Over the next 6-18 months, it is estimated that countries will invest over $20 trillion to recover from the fallout of COVID-19. The make-up of these financial decisions will define the shape of our societies and economies for decades to come, including our ability to respond to greater environmental challenges lying ahead.
To provide current and future leaders with the tools needed to advance green, structural change, the Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) has developed a new course on Green Industrial Policy: Promoting Competitiveness and Structural Transformation, The course can be taken online at the United Nations Institute for Training and Research’s CC:e-Learn platform.
In an interview, Mr. Nikhil Seth, the Executive Director of the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) discusses how education and learning can underpin a green economic recovery from COVID-19.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Managing Director Kristalina Georgieva, and many other leaders, have spoken to the need for a green economic recovery from COVID-19. Why do we need such a recovery?
Tackling the climate crisis—and socio-economic impacts of COVID-19—will require a holistic approach to recovery planning and policymaking. By adopting innovative and green economy policies, countries can pave the way for economic recovery and sustainable jobs based on new and environmentally sensitive business models. At the same time, they can accelerate the structural shift of resource- and carbon-intensive sectors onto greener trajectories, advancing the transition towards a greener and more resilient global economy. However, the success of these measures is contingent on countries also investing in learning. As Nicholas Stern, Joseph Stiglitz, and other renowned economists have recently observed, investment in education and training—to “address immediate unemployment from COVID-19 and structural shifts from decarbonisation”—is a key multiplier for economic recovery and climate action.
What barriers do countries face in implementing a green economic recovery from COVID-19, and how can education and training help to overcome these?
One major practical challenge to implementing a green recovery lies in ensuring that countries are equipped with the knowledge and skills to do so. While there is an established rulebook available to governments to drive conventional recovery, that is not the case for the type of recovery we need at this point in time. Building the capacities and skills base of policymakers and relevant stakeholders is therefore central to success, and here the Partnership for Action on Green Economy’s (PAGE) “Learning for a Green Recovery” initiative could not be more timely. UNITAR, in collaboration with other UN agencies, is set to launch a package of free-of-charge, e-Learning courses that address policy issues central to the green recovery debate, including green economy, fiscal reform, trade, green industrial policy, green indicators, and sustainable finance. All courses are now available on UNITAR’s flagship UN CC:e-Learn platform, which has attracted a growing number of users throughout the COVID-19 crisis—showing that e-courses represent an increasingly vital learning tool.
How can educational and learning tools also ensure that a green economic recovery from COVID-19 has the necessary public support?
Policymaking rarely relies on reason and scientific evidence alone. Implementing a green recovery—which will have so many far-reaching impacts—will not be possible without a groundswell of public support. We have a number of reasons to be optimistic in this regard. While the ‘Green New Deal’ did not initially take off following the 2008 financial crisis, it has now become a staple of policy discourse in Europe and other regions. At the same time, schoolchildren across the world have given a new voice—and added fresh impetus—to the climate debate. We may now be turning an important corner, and in a recent survey conducted by IPSOS among more than 28,000 adults worldwide, more than 65% agreed that as countries respond to COVID-19, it is “important that government actions prioritize climate change.” New educational and learning tools such as podcasts and microlearning—which reach a broader audience and can therefore nudge debate and advocacy beyond typical policy circles—can tap into this groundswell to catalyze increased public demand for green action.
As well as building public support for a green economic recovery today, how can these new learning and training approaches sustain the momentum towards a green recovery over time?
Implementing a green recovery and meeting global climate and development goals under the Paris Agreement on Climate Change and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, will not happen overnight. So, while e-courses, podcasts, and microlearning are important tools for advancing a green recovery today, we must also work to build the next generation of leaders and change agents needed to sustain green, structural change tomorrow. Methods to institutionalize in-country learning and training are therefore equally important, and PAGE’s new course on Green Industrial Policy provides a good example in this respect. As well as being the first PAGE course to feature a podcast series as part of its learning components, the course’s unique structure—with multimedia content tailored for integration into existing instructional activities—has been designed to support universities and training institutions in advancing learning on green industrial policy at a high technical level. This approach will become increasingly important if we are to equip our future leaders with the knowledge and practical skills needed to tackle the greater environmental challenges lying ahead.
