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EU invests over €2 billion in 140 key transport projects to jump-start the economy

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The EU is supporting the economic recovery in all Member States by injecting almost €2.2 billion into 140 key transport projects. These projects will help build missing transport links across the continent, support sustainable transport and create jobs. The projects will receive funding through the Connecting Europe Facility (CEF), the EU’s grant scheme supporting transport infrastructure.

With this budget, the EU will deliver on its climate objectives set out in the European Green Deal. A very strong emphasis is on projects reinforcing railways, including cross-border links and connections to ports and airports. Inland waterway transport is boosted through more capacity and better multimodal connections to the road and rail networks. In the maritime sector, priority is given to short-sea-shipping projects based on alternative fuels and the installation of on-shore power supply for ports to cut emissions from docked ships.

Commissioner for Transport Adina Vălean said: “The €2.2 billion EU contribution to this crucial transport infrastructure will help kick-start the recovery, and we expect it to generate €5 billion in investments. The type of projects we invest in ranges from inland waterways transport to multimodal connections, alternative fuels to massive railroad infrastructure. The Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) is one of our key instruments in creating a crisis-proof and resilient transport system – vital now and in the long run.”

The EU will support rail infrastructure projects located on the trans-European transport (TEN-T) core network with a total of €1.6 billion (55 projects). This includes the Rail Baltica project, which integrates the Baltic States in the European rail network, as well as the cross-border section of the railway line between Dresden (Germany) and Prague (Czechia).

It will also support the shift to greener fuels for transport (19 projects) with almost €142 million. A number of projects involve converting vessels so they may run on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), as well as installing corresponding infrastructure in ports.

Road transport will also see the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, namely through the installation of 17,275 charging points on the road network and the deployment of 355 new buses.

Nine projects will contribute to an interoperable railway system in the EU and the seamless operation of trains across the continent through the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS), Upgrading locomotives and railway track to the unified European train control system will boost safety, decrease travel times and optimise track usage. The nine projects will receive over €49.8 million.

Background

The projects were selected for funding via two competitive calls for proposals launched in October 2019 (regular CEF Transport call) and November 2019 (CEF Transport Blending Facility call). The EU’s financial contribution comes in the form of grants, with different co-financing rates depending on the project type. For 10 projects selected under the Blending Facility, EU support is to be combined with additional financing from banks (via a loan, debt, equity or any other repayable form of support).

Overall, under the CEF programme, €23.2 billion is available for grants from the EU’s 2014-2020 budget to co-fund Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T) projects in the EU Member States. Since 2014, the first CEF programming year, six calls for project proposals have been launched (one per year). In total, CEF has so far supported 794 projects in the transport sector, worth a total of €21.1 billion.

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Commission sets new plan to support green and digital transition and EU recovery

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Today, the European Commission adopted a Communication on a new European Research Area for Research and Innovation. Based on excellence, competitive, open and talent-driven, the new European Research Area will improve Europe’s research and innovation landscape, accelerate the EU’s transition towards climate neutrality and digital leadership,  support its recovery from the societal and economic impact of the coronavirus crisis, and strengthen its resilience against future crises.

The Commission set out strategic objectives and actions to be implemented in close cooperation with the Member States, in order to prioritise investments and reforms in research and innovation, improve access to excellence for researchers across the EU and enable research results to reach the market and the real economy. Additionally, the Communication will further promote researchers’ mobility, skills and career development opportunities within the EU, gender equality, as well as better access to publicly funded peer-reviewed science.

Executive Vice-President for A Europe Fit for the Digital Age, Margrethe Vestager, said: “The EU is already leading innovation through its research and scientific excellence. We want to build on that and step up our efforts towards achieving breakthrough market-driven innovations that will contribute to a green digital Europe and will boost growth, job creation and our competiveness in the global scene. Today we are setting a new ambition for a European Research Area to facilitate cooperation and contribute to a more competitive European industry.

Mariya Gabriel, Commissioner for Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth, said: “We live in times when scientific activities require faster and effective collaborations. We need to strengthen the European Research Area. An area embracing all of Europe, because knowledge has no territorial boundaries, because scientific knowledge grows with collaborations, because knowledge is trusted if there is open scrutiny of its quality. It has also more chances to achieve peaks of excellence and support an innovative and risk taking industry to shape a resilient, green and digital future.”

Launched in 2000, the European Research Area has made major achievements over the past years – yet, today’s context prompts us to rethink how to strengthen its role, better define and implement its key objectives, as well as make it more attractive as a common space for creating valuable research and innovation. Moreover, Europe is currently facing significant societal, ecological and economic challenges that are aggravated by the coronavirus crisis. Research and innovation is therefore crucial in addressing these challenges, delivering on Europe’s recovery and speeding up the twin green and digital transitions.

Objectives of the new European Research Area

Building on Europe’s innovation leadership and scientific excellence, the new European Research Area aims to incentivise better coordination and cooperation among the EU, its Member States and the private sector; lead to more investments in research and innovation; strengthen mobility of researchers, their expertise, and the flow of knowledge;

The Communication defines four strategic objectives:

  1. Prioritise investments and reforms in research and innovation towards the green and digital transition, to support Europe’s recovery and increase competitiveness.

