Amid the global pandemic that has troubled the world from east to west, the credibility of education in Pakistan has been exposed. The governments around the globe have taken steps that are either non-binding or unreachable to most of the students, primarily in under developed and resourceless areas. In Pakistan, the education system has faced many controversies ever since the pandemic has arrived in its borders. Significantly on the reach of internet in rural areas. Most of the Pakistan’s population lives in rural areas where the internet facility is not present. This has provoked students and teachers to hold protests in Balochistan and other rural areas. Isn’t it necessary to question what the government has done to ensure the continuation of education?
Education is one of the most neglected sectors in Pakistan proven by the report of UNICEF that the current literacy rate is below 60 percent. Even before the pandemic, about 24 million children were reported to be out of schools, HEC funds were minimized and education was given little space in the annual budget. This ignorance negates the Pakistan law on education, mainly Article 25A and Article 38(d), which states that the state shall provide education to every citizen.
If the government has already failed to give effect to the law and its constitutional duty before the outbreak of the novel coronavirus, the question that arises is, how will it give effect to the law and constitution while coping with the troubles for access to education caused by the virus and once the pandemic has ended?
In a world where a communicable virus has proved itself fatal and is responsible for more than half a million deaths, therefore realizing the gravity of the situation Pakistan government announced to close schools. Government took some steps, as the end of the pandemic is still not in sight, the motive is to save the education cycle from any disruption and this transition is worth struggling. Recently, a tele-education channel was launched by Prime Minister Imran Khan to keep the students associated with their education through dedicated lectures for class I to XII. The measures are clearly not enough given the ongoing protests concerning the reach of the education in rural areas.
To analyze the challenges for online learning in Pakistan, particularly during this pandemic, the first step is to factor in all the stakeholders of education. Initially students criticized the move of education ministry in the wake of the issues stemming from quality and connectivity issues but just like any other transformation, developing the capacity of the institutions was going to take time. The drawbacks have been observed that most of the students either do not have a laptop, and internet connection or they have no idea how to use online platforms.
Besides, the idea of equitable education has become dubious with this selection because financially all students are not equal. Most of the challenges are related to our behaviors: the lack of acceptance for online education by students. Similarly, lack of individual space at homes in joint family systems i.e. for families where parents and children both need to work and study from home respectively.
The lack of awareness about digital learning ethics has worsened the situation. First issue is the unavailability of the internet in remote areas which makes the students living in those areas unable to get benefit from online education. The bandwidth limitations across the country, with only a few exceptions, when combined with the increased usage burden on feeble internet infrastructure, add to the misery of most of the students. Another challenge is the expensive high-speed internet. As there is always a silver lining in the clouds, it is high time to see opportunities in these challenging times. For a paradigm shift from traditional teaching towards inclusively effective and equitable e-learning, some of the recommendations include the development of a standard and comprehensive policy for e-learning with the consensus of all the stakeholders alike.
The issues of educational institutes shouldn’t be ignored as well as in Pakistan, tuition fees are the principal source of revenue for the majority of private sector universities and they solely depend on it because the government hardly issues grants to them. But, since many people have lost their jobs and students have applied for waiver in tuition fee and writing off other charges such as clubs, sports and hostel rents, it has become a challenge for universities as well. The government has also forced the universities to give relief to students in payments and to opt for half payments. It has also instructed to pay salaries to the faculty and staff by managing their resources. Likewise, no any employee would be fired from the job as long as there is lockdown imposed in the country. This is quite difficult for universities to survive.
There is a famous proverb, “In every crisis, there is an opportunity”. This is the right time when whole world is in the race to invent the vaccine of COVID-19 we need to think that being a nation where we are standing. Along with the enactment of the recommendations of the health department, we need to paint the situation in a positive manner to our youth in a way that human and viruses are born to live together. Until humanity triumphs with the good vaccine of COVID-19, we must set a plan for students to learn how to work in this weird situation. The new paradigm in the world emphasizes on online education and work from home scenarios that can save time and resources, and is more practical. Hence, we must move with the time or wait for the time to move past us while we are busy in addressing less important issues.
