In early 2019, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, published an interesting study related to the effects of organic agriculture on the Earth’s climate. Stefan Wirsenius, Professor of environmental sciences who wrote the study concluded that organic food production has a worse impact on the climate as compared to conventional farming methods. Summary of the thesis published in Ekologisk news mat ärsämreförklimatet by chalmers. seon 8th January, 2019.
The approach is based on the argument that organic food requires a larger area of land, so it contributes more to deforestation. The data source was statistics on total production in Sweden — yields per hectare for organic versus conventional agriculture for 2013-2015.
Findings in Sweden showed that yields from organic foodper hectare were much lower – mainly because there was no fertilizer used. Thus, a much larger area of land was needed to produce organic food with the same amount of that produced by conventional method.
Until now, it is still a problem formulation for environmental experts and observers regarding what systems are suitable for developing sustainable global agriculture. It is due to the number of human populations continues to grow as a geometric progression, while the growth of food resources for consumption moves slowly following the arithmetical count.
Is it true that the organic farming system is no more sustainable than conventional farming system? Certainly it is not enough to conclude from one sample in an area. Even the different methods used in a system that want to be applied in the same area can show different results.
Simply put, the essence of organic farming emphasizes locality or the use of surrounding resources to grow plants – not dependent on industrial chemicals that help agricultural production. Then the problem is that there are certainly different and highly diverse local resources in each region.
There are areas with local resources that are sufficient to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides. However, there are also areas with very little local resources. It is not that simple, every local resource available must further be tested for its compatibility with local land. Whether or not organic farming is successful depends on it.
Several things needed are water resistance testing, comparison of soil texture, observation of the development of land ecosystems, and how toself-produce vegetable extracts from local resources for pest repellant.
December 2018 ago, in an activity covering the organic rice harvest in Sumpur Kudus Sub-District, Sijunjung Regency, West Sumatra, Indonesia, I found facts that were contrary to the Wirsenius Thesis that we discussed earlier. Through organic farming system, farmers in Sumpur Kudus could produce 7.7 tons of rice per hectare. Previously, through fertilization and spraying methods, farmers in Sumpur Kudus produced 4 tons of rice per hectare. Their production costs were reduced and organic rice could be sold at a higher value than the price of common rice.
These results were obtained after conducting a compatibility test between the local resources and local land. A group of organic rice farmers in Sumpur Kudus found that unburnt straw was the most powerful material in maintaining water sustainability for their rice fields. Meanwhile, the highest nutrient content was found in a mixture of rice mud with cow dung. To repel pests, they replaced pesticides with papaya leaf extract.
Rice is only one example of various types of plants that can be applied to organic farming system. But the point is whether local resources are sufficient and suitable to support the agriculture. We can get different yields in one hectare of land if we use different local materials to support agriculture.
Another experience was found by Verena Seufert and Navin Ramankutty, both of whom are geography professors from the University of British Columbia. They conducted a study on the application of organic agriculture in North America, Europe and India. In an article entitled “Organic Farming Matters, Just Not In The Way You Think”, the researchers found that organic farming was up to 35% more profitable than conventional farming. In a number of regions, organic agriculture provides more rural employment opportunities because organic management is more labor intensive than conventional practice. In terms of health, the biggest advantage is that organic system can reduce exposure to toxic agrochemicals.
How to reduce pollution in Delhi’s waterways
About 80 per cent of the water supplied to households in India’s capital, Delhi ends up as wastewater, some of which remains untreated, polluting the city’s waterways and threatening the health and wellbeing of its residents. This metropolitan area, with its population of approximately 30 million, currently has 35 operational sewage treatment plants.
In December last year, the Indian government announced its plans to treat over 95 per cent of Delhi’s wastewater by the end of 2022 – over four times the national average.
To support this initiative, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) launched the first-ever study of its kind to examine how Delhi, India’s largest city, recycles its wastewater and how it can be done more efficiently.
It assessed the various technologies sewage treatment plants use for nutrient recovery and recycling for safe and sustainable re-use of wastewater in Delhi. These include activated sludge process (ASP), extended aeration (EA), moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR), sequential batch reactor (SBR), or fluidized aerobic bed reactor (FAB) processes.
The UNEP study found that the MBBR system is the most suited to the situation in Delhi and should, where possible, be employed in new treatment plants.
MBBR is a modern system invented in Norway that uses a combination of biological rather than only chemical or mechanical processes to treat the water and remove pollutants. But this system is not without its challenges, say experts.
“The adoption of MBBR technology for large sewage treatment plants is challenging as maintenance costs are large,” said Sangeeta Bansal, a lead researcher on the project.
The study suggests that other systems, such as SBR, and ASP could also be used for larger sewage treatment plants.
In addition to mapping Delhi’s current nutrient recovery, recycling and reuse practices against available treatment options, the study has developed an ecosystems health card to measure the water quality and assess the revival of selected water bodies in the city.
Some forms of pollution cause an increase in minerals and nutrients in the water, a process known as eutrophication, which leads to increased plant life, including algae, but a decrease in the diversity of fish and bird life. Raw sewage and food waste are also rich in nutrients, notably reactive nitrogen compounds such as nitrates and ammonium compounds, which are converted into nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide.
Lake Najafgarh in Delhi is one example of a polluted waterway. Since 2011, the lake area has increased by eight per cent due to pollution. It feeds into the Yamuna River, which flows through the city and is one of the main tributaries of the Ganges River.
