The shock caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has had considerable impacts on Ghanaian businesses, forcing many firms to cut costs by reducing staff hours, cutting wages, and in some cases laying off workers.
This is according to results from a new COVID-19 Business Tracker Survey conducted by the Ghana Statistical Service (GSS), in collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the World Bank. The results show that about 770,000 workers (25.7% of the total workforce), had their wages reduced and about 42,000 employees were laid off during the country’s COVID-19 partial lockdown. The pandemic also led to reduction in working hours for close to 700,000 workers.
“Government has already put in place diverse supports for businesses including the establishment of a Coronavirus Alleviation Programme to protect jobs, livelihoods and support small businesses. And, also is the Government’s GH¢600 Million Stimulus Package to small and medium scale enterprises (SMEs). The findings of the Business Tracker provide specificity on the pathways of effects, variation in the effects for different categories of businesses, their geographical areas, and the extent of effects”, Professor Samuel Kobina Annim, Government Statistician noted.
The survey was carried out between May 26 and June 17, 2020 across the country to assess how the novel coronavirus has impacted private businesses. Some 4,311 firms were interviewed.
The data also show that during the lockdown, about 244,000 firms started adjusting their business models by relying more on digital solutions, such as mobile money and internet for sales. Firms within the agriculture sector and other industries used relatively more digital solutions (56%), with establishments in the accommodation and food sector being the least that adopted digital solutions (28%).
“If businesses, especially SMEs are provided with the needed support to adopt best practices, particularly in the use of digital solutions, this could go a long way to increase their productivity and resilience to future challenges”, said Fredrick Mugisha, UNDP Economic Advisor for Ghana and The Gambia.
Generally, the results indicate that during the country’s COVID-19 partial lockdown, businesses received shocks in supply and demand for goods and services. Close to 131,000 businesses had challenges accessing finance and expressed uncertainty in business environment.
The average decrease in sales, according to the findings, was estimated at 115.2 million Ghana Cedis, with firms in the trade and manufacturing sectors (including exporting firms) largely affected. More than half of these firms had difficulties in sourcing inputs due to non-availability or increase in costs, leading to challenges in covering revenue shortfalls.
Even though the lockdown measures have been relaxed, the survey results show a high degree of uncertainty in the expectations of firms regarding sales and employment over the next 6 months.
“The survey shows that COVID-19 has had a deep impact on Ghana’s private sector, through several channels. Firms are experiencing lower demand for their products, difficulties in accessing finance and sourcing inputs, and face an extended period of uncertainty. The World Bank is working closely with the Government of Ghana to mitigate these negative impacts and assist businesses to survive the pandemic and build resilience in the face of the changed economic conditions”, noted Pierre Laporte, World Bank Country Director for Ghana, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.
To lessen the impacts of COVID-19, the survey results suggest the need for policies to support firms in the short and medium term. The most desired policies cited by the private sector include measures to improve liquidity such as subsidized interest rates, cash transfers and deferral of tax payments. Many firms were not aware of the Government’s support programs, suggesting the need for increased awareness and clarity on the guidelines and requirements of current interventions.
The results of the survey also suggest that efforts should be concentrated on re-establishing channels that were adversely affected during the pandemic. These should include re-establishing supply chains by providing credit guarantee schemes for those accessing finance, facilitating input procurement, and access to foreign markets to boost demand. The report also proposes support for firms with grants and business development services to upgrade technologies to increase productivity.
The Business Tracker Survey is part of a global Business Pulse Survey (BPS) initiative of the World Bank, surveying the impact of COVID-19 on the private sector in more than 40 countries.
Do You Really Need Name-Brand Cartridges?
Cartridges from printer manufacturers like Hewlett-Packard are notoriously expensive. Considering the price of their basic equipment, ink may cost almost as much as the machines. This economic model has been raising eyebrows for many years. Customers are looking for affordable alternatives, and this global demand is met by the generic cartridge industry. Discovered the best ways to buy inkjet cartridges in Canada.
In recent years, the market for alternative replacements has evolved a lot. You can get excellent quality of printing, free shipping and extended warranties from stores like Smart Ink. For example, the HP 950 ink you can buy at this shop costs under $28, while the full pack from the manufacturer costs well over $100. Here is how to choose the best cheaper replacement for your inkjet cartridge whatever the brand.
Consumers can slash their expenses if they purchase original products from independent brands or recycled OEM cartridges. Both options offer substantial savings, particularly in the long run. The best providers comply with international quality standards, which guarantees trouble-free printing (CE, ISO 9001, ISO 14000, Reach, STMC). Here is how these types of products compare.
Original cartridges may be recycled. This process is known as remanufacturing, and it is based on the reuse of the original shell and internal components (with selective replacements if necessary). Essentially, used cartridges are emptied, thoroughly cleaned and filled with fresh ink, so they can be installed again.
This is the most sustainable method, as it reduces waste. Instead of buying a brand-new cartridge every time you need ink, you get a recycled product. Previously, consumers would take their old products to service providers at physical locations. Today, it is much easier to purchase these products online with free shipping, a money-back guarantee, and other benefits.
Since the first compatible cartridges emerged, printer manufacturers have tried to prohibit them. Fortunately for consumers, their lawsuits have failed. Products from third-party brands are legal, and they are also much more affordable than the OEM supplies. Both the cartridges and the ink come from the same companies. These products are designed for particular models of printers.
The equipment manufacturers may issue firmware updates preventing the machines from recognizing non-original ink. This restriction is easy to circumvent — just turn off the updates and use any supplies you like. When shopping around, pay attention to the following:
- Certified quality (compliance with standards listed above)
- Positive reputation of the store
- A money-back guarantee
- Updated chips
- XL volume
- Free shipping
- Sustainable production
- Reliable packaging
Popular printer manufacturers sell affordable equipment with expensive consumable supplies. This lets them attract new buyers and profit from the ink for years. However, savvy customers know better than to follow their recommendations. Generic cartridges and remanufactured products offer great value for money — just do a bit of research to find trusted stores in your area.
