Connect with us

Reports

The impact of COVID-19 on agribusiness and the food industry in African and Asian markets

Published

on

As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded, concerns over ensuring food security have been voiced in many countries around the world. While the crisis has immediate effects on food and agricultural supply chains, the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic is not limited to short-term disruptions in supply and demand.  Considering that the food and agricultural sector accounts for ten percent of global GDP and employs an estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide, the outbreak of COVID-19 will likely have far-reaching and noticeable social and economic consequences for the sector.

In order to evaluate those effects, the UNIDO Investment and Technology Promotion Office (ITPO) Germany, in cooperation with the German Agricultural Society (DLG e.V.), and SmartHectar Innovation, initiated an online survey among 800 companies from the European and especially German food and agricultural sector with business activities in African and Southeast Asian markets. The survey was conducted by dimap, the German Institute for Market and Political Research, between June and July 2020. The majority of participants were small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) headquartered in Europe, while a third of the participants represent larger corporations. Two-thirds of the respondents generate more than half of their annual turnover on foreign markets. 

The survey confirmed that the coronavirus pandemic indeed represents a huge challenge to companies operating in the food and agribusiness sectors. While the immediate effects on business operations in African and Southeast Asian markets are still limited, they are already more pronounced in Europe in the form of reduced production and cancelled orders. However, despite the looming crisis, the long-term outlook of most companies remains rather positive, with only about ten percent of respondents pondering layoffs or closing down part of their business in foreign markets. The survey further revealed that many companies see the diversification of their product, supplier and customer base as suitable medium- to long-term strategies to cope with the effects of the crisis. Moreover, one-third of respondents consider expanding their research and development activities as a response to the pandemic.

A majority of SMEs see the opening of new markets and continued international expansion as the right way to adapt to the crisis. Keeping markets open is seen as crucial to ensure global food supplies and to maintain social and economic stability. The respondents are convinced that trade liberalization has to be accompanied by active measures aimed at strengthening local supply chains and facilitating industrial upgrading of agricultural and food-processing industries.

The results of the survey validate the approach of ITPO Germany and its partners in respect of their continued efforts to support technology providers and investors in the food-processing and agricultural sectors in developing countries and emerging markets, particularly in Africa and Southeast Asia.

Continue Reading
Comments

Reports

65% of Adults Think Race, Ethnicity or National Origin Affects Job Opportunities

Published

on

A recent Ipsos-World Economic Forum survey has found that 65% of all adults believe that, in their country, someone’s race, ethnicity, or national origin influences their employment opportunities. When considering their own race, ethnicity, or national origin, more than one-third say it has impacted their personal employment opportunities.

The online survey was conducted between 22 January and 5 February 2021, among more than 20,000 adults in 27 countries. It also reveals that 60% of adults think that someone’s race, ethnicity, or national origin plays a role in education opportunities, access to housing, and access to social services.

As Black History Month in the United States draws to a close, awareness of the impacts of race, ethnicity and national origin on opportunities in life is exceptionally high. It follows a tumultuous year when the pandemic put inequality into the spotlight, and events in the US sparked international protests as long-simmering, systemic racial inequities came to the forefront.

Of those surveyed, 46% say the events of the past year have increased differences in opportunities as well as access to housing, education, employment and/or social services in their country. In comparison, 43% say the events have had no impact on differences and 12% say they have decreased differences.

About 60% of respondents in Latin America, Spain and South Africa, and nearly half in France, Italy, Malaysia, Japan, Sweden, Belgium and the US say recent events have increased race, ethnicity, or national origin-based differences in opportunities in their country, compared to only about one in three in Germany, Poland and Saudi Arabia, one in four in China, and one in seven in Russia.

Perceptions versus the reported personal experience of inequality also vary significantly in countries. Compared with the 27-country average for all four types of opportunities measured, several countries stand out.

Continue Reading

Reports

‘Industry 4.0’ tech for post-COVID world, is driving inequality

Published

on

Developing countries must embrace ground-breaking technologies that have been a critical tool in tackling the COVID-19 pandemic, or else face even greater inequalities than before, UN economic development  experts at UNCTAD said on Thursday.

“Very few countries create the technologies that drive this revolution – most of them are created in China and the US – but all countries will be affected by it”, said UNCTAD’s Shamika Sirimanne, head of Division on Technology and Logistics. “Almost none of the developing countries we studied is prepared for the consequences.”

The appeal, which is highlighted in a new UNCTAD report, relates to all things digital and connective, so-called “Industry 4.0” or “frontier technologies”, that include artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, 5G, 3D printing, robotics, drones, nanotechnology and solar energy.

Gene editing, another fast-evolving sector, has demonstrated its worth in the last year, with the accelerated development of new coronavirus vaccines.

Drone aid

In developing countries, digital tools can be used to monitor ground water contamination, deliver medical supplies to remote communities via drones, or track diseases using big data, said UNCTAD’s Sirimanne.

But “most of these examples remain at pilot level, without ever being scaled-up to reach those most in need: the poor. To be successful, technology deployment must fulfil the five As: availability, affordability, awareness, accessibility, and the ability for effective use.”

Income gap widening

With an estimated market value of $350 billion today, the array of emerging digital solutions for life after COVID is likely to be worth over $3 trillion by 2025 – hence the need for developing countries to invest in training and infrastructure to be part of it, Sirimanne maintained.