“Supporting water security by using treated wastewater for non-potable purposes like toilet flushing, car washing, construction, agriculture, and rejuvenating affected rivers and lakes, is vital for the city’s sustainable development,” said Riccardo Zennaro, a Programme Management Officer for wastewater at UNEP.
“It can also improve access to clean tap water,” he added. “Wastewater treatment supports the recycling and recovery of water and nutrients and is, therefore, critical for sustainable water and nutrient management, while preventing pollution. However, it needs significant improvement to meet Indian government environmental standards.”
A stakeholder engagement workshop is planned to inform local and national decision-makers and relevant authorities about the findings of the project and discuss the next steps in implementing the recommendations as well as possible follow-up actions.
Climate Change and its Effects on Europe
If one thinks Putin has become a headache, then the future of Europe under the forecast climate change regime is pneumonia.
According to this scenario, ice melt from Greenland and the Arctic will raise sea levels around Florida. Aside from greater and wider coastal flooding, this change will inhibit the regular Gulf Stream Drift that makes its way across the Atlantic warming northern Europe and ensuring the English climate is even milder. Part of it of course is due to Britain being an island and so enjoying the moderating effects of the sea — again more so because of the Gulf Stream.
This relatively even weather in England has undergone change. More frequent 90F and higher days in summer, once relatively rare, is one symptom — the UK just recorded its highest ever temperature of 104.54F. There have also been heavy rains and flooding notably in December 2020 when a wide belt across the south suffered catastrophic inundation of historic proportions.
Scientists and the UN confirm an increase in the frequency of natural disasters. This includes forest fires, hurricanes or typhoons, excessive rains and floods.
July 14 might be celebrated as Bastille Day and a national holiday in France but in neighboring Belgium it now commemorates the devastating floods in 2021. Heavy rains and the Meuse river overflowing its banks turned streets into canals in the eastern city of Liege. The floods extended to the Netherlands and western Germany, caused by a low pressure system that stalled for two days over the region. Rain falling on soil already soaked by spring rains and overflowing rivers (the Meuse in Belgium and Netherlands, the Rhine and the Ruhr in Germany) devastated the area. At least 243 people lost their lives and property damage was estimated at $12 billion.
If last year was one of floods, this year it’s drought and dry heat and forest fires — temperatures hitting 117 F in Portugal and an estimated 75,000 acres lost to forest fires; also dry as tinder Italy where the river Po, the country’s longest river, has been reduced to a trickle.
England has been subject to a similar pattern, suffering some of the worst flooding in its history last year and now reeling from forest fires. “I’ve fought wildfires for decades. None of it prepared me for the infernos this week,” screams a Guardian (July 22, 2022) headline quoting a firefighter. London fire fighters have just had the busiest day since the Second World War.
When will governments understand that the earth is changing, that natural disasters piling one on top of the other, and that forest fires in Europe, in Australia, in the US and elsewhere plus floods and typhoons etc., are not coincidences?
One hopes it is soon, and we humans learn to moderate damaging behaviors.
The Greater Frequency of Natural Disasters and our Response
While no one can ascribe specific natural catastrophic events to global warming, their frequency appears to have increased. So it is that forest fire seasons have lengthened, and more fires occur more often and of greater intensity.
The current disaster in the news is in the Iberian peninsula and across to southwest France. Almost uncontrollable wildfires have devastated thousands of acres, and one observer pilot flying too close has been killed reports the BBC. The fires in La Teste-de-Buch and south of Bordeaux have destroyed 25,000 acres.
In Portugal, 75,000 acres have been devastated by fires this year. One cause is the dry heat and soaring temperatures, drying out the countryside. They have hit 47C (117F) in Portugal and above 40C (104F) in Spain. Residents have been evacuated from the danger areas and a pet rescue operation is ongoing.
Planes are dropping fire retardant chemicals, and helicopters collect sea water from the coast then return to douse the flames. The high temperatures, the drought and their consequences have not spared neighboring countries.
In Italy, the country’s longest river, the Po, has diminished to a trickle in places and the tinder-dried countryside in its valley is under a state of emergency.
Along other parts of the Mediterranean, the conditions are similar. In Greece, there are fires southeast of Athens about 30 miles away in Feriza; also on the northern coast in the island of Crete where seven villages near Rethymno have been evacuated.
The opposite side of the Mediterranean has not been spared. Fires swept through several provinces in Morocco and one village in the Ksar el-Kebir area was destroyed.
According to James Lovelock’s Gaia hypothesis, the earth should respond naturally to ameliorate global warming. Unfortunately, human interventions like cutting down forests have damaged its ability to do so. Is runaway global warming then our future?
The answer has to lie with the same humans, being the only species with the knowledge and faculty to respond to the challenges. The means are available, from CO2 capture to altering our own behavior.
Work on additives (like oil and fats) for cow feed have helped reduce emissions by 18 percent in Australia where almost 70 percent of greenhouse gas emissions come from ruminants. Even more promising has been the addition of seaweed which when mixed in small quantities (3 percent) to the diet have reduced their emissions by 80 percent.
In the meantime, we have to change our ways: Growing our own vegetables — delicious and easy as they grow themselves with minimum care … and have you tried ripe tomatoes fresh from a vine? Even easier to buy now as plants are sold at food supermarkets.
Eating less meat, walking or cycling instead of driving for short trips and so on. It is easy and just a matter of habit. In the end, it is up to us as to the kind of earth we want to leave behind for our children and grandchildren.
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