EU support towards research and innovation is foreseen through various programmes, such as the Horizon Europe, the Cohesion policy, and the Next Generation EU. To bring about the required positive change and ensure quality of results, EU support must be complemented by investments from Member States and the private sector. The Communication reaffirms the target of 3% of GDP to be invested on EU research and innovation and prompts further cooperation among Member states, and alignment of national efforts, by setting a target of 5% of national public funding to joint research and development programmes and European partnerships, by 2030.  

The principle of excellence, which entails that the best researchers with the best ideas can obtain funding, remains the cornerstone for all investments under the European Research area.

  1. Improve access to excellent facilities and infrastructures for researchers across the EU.

Member States’ research and innovation investment remains uneven, which translates into gaps in scientific excellence and innovation output that need to be bridged. The EU already supports lagging countries, including with tailor-made support on the ground, and Horizon Europe will further ensure so, through enhanced collaborations with more experienced counterparts, in order to improve access to excellence. The Commission proposes that Member States, lagging behind the EU average research and innovation investment over GDP, direct their efforts to increase their investments by 50% in the next 5 years.

To this end, mobility opportunities for researchers to access excellence and expand their experience will be created through dedicated training and mobility schemes between industry and academia. In order to reflect the progress towards research based on excellence, Member States lagging behind the EU average on highly cited publications should reduce the gap to the EU average by at least one third in the next 5 years.

  1. Transfer results to the economy to boost business investments and market uptake of research output, as well as foster EU competitiveness and leadership in the global technological setting.

In view of speeding up the transfer of research results into the real economy and supporting the implementation of the new Industrial Strategy, the Commission will encourage and guide the development of common technology plans with industry that will allow crowding in more private investments in key international projects. This will foster the development of competitive technologies in key strategic areas, while securing a stronger European presence in the global scene.

In parallel, following a detailed monitoring exercise, the Commission will explore the possibility of developing a networking framework that will build on existing entities and capacities, such as centres of excellence or Digital Innovation Hubs, to facilitate collaboration and exchange of best practices by 2022. Still in this two-year framework, the Commission will update and develop guiding principles, which will ensure that innovation can be valorised and rewarded, as well as a code of practice for the smart use of intellectual property, to ensure access to effective and affordable intellectual property protection.

  1. Strengthen mobility of researchers and free flow of knowledge and technology, through greater cooperation among Member States, to ensure that everyone benefits from research and its results.

The EU will aim to improve career development opportunities to attract and retain the best researchers in Europe as well as incentivise researchers to pursue a career outside academia. To this end, it will also deliver, by the end of 2024, in partnership with Member States and research organisations, a toolbox of support for researchers’ careers. The toolbox will consist of the following elements: a Researchers Competence Framework to identify key skills and mismatches; a mobility scheme to support exchange and mobility of researchers across industry and academia; targeted training and professional development opportunities under Horizon Europe; and, a one-stop shop portal for people to more easily find information and manage their learning and careers.

The EU will work towards accomplishing the above strategic objectives, in close cooperation with the Member States, through 14 actions that are linked to each other and will be instrumental in realising the European Research Area. Furthermore, the Commission will drive a European Forum for Transition, a strategic discussion forum with Member States that will support them in the coherent implementation of these four objectives. The Commission will also propose, by the first half of 2021, that Member States adopt a Pact for Research and Innovation in Europe, which will reinforce their commitment to shared policies and principles and indicate the areas where they will jointly develop priority actions.

As part of its initiatives to support the recovery and build a green and digital Europe, the Commission, in addition to the new European Research Area, adopted today a new Digital Education Action Plan, to adapt education and training systems to the digital age, as well as a Communication on the European Education Area as a driver for job creation and growth.

Background

The European Research Area was launched in 2000 with the aim of better organising and integrating Europe’s research and innovation systems and enhancing cooperation between the EU, the Member States, their regions and their stakeholders. It also aimed for the free circulation of researchers, scientific knowledge and technology throughout the EU and focused on stimulating cross-border cooperation and on improving and coordinating the research and innovation policies and programmes of the Member States. 

In 2018, the Council of the European Union made a call to revamp the European Research Area in 2020 with a new Commission Communication. In December 2019, Member States advised on the future of the European Research Area through an opinion of the European Research and Innovation Committee.

As part of the EU response to the coronavirus pandemic, the Commission introduced the ERAvsCorona Action Plan in April of this year. Building on the overall objectives and the tools of the European Research Area, the action plan is a working document developed jointly by the Commission and national governments. It covers short-term actions based on close coordination, cooperation, data sharing and shared funding efforts.