Gender Pay Gaps during Pandemic: A Reflection on International Workers’ Day 2021
Men, rather than women, have been disproportionately affected by job losses over time. Nonetheless, the harsh reality of this pandemic recession has shown that women are more likely to be unemployed. As a matter of fact, women have lost substantial jobs as a result of increased childcare needs caused by school and daycare closures, which prohibit many women from working, and as a result of their employment being concentrated in heavily affected sectors such as the services sector (hospitality business, restaurant, retail outlets and so on). According to a study by Alon et al, women’s unemployment increased by 12.8 percent during the first period of Covid-19 (from March 2020), while men’s unemployment increased by just 9.9 percent. Changes in job rates (which include transfers into and out of the labor force) follow the same trend, with women experiencing a much greater drop in employment than men during the recession. Similar trends have been seen in other pandemic-affected countries.
In Southeast Asia, where informal workers account for 78 percent of the workforce, women make up the majority of blue-collar employees. In Indonesia, the Philippines, Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar, women make up a substantial portion of the domestic workers, despite having a low contractual working status in informal settings. They are underpaid as a result of the pandemic, and the Covid-19 recession has reduced their importance in the workplace. Indonesia as one of the countries which affected by pandemic also experienced similar thing, with two-thirds of the female population in the active age group (between 15 and 64 years old), Indonesia is supposed to have tremendous potential for accelerating its economic development, but the truth is the opposite due to the never-ending pandemic. Since the pandemic began, many employees, mostly women, have lost their jobs or had their working hours shortened. Of course, their daily wages are affected by this situation. Besides, the wage gap between men and women also widens from March 2020 to March 2021, with women in the informal sector receiving up to 50% less than men, clearly resulting in discriminatory practices.Despite the fact that Indonesia ratified the International Labor Organization’s (ILO) Convention No. 100 on Equal Remuneration in 1958, fair and equal salaries have remained unchanged until now, and the legislation seems to have been overlooked and inapplicable in a pandemic situation.
Furthermore, the issue is not resolved at that stage. Apart from the pandemic, both formal and informal workers are exposed to various work systems and regulations. Women may have similar experiences with low wages and unequal payment positions in both environments, but women who work in the formal sector have the capacity, experience, and communication skills to negotiate their salaries with their employers, while women who work in the informal sector do not. Women in informal work face a number of challenges, including a lack of negotiation skills and a voice in fighting for their rights, particularly if they lack support structures (labor unions). Furthermore, when it comes to employees’ salaries, the corporate system is notoriously secretive. Another issue that continues to upset women is the lack of transparency in employee wages. Despite the fact that the national minimum wage policy is regulated by the government, only a small number of female workers are aware of it.
Overcoming Gender Pay Gaps within Pandemic Condition
In the spirit of International Workers’ Day 2021, there should be an organized and systematic solution to (at the very least) close the wage gap between men and women in this pandemic situation. International organizations and agencies also attempted to convince national governments to abolish gender roles and prejudices, however this is insufficient. As a decision-maker, the government must ‘knock on the door’ of companies and businesses to support and appreciate work done disproportionately by women. Furthermore, implementing transparent and equitable wage schemes is an important aspect of significantly changing this phenomenon. Real action must come not only from the structural level (government and corporations), but also from society, which must acknowledge the existence of women’s workers and not undervalue what they have accomplished, because in this Covid-19 condition, women must bear the “triple burden” of action, whether in productive work (as a worker or labor), reproductive work (as a wife and mother), and also as a member of society. Last but not least, women must actively engage in labor unions in order to persuade gender equality in the workplace and have the courage to speak out for their rights, as this is the key to securing fair wages. And when women are paid equally, their family’s income rises, and they contribute more to the family’s well-being.
Latvian human rights activists condemn homophobia in China, Latvia and the world
The issue of human rights of LGBT persons is like a hot potato – hard to spit it out, but also hard to swallow. Despite majority of the public having nothing against the LGBT community, people are afraid to allow them to have the same human rights everyone else has.
Governments and politicians also clash when it comes to fully recognizing the human rights of LGBT persons – and communist China is no exception. Interestingly, the Chinese Communist Party maintains a stance of double morals on this issue. On the one hand, during UN meetings China always reproaches other nations about homophobia and violations of LGBT rights. On the other hand, China has never been able to eradicate homophobia in the Chinese community, but instead has furthered it, for instance, by banning Eurovision broadcasts in China and by trying to ignore the existence of an LGBT community in China.
The Chinese Communist Party has become seriously entangled in its own ideology – as I already wrote, Chinese representatives have no shame in criticizing other countries’ discrimination of people with a non-traditional sexual orientation, stressing that China doesn’t consider homosexuality to be a mental illness. Moreover, the Chinese government has publicly stated that China supports the activities of LGBT organization. But this is simply not true! Although on the international stage Beijing acts as a protector of the human rights of LGBT communities and agitates for the equality of gays and lesbians, in China itself LGBT and women’s rights activists are being repressed, detained and held in labor camps. Thus, Beijing is doing everything in its power to suppress women’s rights and human rights in general.
