the manufacturing sector is also falling apart. Whereas during this time the government has always been a fanfare saying agriculture is soko guruh national development, but the reality is even inversely proportional. This is what the author refers to as a kind of ambitious attitude in the author’s writing entitled ambitiousness in state governance.

Sukarno used to be fiery in his oration and gave up a spirit that mentioned “do not let us become a nation of kuli or kuli among other nations”. The simple logic that will be created if Indonesia continues to depend on foreign investment is a sign that Indonesia is also ready to become a kuli because it reduces production factors or upstream from food security itself. How can Indonesia talk about food sovereignty if food is just a matter of position.

Especially in the days of the Covid-19 pandemic now that has a huge impact on national food security such as the disruption of production factors due to restrictions on the movement of labor, distribution that has also been hampered some time ago, as well as the purchasing power of the people that is decreasing. Looking back from data from the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) which released the national economic growth position in the second quarter of 2020 decreased to 4.19%, while agricultural GDP grew 16.24% and became the highest contributor to national economic growth. This data shows how important the agricultural sector is as the key to increasing the weighting of national economic growth.

Referring to systematic problems in the agricultural sector in Indonesia should make us all have to be careful, because it becomes possible if not immediately addressed, it could be that for many years the agricultural sector in Indonesia can no longer meet the food needs for all Indonesians that will cause a prolonged food crisis. This bad shadow will certainly make Indonesia more dependent on foreign imports. In the absence of systemic fix on agriculture, then the success as an agrarian state that was once often hailed only as a name.

Let us reflect again on the momentum of September 24 as the anniversary of this national farmer’s day. The extent to which we contribute and position ourselves as indonesians, whether we will truly optimize the role according to our respective professions in improving the agricultural sector or simply hide behind dependency and become a nation that is always dictated by big global players. The determination of national farming day based on President Sukarno’s decision on August 26, 1963 No.169/1963 signifies the importance of the role and position of farmers as a nation entity that must be maintained and expanded.

Let’s celebrate the agrarian day of the Indonesian nation by showing the best ideas for the future of national agriculture, thinking critically and building and taking a position as an agent of change of every problem that is gnawing at agriculture today. Reinvent agriculture that is dischared over resources from upstream to distribution as a downstream of food security factors. Avoid bad stereotypes of farmers, because in Europe and America though, farmers are very sovereign and even have important positions in their professions. Special for young Indonesians, let’s reclaim the long-awaited agricultural success of the nation, once again happy national farmer’s day.

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Southeast Asia

Being an idiot student is an option

Kevin Fallo

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“Long live student!” The loud shouts that we always hear when students give speeches in order to convey the aspirations they have accommodated. Students are very synonymous with the terms agent of change, social control, iron stock, moral force or other audible terms intelligent other. Even long before Indonesia’s independence and when Indonesia was still struggling to fight for independence, students were already seen intelligent be it in discussion, mindset, politics, dynamics and so on.

Students also got cooler to hear when the 1998 reforms flared up, one by one the figures or more warmly known as “activists 98” got a proper place in government or in other warm places after entering the reform era. Previously, these 98 activists became heroes in order to uphold justice and voice the real aspirations of the people so that some of them became anti-heroes who broke justice itself after occupying and enjoying the warm seat of government.

Ideally, the role of students is to become a liaison between the community and the government, help translate every government policy to the community, accommodate people’s aspirations to be conveyed to the government, decide untrue news circulating in the community, and help maintain social stability in society. When the role of a student is carried out properly, today’s students can become intelligent.

Know that now students are not all intelligent, even stupid students are born and just die. Even in some big universities, the domination of stupid students is now getting crazy. Students who are not aware of its function, students who are not aware of what it is students and students who only dream of having a GPA that can be sold in the industrial market so they can live safely are symptoms of an idiot student.

These stupid students are not born just like that, some of them even wish they could become good students intelligent but when they saw the situation and condition of the campus that were not like they imagined a feeling of disappointment was born. This disappointment will have an impact on the loss of enthusiasm to become a student intelligent. So that sooner or later they will become completely stupid students.

Everything needs a process

Everything has a process, even instant noodles need to be heated in boiling water and then poured in new spices to be enjoyed. When we don’t see the situation we hope for, please be disappointed, don’t break up there then think about it and start creating the situation we hope for itself. Don’t just be disappointed and keep silent, or waste time waiting for the situation we hope for, because life is also an allowance, don’t waste time, don’t be silent when you lose and don’t be careless when you win, keep going because life needs a continuous process.

Students who took to the streets and gave speeches shouting loudly “Long live students!” It can also be stupid when they go down the road just to be seen, students who are active in organizations can also become stupid when the academic organization on campus is unbalanced. Students who have extraordinary ideas can also become dumb when they are quiet. On the other hand, students can become intelligent when not littering, students can become intelligent when deciding on hoaxes in circulation, students can become intelligent when the organization and campus academic life can run in balance.

The activists nowadays who are busy in politics are already visible intelligent it can also be very silly when people’s interests, justice and truth which have always been upheld are replaced by self-interest and a thirst for power. These are the vices of Satan that we have adopted, namely greed, greed, ungratefulness and treachery. Even though there are still good qualities of Satan that we can imitate, namely the unyielding nature (Satan is known to not give up tempting Adam’s grandchildren to the end of the world) and persistence (Satan is also known to be steadfast in his stance and does not want to submit to Prophet Adam).

To be intelligent doesn’t have to be in politics

The definition is too narrow intelligent if we only link students and politics, students can too intelligent by working according to their respective interests, for example, Turah Parthayana, a student from Bali who is now studying in Russia, has successfully become a YouTuber with content exposing his life as an Indonesian citizen living in Russia, there is also a YouTuber with the same content from Gita Savitri Devi who lives in Germany. , and also with Raditya Dika who exposes life as a student in Australia into novels with comedy spices even though he is no longer a student and focuses on YouTube content with ghost coins in his house, and there are many other examples both as YouTubers, artists, programmers, gamers and so on.

To become a student intelligent it is not difficult nor does it need to start from big things, start from small things that are also able to have an impact and change even though indirectly, start to respect differences, start to be sensitive to social issues and not be very ignorant, start working, start to rise from disappointment and most importantly, never be afraid to start it all, if we don’t dare to start then we will never know how it will turn out.

Return the trust and hope of society to students, return to our functions and roles as students, let’s work and innovate according to our respective interests, be proud of Indonesia in the way we like, don’t waste the sacrifices of fighters who have given up wealth and even family to seize the freedom that we feel today, submit to the truth and fight all injustices in this country. Prove that students are still there, not just a political tool tricked by certain elites. Long live student! Long live Indonesian democracy! Long live the Indonesian people! Long live Indonesian women !.

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