In the 1940s, German expansionist missions over Belgium and France were raging. Moreover, the growth of the German military made Belgium alarmed. So on the Belgian-German border on the east side a magnificent fort was built, with bunkers and tunnels reaching 5 miles in length and below the ground depth of approximately 20 meters. The fort can accommodate 1500 Belgian troops at once. That is what we are familiar with the fortress of Eden Emael. Not only was the German military development at that time as the cause, based on history, when the first world war Belgium was occupied by Germany via Eden Emael as well, the eastern border of the two countries.
For Hitler, reoccupying Belgium meant breaking the superiority of fortress. But with the usual and standard attack style, of course, Germany will be overwhelmed, maybe even lost. Especially after the Versailes agreement, Germany was not permitted to have the large scale of air force and aircraft. Because of the agreement, Germany finally developed a type of glider that was rumored to be noiseless and suitable for sudden attacks with small numbers of troops.
Why? Because glider was not included in the type of aircraft that was prohibited in the Versailes agreement. In addition, Germany was also developing concave bombs, a kind of bombs that have targeted explosive power, only to hit certain targets, especially targets in the form of bunkers and underground fortresses. Air pressure caused by concave bombs will shake enemy bunkers from below, not from above. By placing concave bomb in one of the gaps in the bunker, the pressure will go through all the rooms in the bunker, then hit the cannon gun at the top of the bunker.
With the discovery of that technology, the Germans decided to attack the fortress of Eden Emael with special forces totaling 86 people. The decision was in accordance with the new war strategy set by Hitler, namely rapid occupation or what we commonly know as the Bliztkrieg. The time of the attack was determined at around 4am. When the operation came, German glider landed around the fortress of Emael carrying 86 German special forces. The number was clearly out of balance with Belgian soldiers who were waiting for them inside the fort, which were approximately 750 soldiers.
Not a long wait, all Nazi special forces took positions around the fortress, searching for entrances and installing concave bombs. The explosion of several concave bombs damaged many sides of the fort from the inside, because if the concave bomb exploded, the air pressure caused by them would bounce off one another from the walls of the fort, towards the holes that flowed air out, especially the holes which became the cannon position.
The sudden attack really surprised the Belgian. But because of the much larger number, Belgium finally put up a fight. But what a bitch, Belgium was beyond help. With the ruins of the fortress of Eden Emael due to surprise attack, then the help of the imminent German troops, the Fortress of Emael Eden had to bow down to the Nazis in only 28 hours. And Germany got a strategic starting point for occupying Belgium as a whole and entering France.
However, if seen more broadly, the German effort to enter Belgium by breaking the superiority of the Fortress of Emael was only camflation. The victory was truly celebrated by Berlin, videos of the victory at the fortress of Eden Emael were distributed. Everything was to cover the true intention of Germany, namely occupying Paris, France. Sure enough, shortly after the conquest of the Fortress of Emael, Germany finally conquered France, via a path that was never expected by all parties, namely through the dense forest of the Ardennes, which became a barrier between Germany and France.
German troops made it through the dense forest on foot, with a journey of more than 170 km in more than two weeks. Even more interesting, it turns out that the number of French and Belgian troops at that time was somewhat greater than the troops sent down by Hitler. Amazingly, after a long, tiring, sleepless journey, they were able to conquer opponents whose resting patterns would be far better. Why? The answer was in the Pervitin Pill.
Pervitin Pills are another language of Crystal Met. In 1938s, the pharmaceutical company Themmler was licensed to produce the Pervitin trademark. The packaging was very similar to the packaging of one of the multivitamins sold, in the form of a long can of small pills containing several pills. Pervitin was sold as an antidepressant. Initially, the initial inventors who later became the Pervitin pill were two Japanese researchers studying in Berlin. They found the crystal meth. After that, Themmler got permission to produce and sell it throughout Germany.