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Coronavirus and the EU Vaccines Strategy

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On 17 June, the European Commission presented a European strategy to accelerate the development, manufacturing and deployment of vaccines against COVID-19. The EU Vaccines Strategy intends to ensure the production in Europe of qualitative, safe and efficacious vaccines, and to secure swift access to them for Member States and their populations. Moreover, the Strategy  reflects the global solidarity effort and ensures equitable access to an affordable vaccine as early as possible.

Joint action  at  EU  level  is  the  surest,  quickest  and  most  efficient  way  of achieving  these objectives. No Member State on its own has the capacity to secure the investment in developing and producing a sufficient number of vaccines. It is only through swift and unified action by the EU and its Member States that sufficient and speedy supplies of a safe and effective vaccine can be ensured. A common strategy allows better hedging of bets, sharing of risks and pooling investments to achieve economies of scale, scope and speed.

The Commission has signed two first contracts to allow the purchase of a vaccine, once proven safe and efficient, with AstraZeneca and Sanofi-GSK. Successful exploratory talks were concluded with Johnson & Johnson on 13 August, CureVac on 18 August, Moderna on 24 August and BioNTech on 9 September.*

NEGOTIATION PROCESS

Are all Member States represented in the Steering Committee and in the Negotiation Team?

All Member States have endorsed the approach set out by the Vaccines Strategy and signed up to an agreement for its implementation. As a result, all Member States are represented at the Steering Committee which discusses and reviews all  aspects of  the  Advanced Purchase Agreement (APA) contracts before signature. The Committee appoints the members of the Joint Negotiation Team, which negotiates the APAs with the vaccines developers and reports to the Committee.  All participants in these instances have been appointed by their Governments and have signed declarations of absence of conflict of interest and confidentiality.

What is the difference between concluding an Advanced Purchase Agreement (APA) and signing a contract with a pharmaceutical company?

Before an Advanced Purchase Agreement (APA) is negotiated, the Negotiation Team holds exploratory talks with the company to find out whether proceeding into detailed contractual negotiations is reasonable. If this is the case and a common understanding is reached on a terms sheet, a tender invitation is sent to the company, which then has to propose an offer.

An APA is concluded when both sides have finalised the contractual work. This is discussed and agreed with the Steering Committee. The conclusion of an APA requires the approval of the Commission.

If the APA provides for an obligation for the Member States to purchase vaccine doses (even if there might also be additional optional doses in the APA), Member States have 5 working days to notify if they wish to opt-out. The contract is only signed if at least four Member States are ready to be bound by it.

If the APA provides only for an option for Member States to purchase vaccine doses at a later date, the Commission can approve and sign the APA directly with the company concerned. Member States can decide later whether to exercise the option. It are the Member States that are responsible for purchasing the vaccines when they become available.

Will the Commission publish the contracts signed with pharmaceutical companies?

The focus for the Commission is the protection of public health and securing the best possible agreements with companies so that vaccines are affordable, safe and efficacious. Contracts are protected for confidentiality reasons, which is warranted by the highly competitive nature of this global market. This is in order to protect sensitive negotiations as well as business related information, such as financial information and development and production plans.

Disclosing sensitive business information would also undermine the tendering process and have potentially far-reaching consequences for the ability of the Commission to carry out its tasks as set out in the legal instruments that form the basis of the negotiations. All companies require that such sensitive business information remains confidential between the signatories of the contract. The Commission therefore has to respect the contracts it concludes with the companies.

Finally, the Commission is accountable towards the other European institutions and the European citizen. The Commission is acting in full compliance with all applicable rules regarding financial management, which can be subject to audit at a later stage.

LIABILITY & INDEMNIFICATION

Has the Commission made concessions on liability to the industry, in particular on indemnification for certain liabilities?

The Commission ensures that any agreement made to secure vaccines through the Vaccines Strategy will be fully compliant with EU law. The contracts the Commission is negotiating fully respect and protect citizens’ rights, in line with the Product Liability Directive. 

In line with EU product liability rules, liability remains with the company. However, in order to compensate for potential risks taken by manufacturers due to the unusually shorter timespan for vaccines development, the APAs provide for Member States to indemnify the manufacturer for possible liabilities incurred only under specific conditions set out in the APAs.

The Commission has made clear throughout the implementation of the Vaccines strategy that it is not prepared to make compromises on the application of the existing rules that apply to bringing a pharmaceutical product into the market. These principles are equally valid for any indemnification clause the Commission negotiates.

Thus, the provisions on liability and indemnification do not alter in any way the regulatory burden of proof borne by the companies to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of their products. Any vaccine put on the market will have to meet the necessary safety requirements and undergo the independent scientific assessment by the European Medicines Agency as part of the EU market authorisation procedure.

The EU and Member States will continue taking all necessary measures to protect citizens, ensuring that:

  • a strict, independent scientific assessment (looking at quality, safety and efficacy) must be carried out before a vaccine is approved;
  • citizens’ rights remain fully protected;
  • Member States are ready to financially cover certain of the companies risks to ensure that vaccines are actually available for EU citizens to protect public health.