UN chief condemns ‘ongoing military coup’ in Sudan
UN Secretary-General, António Guterres on Monday condemned the “ongoing military coup” in Sudan, saying Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok and all other officials, “must be released immediately.”
Long-time ruler Omar al-Bashir was overthrown by the military following months of popular protest in April 2019, and a transitional government was set up comprising both military and civilian leadership, after a power-sharing agreement, that was due to lead to full democratic elections in 2023.
Now, according to news agencies, Sudan’s military has dissolved civilian rule, arrested political leaders and declared a state of emergency. Protesters have reportedly taken to the streets of the capital, Khartoum, and there are reports of gunfire.
In a statement posted on Twitter, the Secretary-General said that “there must be full respect for the constitutional charter to protect the hard-won political transition.”
“The UN will continue to stand with the people of Sudan”, Mr. Guterres assured.
Progress in jeopardy
The UN High Commissioner for Human Rights also condemned the attempted coup.
“These actions threaten the Juba Peace Agreement and jeopardize the important progress made towards democracy and respect for human rights”, Michelle Bachelet said.
She called on military authorities to abide by the constitutional order and international law, withdraw from the streets, and resolve any differences with civilian leaders serving on the Transitional Council through dialogue and negotiation.
“I utterly deplore the reported arrest of the Prime Minister, several Ministers, leaders of the Forces of the Freedom and Change and other civil society representatives, and call for their immediate release”, she continued.
Communication systems down
Ms. Bachelet also pointed out reports that the internet is down in the country and other means of communication are suspended.
“Blanket internet shutdowns contravene international law, and Internet and mobile services must be restored, as they are essential for people to seek and receive information, particularly in these unsettling circumstances”, she explained.
She asked military and security forces to refrain from unnecessary and disproportionate use of force, to respect people’s freedom of expression, as well as the right of peaceful assembly.
According to her, “it would be disastrous if Sudan goes backwards after finally bringing an end to decades of repressive dictatorship.”
“The country needs to move forward to consolidate democracy, a wish expressed countless times by the Sudanese people, including loudly and clearly on the streets last week and today”, she added.
The head of the UN Integrated Transition Assistance Mission Sudan (UNITAMS), also released a statement, declaring that the arrests of the Prime Minister, government officials and other politicians are “unacceptable.”
“I call on the security forces to immediately release those who have been unlawfully detained or placed under house arrest”, Volker Perthes said. “It is the responsibility of these forces to ensure the security and wellbeing of people in their custody.”
The UNITAMS chief, who acts as a Special Representative of the Secretary-General, also urged everyone involved to exercise the utmost restraint.
“All parties must immediately return to dialogue and engage in good faith to restore the constitutional order”, Mr. Perthes concluded.
‘No time to lose’ curbing greenhouse gases
Last year, heat-trapping greenhouse gases reached a new record, surging above the planet’s 2011-2020 average, and has continued in 2021, according to a new report published on Monday by the UN weather agency.
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Greenhouse Gas Bulletin contains a “stark, scientific message” for climate change negotiations at the upcoming UN climate conference, known as COP26, in Glasgow, said Petteri Taalas, head of the UN agency.
“At the current rate of increase in greenhouse gas concentrations, we will see a temperature increase by the end of this century far in excess of the Paris Agreement targets of 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels”, he explained. “We are way off track.”
Concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in 2020 was 149 per cent above the pre-industrial level; methane, 262 per cent; and nitrous oxide, 123 per cent, compared to the point when human activitity began to be a destabilizing factor.
And although the coronavirus-driven economic slowdown sparked a temporary decline in new emissions, it has had no discernible impact on the atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases or their growth rates.
As emissions continue, so too will rising global temperatures, the report maintained.
Moreover, given the long life of CO2, the current temperature level will persist for decades, even if emissions are rapidly reduced to net zero.
From intense heat and rainfall to sea-level rise and ocean acidification, rising temperatures will be accompanied by more weather extremes – all with far-reaching socioeconomic impacts.
“The last time the Earth experienced a comparable concentration of CO2 was three to five million years ago, when the temperature was 2-3°C warmer and sea level was 10-20 meters higher than now”, stated the WMO chief. “But there weren’t 7.8 billion people then”, he reminded.
Roughly half of today’s human-emitted CO2 remains in the atmosphere and the other half is absorbed by oceans and land ecosystems, the Bulletin flagged.
At the same time, the capacity of land ecosystems and oceans to absorb emissions may become a less effective buffer against temperature increases in the future.
Meanwhile, many countries are currently setting carbon neutral targets amidst the hope that COP26 will see a dramatic increase in commitments.
“We need to transform our commitment into action that will have an impact of the gases that drive climate change. We need to revisit our industrial, energy and transport systems and whole way of life”, said the WMO official.
“The needed changes are economically affordable and technically possible“, he assured. “There is no time to lose”.
CO2 is the single most important greenhouse gas and has “major negative repercussions for our daily lives and well-being, for the state of our planet and for the future of our children and grandchildren”, argued the WMO chief.
Carbon sinks are vital regulators of climate change because they remove one-quarter of the CO2 that humans release into the atmosphere.
Nitrous Oxide is both a powerful greenhouse gas and ozone depleting chemical that is emitted into the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including oceans, soils, biomass burning, fertilizer use and various industrial processes.
Multiple co-benefits of reducing methane, whose gas remains in the atmosphere for about a decade, could support the Paris Agreement and help to reach many Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), said the Bulletin.
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