Pervitin finally attracted the attention of Doctor Otto Angke, doctor and medical scientist in the German military. Otto then tested 90 selected students. The conclusion was that the use of Pervitin would provide chemical benefits for the fighting endurance of German army. Soldiers will keep fighting without sleep for days, even welcoming the war very hysterically. Then Otto Angke’s trial results were immediately brought into the Fuhrer’s room, then approved. When Germany occupied France via the Ardennese Dense Forest, or overthrew Eden Emael, or when Hitler’s expansionist desire to conquer Europe began, there were 35 million Pervitin pills used. Hitler himself could not be ascertained to consume pervitin or not, but according to medical records from Hitler’s personal psychiatrist, Dr. Theodor Morell, Hitler was even injected 800 times a year with various drugs, including opium, ampethamines, cocaine, and other drugs.
From the allies side, it was actually not much different. After the French conquest of Germany, Churchil’s personal physician discovered the fact that German troops used Pervitin and advised Churchil to use the same thing. But it seems that Churchil was very careful with methamphetamine because of its very dangerous long-term effects. Finally, it was known that British troops only use in very low doses, even for fighter pilots who experience aircraft downfall in order to survive a few days before being discovered. The drug was called BenzedrinSulfate, a low-dose methamphetamine.
When Hitler decided to conquer Russia, known as Operation Barbarosa, the use of Pervitin could not be separated from the war. In addition to deploying all its secret weapons, the use of pervitin was also increasingly massive. So the news about the effect was also spreading. Many troops were very addicted, hysterical, paranoid, and lost their temper. Pervitin might be one of the reasons why German troops were so cruel.
There were rumors among German soldiers that there was a German army unit struggling to approach Moscow, going crazy, shooting in any direction, even one army shooting his own commander, before finally surrendering at the hands of the Stalin red army. Then towards the end of the barbarosa operation, when the Germans lost their way and were beaten back by the red army, according to the notes of one of the doctors who participated in the combat unit, there was one unit that retreated back to Germany and was trapped in very heavy snow, under 30 degrees Celsius. They were exhausted, and were prepared to surrender or die from the cold snow. But finally the commander gave pervitin. 30 minutes later they were ready to walk again and were declared safe until returning to Germany.
The failure of the barbarosa “biltzkrieg” operation became the beginning of the defeat of Germany in the second world war. But Hitler chosed to stay with his fantasy of wanting to establish a Nazi empire on the plains of Europe. In 1944, a new research was launched and gave birth to a more dangerous new variant of the drug, called D-IX, chemical support level nine. D-IX consisted of nine ingredients. Three of the dominant ones werepervitin, cocaine, and morphine.
Concentration camps became test sites. Jewish prisoners became guinea pigs for these drugs. But Germany was beyond help, the allies had freed France, and were ready to enter Germany from the North. And the Russians were already furious, preparing to ravage Germany from the East side. In a bunker in Berlin, based on conventional historical records, after fulfilling his last promise to Eva Braun, a girlfriend who had never been married, namely to marry Eva Braun, Hitler finally decided to shoot himself. While Eva Braun has preceded him by swallowing cyanide pills.
The Proxy War of Libya: Unravelling the Complexities
The African continent has been infamous for its desolate conditions and impoverished lifestyle for years. The violence has not spared the region either since the extremely unstable Middle-East has set the vendetta throughout the region, verging Africa in the east. Whether it comes to the spreading influence of ISIS under the flag of Boko Haram; a terrorist organisation operating in Chad and North-eastern Nigeria, or the rampant corruption scandals and ream of military cops in Zimbabwe, the region rivals the instability of its eastern neighbour. However, one conflict stands out in Northern Africa, in terms of high-stake involvement of foreign powers and policies that have riven the country, not unlike Syria in the Middle-East. Libya is one instance in Africa that has faced the civil war for almost a decade yet involves not only local powers but is also a focal point that has caused the NATO powers to be at odds.
Libya, officially recognised as the ‘State of Libya’, is a war-torn country in the Northern periphery of the African continent. The country is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the North, Egypt lies to its East and Sudan and Tunisia border in the Southeast and Northwest respectively. Apparent from the topography, Libya stands as an epicentre to the countries ridden with conflicts, stands the ground that was the central root of the infamous Arab Spring uprisings taking a rebellious storm right off its borders in Tunisia back in 2011. While the NATO-led campaign garnered success in overthrowing the notorious dictator, Muammar Gaddafi, and thus bringing the draconian regime to an end, it failed to account for the brewing rebels and militias in pockets throughout the state of Libya.