EU greenhouse gas emissions fell in 2019 to the lowest level in three decades
The Commission today adopted its annual EU Climate Action Progress Report, covering the EU’s progress in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2019. Greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-27 decreased by 3.7 % year-on-year, while GDP grew by 1.5%. Emissions have now been reduced by 24% compared to 1990 levels.
Frans Timmermans, Executive Vice-President for the European Green Deal, said: “The European Union is proving it is possible to reduce emissions and grow your economy. However, today’s report again confirms we need to step up our efforts across all sectors of the economy to reach our common goal of climate neutrality by 2050. The transition is feasible if we stick to our commitment and seize the opportunities of the recovery to reboot our economy in a greener, more resilient way and create a healthy, sustainable future for all.”
Emissions covered by the Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) saw the greatest reduction in 2019, dropping by 9.1%, or about 152 million tonnes carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2eq), compared to 2018. This drop was driven mainly by the power sector, where emissions fell by almost 15%, primarily due to coal-fired electricity production being replaced by electricity production from renewables and gas. Emissions from industry decreased by close to 2%. Verified emissions from aviation, which currently only cover flights within the European Economic Area, continued to grow modestly, increasing by 1%, or about 0.7 Mt CO2eq, compared to 2018. Emissions that are not covered by the EU ETS, such as those from non-ETS industry, transport, buildings, agriculture and waste, saw no significant change compared to 2018 levels.
EU expenditure on climate action, financing of green technologies, deployment of new solutions and international cooperation increased in 2019, and will see a further increase in the context of Europe’s recovery from COVID-19.
EU ETS auction revenue is an increasingly important source of climate financing. The total revenue received by Member States, the UK and EEA countries from the auctions between 2012 (the start of auctioning under the EU ETS) and mid-2020 was over €57 billion, with more than half generated in 2018 and 2019 alone. In 2019, total auction revenue exceeded €14.1 billion. Of this total, 77% will be used for climate and energy purposes, 7 percentage points higher than the 70% share reported in 2018. In addition, a growing number of EU-funded climate projects are financed through the monetisation of emission allowances via the NER 300 programme, the Innovation Fund and the Modernisation Fund.
The Climate Action Progress Report “Kick-Starting the Journey Towards A Climate Neutral Europe” describes progress made by the EU and its Member States in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, as well as reporting on recent developments in EU climate policy. The report is produced by the Commission’s Directorate-General for Climate Action based on data submitted by Member States under the Climate Monitoring Mechanism Regulation (MMR, Regulation No 525/2013).
Crop Certification: Going green unlocks global markets for farmers
Over the last 30 years, more and more tea, coffee and cocoa farmers have embraced towards climate-smart and sustainable practices by adopting “certification standards” that help to maintain soil quality, increase productivity and reduce costs. The standards also assure buyers of agricultural commodities that the products in their supply chains are environmentally sustainable.
In July 2020, a milestone was reached when United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) partner, the Rainforest Alliance, published its new unified standard (certification programme) for production systems that conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services. The standard applies to over 5 million hectares of tropical farmland, impacting the livelihoods of over 2 million farming families.
“Certifications like Rainforest Alliance have played an important role in driving sustainable supply chains at both the production and consumption end,” says Christopher Stewart, Global Head of Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability, Olam International. “We have partnered with the Rainforest Alliance for many years and highly valued their sustainability expertise and implementation skills to help us advance our farmer programmes. A stamp-like Rainforest Alliance can motivate consumers to buy sustainably produced products and support farmers.”