AUTHORISATION PROCESS

How can a COVID-19 vaccine be developed and authorised within a 12-18 months timeframe when the normal process takes around 10 years? What are the roles of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission in this context and how can the process of marketing authorisation be speeded up in emergency situations?

We are currently in the middle of the most severe public health crisis in modern times. Finding a safe and effective vaccine will be a key element of the exit strategy from the pandemic. Europe and the world need to act swiftly and teams around the world are working with the ambition of delivering a successful vaccine within a timeframe  of  12 -18  months. Delivering a successful vaccine within a compressed timeframe does however not mean compromising on safety, on the contrary, the safety and effectiveness of vaccines is non-negotiable and a fundamental requirement for any vaccine to reach the EU and other markets.

It is indeed true that vaccine development can take time and this is why we created our Vaccines Strategy to come together and work on all fronts, around the clock, with all Member States, global partners, researchers and scientists to develop a safe and efficacious vaccine in a short time frame. The often-quoted 10 year timeframe refers to the time from concept to authorisation, including gathering the necessary evidence through clinical trials. Reducing this timeline to 12-18 months means both accelerating development and manufacturing timelines as well as the marketing authorisation.

The regulatory processes will be flexible but will remain as rigorous as always. Together with the Member States and the European Medicines Agency, the Commission will use existing flexibilities in the EU’s regulatory framework to accelerate the authorisation and availability of successful vaccines against COVID-19, while maintaining the standards for vaccine quality, safety and efficacy.

Market authorisation process

The vaccine producers will decide if and when to submit an application for a marketing authorisation for a vaccine. The role of the EMA in this context is to carry out an independent scientific assessment of the application and submit its scientific opinion to the European Commission which is responsible for issuing a marketing authorisation that is valid for the entire EU. The marketing authorisation will only be granted if the benefit-risk balance is positive following an assessment of the quality, safety and efficacy of the product.

Variations to usual development plans are possible in the emergency context and developers can reduce timelines, for example, by conducting some studies in parallel, instead of carrying them out sequentially, and by using a variety of trial designs and endpoints to determine efficacy. Developers are advised to discuss development plans with regulators to clarify requirements for marketing approval.

Clinical trials for COVID-19 vaccines are being carried out more quickly than usual because the effort being put into their organisation and conduct has been significantly increased by the sponsors, researchers and regulators. The widespread nature of the pandemic means that large numbers of trial participants can be recruited in a relatively short time, without compromising the quality of the trials themselves.

The EU regulatory system is dedicating significant resources to supporting the rapid development and authorisation of safe, effective and high-quality COVID-19 vaccines. EMA’s pandemic Task Force (COVID-ETF), which brings together in one group the best scientific experts from the EU regulatory network, will work closely with EMA’s human medicines committee (CHMP) for optimal and fast coordination of activities related to the development, authorisation and safety monitoring of vaccines against COVID-19.

Can a vaccine be approved before completion of phase 3 of clinical trials?

A core objective of the Commission and the European Medicines Agency, through the EU Vaccines Strategy, is to ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of vaccines. As such, any vaccine can only be granted a marketing authorisation in the EU after a thorough evaluation. To recommend the authorisation of a vaccine, EMA needs to have sufficient information on its safety, efficacy and pharmaceutical quality. Marketing authorisation is only granted when the evidence shows that the benefits of the vaccine outweigh any risks.

In principle, large-scale Phase 3 efficacy trials involving thousands of participants are required to support the marketing authorisation of a COVID-19 vaccine. These trials should be designed to measure the vaccine’s efficacy in protecting against COVID-19 (efficacy endpoints) and its safety. This is because there are no known indicators (such as the levels of antibodies in the blood) that can predict protection and could be used instead of efficacy endpoints. In addition, we are currently in a situation where the virus is circulating, which makes it feasible to establish the efficacy of a vaccine in large-scale clinical trials.

The protocols of such clinical trials, including any plans for interim analyses, are subject to regulatory approval.

What does the scientific assessment by the European Medicines Agency consist of? What is the process of approval?

To obtain a marketing approval for a vaccine in the EU, a vaccine developer needs to submit the results of all testing/investigations to the medicines regulatory authorities in Europe as part of a ‘marketing authorisation’ application.

Applications for marketing authorisation submitted to EMA undergo a comprehensive, independent scientific assessment carried out by EMA’s expert scientific committees on human medicines and on safety (the “CHMP” and “PRAC”), made up of experts working in national medicines’ regulatory agencies. As for all medicines, EU legislation requires that the initial evaluations are carried out separately by two different assessment teams (led by a so-called Rapporteur and Co-Rapporteur) and reviewed by the Committee as a whole.

For COVID-19, EMA has put in place rapid review procedures to deliver assessments of applications quickly while ensuring robust scientific opinions. Key to this shortening of timescales are ‘rolling reviews’. In a public health emergency, EMA assesses data for promising medicines or vaccines as they become available. Through these rolling reviews, EMA can therefore start evaluating data while the development is still ongoing. When the medicine’s development is progressed enough for a marketing authorisation application, the formal assessment procedure can take place in a shorter than usual timeframe, because the data have already been scrutinised during the rolling review.