Over the following years, weaponry and ammunition was widely pervaded across the region in spite of strict embargo placed. The pilling artillery and unregulated rebels cycled the instability in the country leading to the successive governments to fail and eventually split the country in two dominant positions: The UN-recognised Government National Accord (GNA), led by Tripoli-based leader and prime minister Fayez Al-Sarraj, and the Libyan National Army (LNA), led by the tailing ally and successor to Gaddafi, General Khalifa Haftar.
While both GNA and LNA vied for the control on Libya, foreign powers involved rather similar to the labyrinth of stakes in Syria, each state split over the side supporting their part of the story and ultimately serving their arching purpose of interference in the region. Despite of the ruling regime of Al-Sarraj since the controversial election win of GNA in 2016, Haftar-led LNA controls an expansive territory and has been launching offensive attacks against the GNA alliance. GNA enjoys the support of US, Turkey, Qatar and Italy; each serving either ideological support or military backing to secure the elected government of Libya. Meanwhile, LNA is backed by Russia, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and France. While the western powers see GNA as an economically stabilising solution to the Libyan crisis, Russia and France eye Haftar as a key ally to expand influence in the African region and reap control of the oil-rich resources under control of Haftar’s troops in the oil-crescent territory.
The Turkish regime, on the other hand, eye Libya as a direct answer to the Russian influence in the Syrian war that has been pushing the Kurdish alliance stronger along and within the southern borders of Turkey. This has led to recent clashes and direct escalation in the proxy war waged in Syria. Turkey plans to incentivise the leveraging position against Russia in Libya by deploying military advisory to Tripoli to strengthen their position against the Russian-backed Haftar to ultimately deter the alliance from spreading far in the African region.
The power split in Libya was exacerbated in 2017 following the Gulf crisis that led to the boycott of Qatar by the Arab quartet led by Saudi Arabia. Libya stood as a battle ground for both strategic and military positions to one up the other alliance in external power games while the internal matters of Libya are long forgotten and population left clueless and desperate for welfare. Since then, the vested interests in Libya have side-lined yet the peace process has been encouraged by both UN and Merkel-led ‘Berlin process’ in support to the UN efforts to restore peace in Libya. However, the strained relations and foreign demarcation is still apparent even though no escalation has been in action for months.
Now the ceasefires have been in talks for a while and except for a few skirmishes, the powers have been curbed since June 2020. The silence could imply room for diplomatic efforts to push a much-awaited resolve to this complex proxy war. With the recent turn of events in the global political canvas, wheels of the betterment might turn in favour of Libya. Saudi Arabia has recently joined hands with Qatar, opening all borders to the estranged ally and resuming diplomatic relations. Turkey is eying the coveted spot in the European Union since the UK exit. The US in redefining its policies under the revitalising administration of Joseph Biden while Russia deals with the tensed relations with the Gulf since the oil price war shattered the mutual understanding shared for years. The core players of the Libyan Proxy war are dormant and may remain passive due to external complexities to handle. Yet, with regional powers like Egypt threatening invasions in Libya and both GNA and LNA showing no interest in negotiation, a conclusive end to the Libyan crisis is still farfetched.
Pakistan Army’s Ranking improved
According to data issued by the group on its official website, Pakistan Army has been ranked the 10th most powerful in the world out of 133 countries on the Global Firepower index 2021.Especially the Special Services Group (SSG) is among the best in the world. Just behind; 1- United States PwrIndx: 0.0721, 2- Russia PwrIndx: 0.0796, 3- China PwrIndx: 0.0858, 4- India PwrIndx: 0.1214, 5- Japan PwrIndx: 0.1435, 6- South Korea PwrIndx: 0.1621, 7- France PwrIndx: 0.1691, 8- United Kingdom PwrIndx: 0.2008, 9- Brazil PwrIndx: 0.2037, 10- Pakistan PwrIndx: 0.2083.
Global Firepower (GFP) list relies on more than 50 factors to determine a nation’s Power Index (‘PwrIndx’) score with categories ranging from military might and financials to logistical capability and geography.
Our unique, in-house formula allows for smaller, more technologically-advanced, nations to compete with larger, lesser-developed ones. In the form of bonuses and penalties, special modifiers are applied to further refine the annual list. Color arrows indicate a year-over-year trend comparison.