The numbers prove that farmers also find benefit in getting certified. Data from 2019 indicates that more than 209,000 farmers participated in the Rainforest Alliance certification scheme in Côte d’Ivoire, Ecuador and Ghana, producing more than 200,000 tonnes of cocoa, enough to make 13 million 100g chocolate bars per day.
In the same year, companies bought enough Rainforest Alliance certified tea to produce 330 million cups of tea every day, with certified production involving 936,000 tea farmers and 734,000 workers. Top producing countries were India, Kenya and Sri Lanka. Data on 2020 will be published in March-April 2021.
In Ghana, where cocoa is the nation’s main export, bringing in over $3 billion in 2018, UNEP and the Rainforest Alliance joined forces with Olam to enable uptake of the Rainforest Alliance’s sustainable agriculture certification scheme in the Bia-Juabeso region.
Taking a landscape approach, which seeks to balance competing land use demands in a way that is best for human wellbeing and the environment, the project was one of the first initiatives in Ghana to conduct farm mapping and registration of trees on farmland, mobilizing 2,800 farmers in 34 agricultural communities to conserve the local environment and ecosystem services on which future cocoa productivity depends.
The approach has since been replicated across three different landscapes in Ghana, in collaboration with Olam, funded through the United Kingdom Government’s Partnership for Forests, and most recently a new partnership with the European Union.
UNEP and the Rainforest Alliance, with backing from the Global Environment Facility, have been supporting farmers from Ghana to Vietnam to take advantage of certification schemes – building rural prosperity, while also developing green supply chains and delivering healthy food and other agricultural products to local communities.
Greening the tea industry
In China, India, Sri Lanka and Vietnam the partnership worked with tea growers to reduce the use of agrochemicals for weed control, reducing costs to farmers and improving soil health.
The project taught smallholder tea farmers how to distinguish harmful weeds from harmless ones that can be left in the ground. This helps protect from erosion, improves soil organic content through mulching (a powerful source of plant nutrition as well as a carbon storage agent) and significantly improves soil moisture – all key for crop production. With fewer weeds to extract, farmers can remove harmful species manually, avoiding poisonous herbicides, and reducing the costs of maintaining a healthy crop.
The future of certification
Building on the successes of these initiatives, the Rainforest Alliance rolled out its enhanced Certification Programme in July 2020.
“After two years of far-reaching consultation with farmers, companies, non-government organizations, governments, and researchers – with input from more than a 1,000 people in nearly 50 countries – we have raised our ambitions,” says Rainforest Alliance’s Director for Landscapes and Communities, Edward Millard.
“This means strengthened requirements for farms and companies, better monitoring and assurance systems, advanced digital innovations and, at the heart of it all, a vision of sustainability as a shared journey of continuous improvement,” he says.
Farms will work towards increasing compliance with the standard while learning new techniques based on using the services that nature provides.
“The great thing about this new scheme is that it is much more doable for farmers than previous schemes. It’s also at the core of a new Global Environment Facility-funded sustainable agriculture landscapes project in India, expected to start in 2021,” says UNEP biodiversity and land management expert Max Zieren.
Oil and Gas Industry commits to new framework to monitor, report and reduce methane emissions
In a move that will help tackle one of the biggest and most solvable contributors to the climate crisis, major players in the oil and gas industry agreed today to report methane emissions with a new, much higher level of transparency.
“To win the Race to Net Zero Emissions, we need everyone on board. We need ambitious action from the Oil & Gas Industry. UNEP is committed to supporting efforts that reduce methane emissions, and we recognize the leadership of companies that have joined such an ambitious methane reporting framework,” said Inger Andersen, Executive Director of UNEP. “We look forward to seeing actions that turn commitments into actual emissions reduction”.
Methane released directly into the atmosphere is a highly potent greenhouse gas, with more than 80 times the warming power of carbon dioxide over a 20-year period. Actions to cut methane emissions can yield a near-term reduction in the rate of warming, complementing efforts to decarbonize the world’s energy and transport systems while also delivering air quality benefits.