The CHMP, once it has concluded its scientific evaluation of the data and after assessing the quality, safety and efficacy of the medicinal product in question, makes a recommendation on whether the medicine should be given a marketing authorisation in the EU.

However, if comprehensive data would not be available at the time of the marketing authorisation application, the EU regulatory system is designed to potentially accommodate this situation by providing for a conditional authorisation system. This means that the initial (“conditional”) authorisation granted by the Commission is based on less comprehensive data than would normally be the case (nonetheless with a positive benefit-risk balance), and with obligations on the marketing authorisation holders for the data to be completed afterwards and to be submitted for assessment. Conditional marketing authorisations are closely monitored and are subject to annual review.

The European Commission takes a decision on whether or not to issue the marketing authorisation on the basis of the recommendation from the EMA. The decision-making timeframe will also be reduced by shortening the period for consulting Member States, and allowing translation of the documents into the full set of languages after the authorisation, rather than before.

What safety requirements need to be met?

In order to authorise any medicinal product, EMA needs to have and assess robust information on its safety, efficacy and pharmaceutical quality, with safety being of the utmost importance. The safety requirements for COVID-19 vaccines remain as high as for any other vaccine in the EU, the context of a pandemic will not change this. 

Before a vaccine is approved for use, the main body of evidence for its safety and efficacy comes from the results of clinical trials, where participants are selected carefully and followed up under controlled conditions.

In addition, after authorisation, EU law requires that the safety of the vaccine – as is the requirement all medicinal products – will be monitored while in use. In addition to safety, the vaccine’s effectiveness should also be monitored. As part of such monitoring, studies are carried out after marketing. Some of these studies may be imposed on companies as part of the conditions for maintaining their marketing authorisation; other studies will be conducted by public authorities responsible for vaccination programmes.

The EU has a comprehensive safety monitoring (pharmacovigilance) system that allows measures to be put in place to minimise risk, to ensure reporting of suspected side effects, to detect any potential adverse effects, and introduce any necessary mitigating actions early.

Specifically for COVID-19 vaccines, EMA in close collaboration with the Commission, Member States, European and international partners, is establishing  enhanced safety monitoring activities. These activities are aimed at making sure that any new information collected post-marketing will be identified and evaluated as quickly as possible, and appropriate regulatory actions are taken in a timely manner to protect patients and safeguard public health. These activities include the collection of exposure data, enhanced safety signal detection and management, enhanced transparency and setting a European infrastructure for vaccines monitoring, including multicentre observational studies on COVID-19 patients. Prompt and clear communication of the outcomes of these evaluations will be ensured.

ONCE A VACCINE IS AVAILABLE

What actually happens when the vaccine is available?

A vaccine will only become available after meeting the established safety requirements, having first undergone the robust scientific assessment by the European Medicines Agency and completed the EU market authorisation procedure.

The Member States will then be able to benefit from those doses by purchasing them, according to the APA concluded.

Where will the doses be stored?

Each Member State will decide on the best way to store the vaccines. The technical storage conditions are defined by each manufacturer based on specific requirements of each type of vaccine so as to ensure they quality.

Who will receive  the first doses?

All Member States will have equal access to the available doses. The Member States will then decide whom they will offer the vaccines to among their population.

COVID-19 VACCINE GLOBAL ACCESS FACILITY (COVAX)

What is the Commissions involvement with COVAX?

The COVAX Facility, co-led by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and WHO, aims to accelerate the development and manufacture of COVID-19 vaccines and to guarantee fair and equitable access for every country in the world.

Supporting equal and global access to a safe and efficient vaccine for everyone in the world is a priority for the Commission. No region of the world is safe until we are all safe. That is why, on 31 August, the Commission’s expressed its interest to participate in COVAX. The 31 August announcement included a support of €400 million in guarantees for the COVAX Facility. The vaccines purchased in this context are for Low and Medium Income Countries.

The Commission and Member States joining the COVAX Facility reaffirm that they are supporting COVAX’s objectives and interest as a group, in order to make the EU Vaccines Strategy and the COVAX Facility complementary and thus mutually reinforcing.

The Commission and Member States are currently pursuing a joint approach for their participation in COVAX, and the 31 August expression of interest is part of this process. Talks are ongoing with Gavi and CEPI to reach an agreement in September on terms and conditions for the EU’s participation in the COVAX Facility. .

Will the Commission procure vaccines through the COVAX facility?

The Commission is only purchasing vaccines on behalf of EU Member States via the mechanism set up in the EU Vaccines Strategy and finances it through the Emergency Support Instrument (ESI). The Commission’s participation in COVAX supports a global effort to produce and distribute vaccines to all in need, in particular for low and middle income countries. The detailed terms and conditions for the EU’s and Member States’ participation and contribution is under discussion and will be worked out in the coming days and weeks.

Can Member States buy vaccines through COVAX?  