The geopolitical environment, especially the regional security situation, is quite hostile. Pakistan is bordering India, a typical adversary and has not accepted Pakistan’s independence from the core of heart, and always trying to damage Pakistan. The Kashmir issue is a long standing issue between the two rivals. On the other hand, the Afghan situation is a permanent security threat for Pakistan. Bordering Iran means always facing a danger of aggression from the US or Israel on Iran, resulting in vulnerabilities in Pakistan. The Middle East is a hot burning region and posing instability in the region. The growing tension between China and the US is also a source of a major headache for Pakistan.
Under such a scenario, Pakistan has to be very conscious regarding its security and sovereignty. Although Pakistan’s ailing economy is not supporting its defense needs, it may not compromise strategic issues for its survival. Pakistan focuses on the quality of its forces instead of quantity. The tough training makes a real difference—the utilization of Science and Technology-enabled Pakistan to maintain its supremacy.
Pakistan is situated at a crucial location – the entrance point to the oil-rich Arabian Gulf is just on the major trading route for energy. Pakistan is at the conjunction of Africa, Europe, Eurasia, Central Asia, East Asia, South Asia, and China. Pakistan is a pivotal state and always focus of world powers.
During the cold war era, Pakistan sided with the US and protected the region’s American interests. The US military establishment knows well that as long as Pakistan stands with the US, it can achieve all its strategic goals in the region. However, It was the American choice to give more importance to India and ignore Pakistan.
Pakistan is a peace-loving nation and struggling for the promotion of peace globally. Pakistan always raises its voice at the UN and other international forums for oppressed ones and against any injustice. Pakistan. In the history of seven decades, Pakistan was never involved in any aggression against any country. Pakistan’s official stance is, “We are partner for peace with any country, any nation, or individuals.” Pakistan is a partner and supporter of any peace-initiative in any part of the world.
However, Pakistan is always prepared to protect its territorial integrity and will not allow any aggressor to harm our sovereignty at any cost. Pakistan is determined for its independence and geographical integrity.
Pakistan is no threat to any country or nation. Neither have any intention of expansion. But always ready to give a tough time to any aggressor.
Israel continues its air strikes against Syria after Biden’s inauguration: What’s next?
A family of four, including two children, died as a result of an alleged Israeli air strike on Hama in northwestern Syria on Friday, January 22, Syrian media said. In addition, four people were injured and three civilian houses were destroyed.
According to a military source quoted by Syrian outlets, Israel launched an air strike at 4 a.m. on Friday from the direction of Lebanese city of Tripoli against some targets on the outskirts of Hama city.
“Syrian air defense systems confronted an Israeli air aggression and shot down most of the hostile missiles,” the source said.
The Israeli newspaper Jerusalem Post reported that there were loud sounds of explosions in the area.
In turn, the Israel Defense Forces declined to comment on alleged strikes resulted in the death of Syrian citizens.
Over the past time, Israel significantly stepped up its aerial bombardment. This incident was the fifth in a series of Israeli air attacks on targets in Syria in the past month and the first after the inauguration of the U.S. President Joe Biden. Foreign analysts and military experts said that Tel Aviv intensified air strikes on Syria, taking advantage of the vacuum of power in the United States on the eve of Biden taking office as president.
While the Donald Trump administration turned a blind eye on such aggression, a change of power in the United States could remarkably limit Israel in conducting of military operations against Syria and Iran-affiliated armed groups located there. As it was stated during his presidential campaign, Joe Biden intends to pursue a more conciliatory foreign policy towards Iran. In particular, he unequivocally advocated the resumption of the nuclear deal with the Islamic republic. In this regard, Tel Aviv’s unilateral actions against Iranian interests in Syria could harm Washington’s plans to reduce tensions with Tehran.
By continuing air strikes against Iranian targets in Syria, Israel obviously sent a massage to the United States that Tel Aviv will consistently run anti-Iran policy, even if it will be in conflict with the interests of the Joe Biden administration. On the other hand, such Israeli behavior threatens to worsen relations with the United States, its main ally.
In the nearest future, the US reaction on the Israeli belligerent approach toward Iran will likely determine whether the relations between Tehran, Tel Aviv and Washington will get better or the escalation will continue.
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