Kadri Simson, EU Energy Commissioner, said “I am very happy to see the energy industry taking immediate action on methane emissions. A clear commitment to measure and monitor emissions is an important first step for significantly reducing them and I am proud of what we have achieved together. Today’s signature is the first deliverable under the Commission’s recent methane strategy.There are many more steps to take to cut emissions along the entire value chain and I hope to work closely with all – European and international – partners to reach this goal.”
The Oil and Gas Methane Partnership (OGMP) is a Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) initiative led by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), the European Commission (EC), and the Environmental Defense Fund (EDF). Already 62 companies with assets on five continents representing 30 per cent of the world’s oil and gas production have joined the partnership. The new OGMP2.0 framework is the new gold standard reporting framework that will improve the reporting accuracy and transparency of anthropogenic methane emissions in the oil and gas sector.
“Thanks to the 62 companies for committing to measure, report and reduce pollution from their core operations and joint ventures. This will be the basis for robust standards in Europe, and beyond, that ensure the oil industry takes the practical actions urgently needed for our climate,” said Fred Krupp, President of the Environmental Defense Fund.
Oil and Gas Methane Partnership 2.0
At the core of the effort is a comprehensive measurement-based methane-reporting framework that will make it easier for officials, investors and the public to accurately track and compare performance across companies in ways that have not been possible to this point.
“Reducing methane emissions is a crucial effort in the industry’s decarbonization pathway. As a factor on which we can have an immediate and concrete positive impact, OGMP 2.0 offers an internationally recognized blueprint to companies across our industry willing to make improvements in their emission reductions in all phases of the value chain. We look forward to continue working with all partners involved, as only through collaboration with international organizations, civil society and governments we can deliver on our common goals,” said Claudio Descalzi, Chief Executive Officer of ENI.
As stipulated in the EU methane strategy, the European Commission is planning to elaborate a legislative proposal on compulsory measurement, reporting, and verification for all energy-related methane emissions, building on the OGMP 2.0 framework
Crucially, the OGMP 2.0 includes not only a company’s own operations, but also the many joint ventures responsible for a substantial share of their production. The OGMP 2.0 framework applies to the full oil and gas value chain, not only upstream production, but also midstream transportation and downstream processing and refining – areas with substantial emissions potential that are often left out of reporting today.
The goal is to enable the oil and gas industry to realize deep reductions in methane emissions over the next decade in a way that is transparent to civil society and governments.
“Reducing methane emissions is critical for natural gas to play a role in the energy transition and this new partnership will foster the sharing of industry best practices, particularly on non-operated assets, and improve monitoring” said Patrick Pouyanné, Chairman & CEO of Total. “This is a new step in the fight against methane emissions and our industry is deeply committed to the success of this initiative.”
In order to support the realization of global climate targets, OGMP 2.0 aims to deliver a 45 per cent reduction in the industry’s methane emissions by 2025, and a 60-75 per cent reduction by 2030.
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), roughly three-quarters of methane emissions could be reduced with the technology that exists today, and close to half at zero net cost. Reducing methane emissions from the energy sector by 90% would shave two tenths of a degree Celsius from the forecasted rise in the planet’s average temperature by 2050.
Reducing fossil methane emissions by 75 per cent can prevent up to 6 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions annually – almost ten per cent of the planet’s 2019 greenhouse gas emissions, including land-use change.
New observatory in the works
UNEP and the European Commission are also finalizing plans to set up an independent International Methane Emissions Observatory (IMEO). IMEO will aggregate and analyse multiple methane emissions data streams, including data reported by OGMP member companies, to accelerate reductions in methane emissions globally. By assisting industry and governments globally in addressing uncertainty related to reported emissions, the Observatory will improve the consistency and credibility of methane emissions data and accelerate mitigation actions.
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