“Most Industry 4.0 technologies that are being deployed in developed countries save labour in routine tasks affecting mid-level skill jobs. They reward digital skills and capital”, she said, pointing to the significant increase in the market value of the world’s leading digital platforms during the pandemic.

Innovation dividends

“The largest gains have been made by Amazon, Apple and Tencent,” Sirimanne continued. “This is not surprising given that a very small number of very large firms provided most of the digital solutions that we have used to cope with various lockdowns and travel restrictions.”

Expressing optimism about the potential for developing countries to be carried along with the new wave of digitalisation rather than be swamped by it, the UNCTAD economist downplayed concerns that increasing workforce automation risked putting people in poorer countries out of a job.

This is because “not all tasks in a job are automated, and, most importantly, that new products, tasks, professions, and economic activities are created throughout the economy”, Sirimanne said.

‘Job polarization’

“The low wages …for skills in developing countries plus the demographic trends will not create economic incentives to replace labour in manufacturing – not yet.”

According to UNCTAD, over the past two decades, the expansion in high and low-wage jobs – a phenomenon known as “job polarization” – has led to only a single-digit reduction in medium-skilled jobs in developed and developing countries (of four and six per cent respectively).

“So, it is expected that low and lower-middle income developing countries will be less exposed to potential negative effects of AI and robots on job polarization”, Sirimanne explained.

Nonetheless, the UN trade and development body cautioned that there appeared to be little sign of galloping inequality slowing down in the new digital age, pointing to data indicating that the income gap between developed and developing countries is $40,749 in real terms today, up from $17,000 in 1970.

Continue Reading

Reports

Greater Innovation Critical to Driving Sustained Economic Recovery in East Asia

Published

on

Innovation is critical to productivity growth and economic progress in developing East Asia in a rapidly changing world, according to a new World Bank report launched today.

Countries in developing East Asia have an impressive record of sustained growth and poverty reduction.  But slowing productivity growth, uncertainties in global trade, and technological advances are increasing the need to transition to new and better modes of production to sustain economic performance.

To support policy makers in meeting this challenge, The Innovation Imperative for Developing East Asia examines the state of innovation in the region, analyzes the key constraints firms face in innovating, and lays out an agenda for action to spur innovation-led growth.

A large body of evidence links innovation to higher productivity,” said Victoria Kwakwa, World Bank Vice President for East Asia and Pacific. “The COVID-19 pandemic, climate change, along with the fast-evolving global environment, have raised urgency for governments in the region to promote greater innovation through better policies.

While developing East Asia is home to several high-profile innovators, data presented in the report show that most countries in the region (except China) innovate less than would be expected given their per capita income levels. Most firms operate far from the technological frontier. And the region is falling behind the advanced economies in the breadth and intensity of new technology use.

“Aside from some noteworthy examples, the vast majority of firms in developing East Asia are currently not innovating,” said Xavier Cirera, a lead author of the report. “A broad-based model of innovation is thus needed – that supports a large mass of firms in adopting new technologies, while also enabling more-sophisticated firms to undertake projects at the cutting edge.”

The report identifies several factors that impede innovation in the region, including inadequate information on new technologies, uncertainty about returns to innovation projects, weak firm capabilities, insufficient staff skills, and limited financing options. Moreover, countries’ innovation policies and institutions are often not aligned with firms’ capabilities and needs.

To spur innovation, the report argues that countries need to reorient policy to promote diffusion of existing technologies, not just invention; support innovation in the services sectors, not just manufacturing; and strengthen firms’ innovation capabilities. Taking this broader view of innovation policy will be critical to enabling productivity gains among a broader swath of firms in the region.

“It is important for governments in the region to support innovation in services, given their rising importance in these economies – not only for better service quality but increasingly as key inputs for manufacturing,” said Andrew Mason, also a lead author of the report.

Countries also need to strengthen key complementary factors for innovation, including workers’ skills and instruments to finance innovation projects. Building stronger links between national research institutions and firms will also be critical to fostering innovation-led growth in the region.

Continue Reading

Publications

Latest

Finance47 mins ago

Estonia provides good support to jobseekers, but does not reach everybody

The Estonian labour market has outperformed most EU countries after the global financial crisis. The employment rate of people in...

Energy News3 hours ago

New EU energy labels applicable from 1 March 2021

To help EU consumers cut their energy bills and carbon footprint, a brand new version of the widely-recognised EU energy...

Energy News5 hours ago

E-Boda-Bodas: a promising day for electric transportation in East Africa

Forty-nine motorcycles made little noise but raised much interest in Nairobi’s Karura Forest this morning, as the UN Environment Programme...

Americas6 hours ago

Biden’s Syria strikes don’t make him a centrist Democrat – they make him a neocon

Biden’s Syria strikes last week left many of his supporters, including me, surprised. The Syria strikes don’t make Biden the...

Reports7 hours ago

65% of Adults Think Race, Ethnicity or National Origin Affects Job Opportunities

A recent Ipsos-World Economic Forum survey has found that 65% of all adults believe that, in their country, someone’s race,...

Americas9 hours ago

Charting an American Return to Reason: Nuclear Policy Goals on North Korea

“All our dignity consists in thought….It is upon this that we must depend…Let us labor then to think well: this...

Tourism10 hours ago

Harnessing the Power of Culture and Creativity in Tourism Recovery

The shared values and close ties between tourism and culture stakeholders means both sectors can work together to ensure inclusive...

Trending