Member States have committed, as part of the EU Vaccines Strategy, not to enter into parallel negotiations with the same vaccine manufacturers with which talks are on-going at EU level.  This does not exclude the possibility to take part in negotiations with other vaccine companies through COVAX.

What will the guarantees be used for and why not give cash?          

The Commission is providing financial guarantees backing COVAX negotiations on advanced purchase agreements of vaccines. These guarantees will enable COVAX to lower the risk and conclude advanced purchase agreements with a larger portfolio of vaccine producers.

Contracts under negotiation by COVAX require a strong financial backing which the EU guarantees will provide.

How does the Commission ensure complementarity between the EU Vaccines Strategy and COVAX?

The EU Vaccines Strategy goes hand in hand with the EU’s commitment to global solidarity. This applies at different levels: support to companies in their capacity expansion, advancing research and support development for the benefit of the world population. Investing upfront in the accelerated development and manufacturing of vaccines to the benefit of the rest of the world. By providing financial resources to the international institutions, such as WHO, CEPI, GAVI, the EU is also supporting access to vaccines for the whole world.

Manufacturers with whom the EU negotiates are also committed to supply future doses to other countries in the world, there is no exclusivity for delivery to Europe only and no export restriction.

What Europe is doing is making important and risky investments so that together with the regulatory authorisation procedures that we have in place, we accelerate the development of safe and efficacious vaccines, which will also be to the benefit of the rest of the world.

What we do in Europe is complementary and mutually reinforcing with our action for global solidarity. That is also why the Commission and the EU Member States have decided to join the COVAX facility.

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Explainer: Capital Markets Union Action Plan

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What is the Capital Markets Union (CMU) and why is it important?

The CMU is the EU’s plan to create a truly single market for capital across the EU. It aims to get investment and savings flowing to the companies and projects that need them across all Member States, benefitting citizens, investors and companies, regardless of where they are located. The CMU provides new sources of funding for businesses, helps increase options for savers and makes the economy more resilient.

Fully functioning and integrated capital markets will allow the EU’s economy to grow in a sustainable way and to be more competitive. An economically stronger Europe will better serve its citizens and help the EU play a stronger role on the global stage.

The CMU is essential for delivering on all of the EU’s key economic policy objectives: ensuring Europe’s recovery from the coronavirus crisis, an inclusive and resilient economy that works for all, the transition towards a digital and sustainable economy, and a strategically autonomous EU in an increasingly complex global economic context. Meeting these objectives requires massive investment that public money and traditional funding through bank lending alone cannot deliver. Only well-functioning, deep and integrated capital markets can provide the scale of support needed to recover from the crisis and power the transition. The CMU is not a goal in itself, but a fundamental policy to progress on key European priorities.

Completing the CMU requires support from the European Parliament and Member States at the highest level and from technical experts in public administration. It also requires that market participants make good use of the measures. The EU can offer tools and put in place supporting conditions, but it is for national authorities to implement them on the ground, and for private actors to take the initiative, seize business opportunities and innovate.

Work on the CMU was launched well before the coronavirus crisis. But the pandemic has injected real urgency into the CMU. Public support and bank loans have helped households and businesses stay afloat by addressing the short-term liquidity squeeze caused by lock-downs. In order to stay solvent in the medium and longer term, however, businesses need a more stable funding structure. The EU’s industry, including small and medium-sized businesses, needs more equity to recover from the economic shock and become more resilient.

What has been done so far?

Efforts to put in place a single market for capital started with the Treaty of Rome more than fifty years ago. The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 and the Financial Service Action Plan of 1999 sought to deliver on that vision, revealing however that the complexity and importance of European capital markets merited a further dedicated and targeted set of measures. The Commission therefore adopted the first dedicated CMU Action Plan in 2015. Responding to evolving challenges and priorities, this was further complemented with new actions in the CMU Mid-Term Review of 2017.

The Commission has delivered on all the individual actions announced in the 2015 CMU Action Plan and the 2017 Mid-term Review. The European Parliament and the Member States have agreed on 12 out of the 13 legislative proposals on the key CMU building blocks and on all three proposals on sustainable finance. While the EU has made significant progress, creating and deepening the CMU is complex and no single measure will complete it. Progress on some controversial issues has been slow and there are still significant barriers to a well-functioning CMU. There are difficulties in many areas, including supervision, taxation and insolvency laws. These barriers exist for a number of reasons, including the specific financial culture in any given Member States. These differences are deep-rooted, and will take time to tackle. The transition towards a Capital Markets Union remains a long-term EU-wide structural reform that requires time, effort, resources and – above all – unwavering political commitment. 

What are the benefits of a Capital Markets Union (CMU)?

The CMU will complement Europe’s strong tradition of bank financing and will help to:

Make funding more accessible for European companies: the CMU will mobilise capital in Europe and channel it to all companies, including SMEs, and infrastructure projects that need it to expand and create jobs.

Bring funding more effectively to investment projects across the EU: the CMU is a classic single market project that benefits all Member States. Those Member States with the smallest markets and high growth potential have a lot to gain from a better channelling of capital and investment into their projects. More developed market economies will benefit from greater cross-border investment and saving opportunities.