The most pathetic thing in all this is that Beijing has always voted against all UN initiatives and resolutions that concern the recognition and establishment of human rights for LGBT persons, as this would draw even more attention to the violations of human rights in China itself.
In this regard, in solidarity with Chinese LGBT representatives the leading protector of LGBT human rights from the party Latvian Russian Union (LKS) Aleksandrs Kuzmins and one of the LKS’s leaders and MEP Tatjana Ždanoka have expressed concerns over the recent homophobic attacks in Latvia and are urging citizens from Latvia and around the world to attach a rainbow flag next to the ribbon of St. George during the upcoming 9 May Victory Day celebrations, thus commemorating members of the LGBT community that died during World War II.
Kuzmins stressed that during WWII members of the LGBT community also fought against Nazi Germany, adding that it’s no secret that in the Soviet army there were hundreds and thousands of gays and lesbians who fought shoulder to shoulder for the freedom of their motherland. These people were, however, repressed and exiled to Siberia after the war by the Stalin regime. Most of them were tortured to death in gulags, which is confirmed by information recently acquired from Moscow’s archives.
Human rights activists from the LKS believe that it’s time for people to change and openly talk about the mistakes that were made in the past – we don’t live in the Middle Ages anymore and we should get rid of ancient dogmas and stereotypes about the LGBT community, lest more people fall victim to the intolerance and hate.
On the eve of the Victory Day, the LKS urges global leaders to admit the severe mistakes that have been made and to end the repressions against their own LGBT communities.
Farveez Maharoof explains the importance of spreading social awareness via cricket
Cricket legend Farveez Maharoof recently played in the Road Safety World Series to spread awareness about road safety. The Road Safety World Series was being played in Raipur to spread awareness about road safety in India. Modern Diplomacy talks to Farveez Maharoof about why cricket is a good platform to spread awareness about social causes.
Why is cricket a good platform to spread awareness about social causes?
Cricketers have a huge following specially in Asia. Both India and Sri Lanka have a very high number of cricket fans. When cricketers speak about an issue, their fans and viewers listen to them. Moreover, it is the social responsibility of people with a platform to spread awareness for causes. Personally, I have been a part of many social campaigns in Sri Lanka. I think it is my duty to raise awareness about social issues. The Road Safety World Series spread awareness at a more global scale.
What was your most inspiring moment during the Road Safety World Series?
Personally, I was inspired to play in the Road Safety World Series even after retirement because the series is being played for a cause. Road Safety impacts people across the world and I think it is important for people to take it seriously. I feel strongly about the issue of road safety because I lost my uncle in an accident. It affected my family deeply. I want to spread awareness about it so that others are more careful when on the roads.
Did you campaign for road safety via your personal Instagram too? How did your audience respond?
I was not required to campaign on my social media. I did because I felt strongly about the issue. Moreover, because I have a decent number of followers on Instagram, I thought it was a good platform to spread awareness about the cause. When many cricketers post about the same issue together, it gets more highlighted in the audience’s mind. I personally use my social media for raising awareness about issues in Sri Lanka as well.
Why is road safety important to you at a personal level?
My family lost my uncle in a road accident in Canada. My mother was affected very deeply by the incident. The effects of the accident were long lasting on my family emotionally. I have always been very serious about road safety after that. The reason I played for the Road Safety World Series is because I felt strongly about the issue and wanted to play for the cause of road safety.
How is playing a series during the pandemic different from pre pandemic times?
Playing cricket during the pandemic is very different. We are not used to being in bio bubbles and staying quarantined at the hotel. There has been a shift in the way we have to live during the tournaments. Moreover, there are many COVID safety protocols to be ensured while we are travelling. These protocols are essential and should be followed.
The Road Safety World Series was actually being played in Mumbai last year. However, when COVID hit, the series had to be paused and postponed in between. After almost one year, the series resumed in Raipur. Hence, COVID has affected sports deeply.
What are other social causes that you are passionate about?
I am passionate about social causes which affect Sri Lanka. In the past, I have campaigned for many causes in Sri Lanka including breast cancer. I am someone who likes to stay connected to my roots. I want to give back to the community in every way I can because I have been blessed with their support. I will continue with social work and I will continue spreading awareness about causes.
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