Give opportunities to individuals to save and invest long-term. The CMU is important to create a more inclusive and resilient society. It can also help address societal challenges such as the one posed by Europe’s ageing population by contributing to an adequate and sustainable income at old age.

Make the financial system more stable: by opening up a wider range of funding sources and more long-term investment, and reducing the vulnerability of EU citizens and companies to banking shocks, such as those they were exposed to during the financial crisis.

Deepen financial integration and increase competition: more cross-border risk-sharing, deeper and more-liquid markets and diversified sources of funding should deepen financial integration, lower costs and increase European competitiveness, therefore benefitting European consumers.

What does the new CMU Action Plan seek to achieve?

While significant progress has been made in the previous CMU Action Plan, some of the critical barriers to a single market remain. Therefore, it is time for complementary measures to be put forward, allowing the EU to also tackle the new challenges that the EU faces today with the coronavirus pandemic.

In today’s Action Plan, the Commission has set out a list of measures to make real progress on completing the Capital Markets Union. These measures build on detailed discussions with stakeholders as well as the recommendations of the High Level Forum on Capital Markets Union, which brought together high-calibre industry representatives, academics and representatives of civil societies. They also take into account and build on the Capital Markets Recovery Package announced by the Commission on 24 July and the Banking Package of 28 April, which both aim to facilitate bank lending to households and businesses and make it easier for capital markets to support European businesses to recover from the crisis.

The Commission has committed to 16 new measures to achieve three key objectives:

  • Ensuring that the EU’s economic recovery is green, digital, inclusive and resilient by making financing more accessible for European companies, in particular SMEs;
  • Making the EU an even safer place for individuals to save and invest long-term;
  • Integrating national capital markets into a genuine EU-wide single market for capital.

Individually, each measure represents one more piece of the puzzle: a step forward in areas where progress has been slow or where further work is necessary to achieve CMU. Taken together, they move the EU closer to the vision for CMU: a single market for capital across the EU that works for all Europeans, wherever they live and work.

How will CMU contribute to economic recovery?

The Commission has put forward “Next Generation EU” – an emergency temporary recovery package to help repair the immediate economic and social damage brought by the coronavirus pandemic, kick-start Europe’s recovery and prepare for a greener and more digital future. In parallel, the European Central Bank, Member States, and regional and local authorities have taken extraordinary measures and injected public funds on an unprecedented scale to support the recovery. Banks have so far broadly continued lending to businesses. However, this financing – despite being absolutely essential for Europe’s short-term recovery – will not be sufficient given the magnitude and expected duration of financing needs. Market financing will be the lifeblood that sustains the recovery and future growth over the long-term.

The strength and durability of the economic recovery will crucially depend on the availability of sufficient funding to EU companies. The use of market funding and especially of equity will therefore be paramount to support the economic rebound. Given the high level of domestic savings and openness of the EU financial system to global investors, there should not be a genuine shortage of funding. At the same time, savers must have the confidence to invest in a safe way, benefitting from the opportunities offered by the economic recovery.

What measures are being put forward to facilitate the financing of companies?

The ability of a company to access funding has a strategic importance in enabling it to grow, create jobs and innovate. As such, ensuring diverse availability of financing sources is crucial, as some types of funding would be more appropriate to some companies than to others. While bank financing is used by an overwhelming majority of SMEs, it might not be appropriate or too costly for some, especially small innovative companies without existing assets or regular revenues. Equity finance via capital markets can therefore often be more suitable for them and allow for more flexibility. In addition, diversifying sources of funding also contributes to economic and financial stability, by making sure that options remain for companies to fund themselves even when other channels are not available.

Bonds and private equity have increasingly played an important complementary role to bank lending in recent years. Access to some forms of funding, such as public equity, remains limited in most Member States. The new measures put forward by today’s Action Plan aim to further facilitate the use of market funding and to help companies employ all possible funding sources, tailoring to their business models and individual needs. As one of the measures, the Commission will assess the feasibility of setting up a scheme where banks would be required to redirect SMEs whose credit application they have turned down towards alternative finance providers.

Further to that, the Action Plan will seek to make companies more visible to cross-border investors and better integrate markets by setting up an EU-wide platform that provides investors with seamless access to comparable company information. It will also seek to simplify the listing rules for public markets and encourage more long-term investment by investment funds. It will seek to support the re-equitisation of the corporate sector by incentivising institutional investors and review the existing securitisation framework to enhance the provision of credit to EU companies, in particular SMEs.

What measures are being put forward to make capital markets more attractive for retail investors?

Europe has one of the highest individual savings rates in the world. However, the level of retail investor participation in capital markets remains very low compared to other economies. This fails to serve the interests of people whose savings generate low or even negative real interest rates. It also deprives EU companies, and the EU economy in general, of much needed long-term investment. The individual investors who invest in the EU capital markets should, in many cases, be able to receive higher returns than is currently the case. At present, retail investors do not benefit sufficiently from the investment opportunities offered by capital markets and cannot adequately address their retirement needs.

Encouraging capital market investments from European households and savers can help meet the individual challenges posed by population ageing and low interest rates. It would allow people to build or protect their wealth and to meet their financing needs related to health, education and retirement.

Availability of deep and efficient capital markets can also contribute to the development of funding sources alternative to bank credit, therefore funnelling money into other financial instruments that firms use to diversify their funding. This can help improve access to financing also for SMEs and benefit the real economy in general by enabling companies to invest and create jobs.

The new CMU Action Plan puts forward a number of measures that seek to enhance the financial literacy of retail investors in order to enable them to make better financial decisions and leverage the possibilities provided for by capital markets. It will assess and review the applicable rules in the area of inducements, meaning the practices that encourage individuals to buy a particular item, such as the promise of a price reduction. This will ensure that investors receive fair advice and comparable product information. It will seek to improve the level of professional qualifications of financial advisors as well as facilitate the monitoring of pension adequacy in Member States and seek to develop best practices in the area of pension systems.

Why does CMU seek to facilitate capital market integration? What measures are being put forward in that respect?

European capital markets today remain fragmented along national lines. This locks out people and businesses in smaller local markets from the benefits of integration, notably access to a large investor base. It is essential to have well-developed local capital markets across the EU that can serve the needs of companies and savers, while at the same time integrating those markets into one single market of capital. As the benefits of larger-scale markets remain underexploited, EU financial actors are disadvantaged compared to their global peers. The departure of the UK from the EU means that parts of the financial industry are relocating to the EU, which will contribute to its multi-centre financial architecture. Ensuring the optimal flow of information and capital across the EU is therefore essential.

Today’s Action Plan aims to tackle key remaining obstacles to market integration. Many of the measures set out in the previous CMU Action Plan have now been agreed and are being implemented. This is, however, not enough. Progress on some controversial issues has been slow. There are still significant barriers to a well-functioning CMU in many areas, including taxation, company and non-bank insolvency law. In these areas, the Commission will propose targeted measures, focusing on the most significant barriers that cause market fragmentation and deter cross-border investment.

For example, the stark divergence between national insolvency regimes is a long-standing structural barrier to cross-border investment. Harmonisation of certain targeted areas of national insolvency rules or their convergence could enhance legal certainty. To make the outcome of insolvency proceedings more predictable, the Commission will bring forward an initiative for minimum harmonisation or increased convergence in targeted areas of non-bank insolvency law. In addition, together with the European Banking Authority, the Commission will explore possibilities to enhance data reporting in order to allow for a regular assessment of the effectiveness of national loan enforcement regimes.

Another example is taxation. A significant burden in this area is caused by divergent, burdensome, lengthy and fraud-prone refund procedures for tax withheld in cases of cross-border investment. These procedures lead to considerable costs that dissuade cross-border investment where taxes on the return on investment need to be paid both in the Member States of the investment and of the investor, to be reimbursed only afterwards, after a lengthy and costly process. In order to lower costs for cross-border investors and prevent tax fraud, the Commission will propose a common, standardised, EU-wide system for withholding tax relief at source.

How will the CMU support the EU’s key policy objectives?

The Capital Markets Union is the project that seeks to improve the EU’s financial system so that it best contributes to addressing Europe’s immediate and long-term challenges. More diversified funding sources can mobilise trillions of euros of investments in the twin transition, green and digital. Moreover, capital markets need to function efficiently to be able to redirect large-scale investments and to make the economy more resilient.

Public funds will not be sufficient to meet these financing needs. An efficient single market for capital is needed to mobilise the necessary funds and to ensure that sustainability considerations are rigorously incorporated in financing decisions. Digitalisation will also continue to require significant private investment if the EU’s economy is to remain competitive globally.

As stated in the EU strategy on ‘shaping Europe’s digital future’, innovative companies need funding that only capital markets can provide. This is partly because many of these companies lack the physical collateral required for bank loans. This adds to the urgency of deepening the CMU. Mastering technological advancement is also critical for the EU’s financial sector to gain in efficiency, to improve access to capital and to be able to better serve Europe’s people, as well as to remain competitive globally. The CMU will also improve the opportunities for SMEs to access funding and therefore will contribute to meeting the objectives of the EU’s March 2020 SME strategy for a sustainable and digital Europe.

The strategies on CMU, sustainable finance, digital finance and SMEs, as well as the Recovery Plan and Next Generation EU are all mutually reinforcing. They are a joined-up package of measures to strengthen Europe’s economy and make it more competitive and sustainable, and to better serve its people and companies.

How will the Commission monitor progress towards CMU?

The Commission regularly reports on the progress of legislative proposals and other measures under the first CMU Action Plan and will continue to do so also for the second Action Plan. The Commission will complement this regular reporting of legislative progress with the monitoring of how EU capital markets evolve. It has for this purpose commissioned a study that reviewed available data and indicators, with a view to establish a tool for regular measuring of progress.

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